A Classification of the Bird Species of South America

 

South American Classification Committee

 

American Ornithologists' Union

 

 

(Part 8)

 

Part 8. Suboscine Passeriformes, C (Tyrannidae to Tityridae) (below)

 

_______________________________________________________

 

Part 1. Rheiformes to Podicipediformes

Part 2. Columbiformes to Caprimulgiformes

Part 3. Apodiformes

Part 4. Opisthocomiformes to Strigiformes

Part 5. Trogoniformes to Psittaciformes

Part 6. Suboscine Passeriformes, A (Sapayoidae to Formicariidae)

Part 7. Suboscine Passeriformes, B (Furnariidae)

Part 9. Oscine Passeriformes, A (Vireonidae to Sturnidae)

Part 10. Oscine Passeriformes, B (Motacillidae to Emberizidae)

Part 11. Oscine Passeriformes, C (Cardinalidae to end)

 

Hypothetical List

Hybrids and Dubious Taxa

Literature Cited

 


 

PASSERIFORMES

 

Suborder TYRANNI (SUBOSCINES) (concluded)

 

TYRANNIDAE (TYRANT FLYCATCHERS) 1

Phyllomyias burmeisteri Rough-legged Tyrannulet 2, 2a, 2b

Phyllomyias virescens Greenish Tyrannulet 3, 3a

Phyllomyias reiseri Reiser's Tyrannulet 3, 3a, 4

Phyllomyias urichi Urich's Tyrannulet 3, 4

Phyllomyias sclateri Sclater's Tyrannulet 3, 5

Phyllomyias weedeni Yungas Tyrannulet 3b

Phyllomyias fasciatus Planalto Tyrannulet 3b

Phyllomyias griseiceps Sooty-headed Tyrannulet 5a

Phyllomyias nigrocapillus Black-capped Tyrannulet 6

Phyllomyias cinereiceps Ashy-headed Tyrannulet 6

Phyllomyias uropygialis Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet 6

Phyllomyias plumbeiceps Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet 7

Phyllomyias griseocapilla Gray-capped Tyrannulet 7

Tyrannulus elatus Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet 7a

Myiopagis gaimardii Forest Elaenia 7b, 7d, 7e

Myiopagis caniceps Gray Elaenia 7c, 7cc, 7ccc

Myiopagis olallai Foothill Elaenia 7ccc, 8

Myiopagis subplacens Pacific Elaenia

Myiopagis flavivertex Yellow-crowned Elaenia

Myiopagis viridicata Greenish Elaenia 8b, 8c

Elaenia flavogaster Yellow-bellied Elaenia 8e, 8ee, 8f

Elaenia martinica Caribbean Elaenia 8d

Elaenia spectabilis Large Elaenia 8e, 9

Elaenia ridleyana Noronha Elaenia 9

Elaenia albiceps White-crested Elaenia 10, 10c, 10d, 10g

Elaenia parvirostris Small-billed Elaenia 10c, 10ccc

Elaenia mesoleuca Olivaceous Elaenia

Elaenia strepera Slaty Elaenia

Elaenia gigas Mottle-backed Elaenia 8f

Elaenia pelzelni Brownish Elaenia

Elaenia cristata Plain-crested Elaenia 10cc

Elaenia chiriquensis Lesser Elaenia 8d, 10b

Elaenia brachyptera Coopmans’s Elaenia 10b

Elaenia ruficeps Rufous-crowned Elaenia 10cc

Elaenia frantzii Mountain Elaenia 10a

Elaenia obscura Highland Elaenia 10a, 10aa

Elaenia dayi Great Elaenia 10a, 10e

Elaenia pallatangae Sierran Elaenia 10, 10f, 10g

Ornithion brunneicapillus Brown-capped Tyrannulet 11, 11b, 11c

Ornithion inerme White-lored Tyrannulet 11cc

Camptostoma obsoletum Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet 11d, 11e

Suiriri suiriri Suiriri Flycatcher 7b, 12

Suiriri affinis Chapada Flycatcher 13

Mecocerculus poecilocercus White-tailed Tyrannulet 14a

Mecocerculus hellmayri Buff-banded Tyrannulet 14a

Mecocerculus stictopterus White-banded Tyrannulet

Mecocerculus leucophrys White-throated Tyrannulet 14, 14b

Mecocerculus calopterus Rufous-winged Tyrannulet

Mecocerculus minor Sulphur-bellied Tyrannulet

Anairetes nigrocristatus Black-crested Tit-Tyrant 15, 15a

Anairetes reguloides Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant 15

Anairetes alpinus Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant

Anairetes flavirostris Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant

Anairetes parulus Tufted Tit-Tyrant 15b

Anairetes fernandezianus Juan Fernandez Tit-Tyrant 15b

Uromyias agilis Agile Tit-Tyrant 16

Uromyias agraphia Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant 16

Serpophaga cinerea Torrent Tyrannulet

Serpophaga hypoleuca River Tyrannulet 17

Serpophaga nigricans Sooty Tyrannulet

Serpophaga subcristata White-crested Tyrannulet 18

Serpophaga munda White-bellied Tyrannulet 18, 19

Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck’s Tyrannulet 18, 19

Phaeomyias murina Mouse-colored Tyrannulet 20

Capsiempis flaveola Yellow Tyrannulet 21

Polystictus pectoralis Bearded Tachuri 21a, 21b, 21c

Polystictus superciliaris Gray-backed Tachuri 21a, 21b

Pseudocolopteryx sclateri Crested Doradito 43b

Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis Subtropical Doradito 22

Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana Dinelli's Doradito 22, 22a

Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris Warbling Doradito 22aa

Pseudocolopteryx citreola Ticking Doradito 22aa

Pseudotriccus pelzelni Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant 22b, 22c

Pseudotriccus simplex Hazel-fronted Pygmy-Tyrant 22b

Pseudotriccus ruficeps Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant 22d

Corythopis torquatus Ringed Antpipit 23, 23a, 24

Corythopis delalandi Southern Antpipit 23, 23a

Euscarthmus meloryphus Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant 24a

Euscarthmus rufomarginatus Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant

Pseudelaenia leucospodia Gray-and-white Tyrannulet 25

Stigmatura napensis Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant 25a, 25b

Stigmatura budytoides Greater Wagtail-Tyrant 25a

Zimmerius vilissimus Paltry Tyrannulet 26, 27, 27a

Zimmerius albigularis Choco Tyrannulet 26, 26a

Zimmerius bolivianus Bolivian Tyrannulet 26

Zimmerius cinereicapilla Red-billed Tyrannulet 26, 28, 28a, 29a

Zimmerius villarejoi Mishana Tyrannulet 29, 29a, 29b

Zimmerius chicomendesi Chico’s Tyrannulet 29, 29a, 29b

Zimmerius gracilipes Slender-footed Tyrannulet 26, 28a, 28b

Zimmerius acer Guianan Tyrannulet 26, 28a, 28b

Zimmerius chrysops Golden-faced Tyrannulet 26, 26a, 30

Zimmerius viridiflavus Peruvian Tyrannulet 26

Phylloscartes poecilotis Variegated Bristle-Tyrant 31

Phylloscartes chapmani Chapman's Bristle-Tyrant 31

Phylloscartes ophthalmicus Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant 31, 31a

Phylloscartes venezuelanus Venezuelan Bristle-Tyrant 31

Phylloscartes lanyoni Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant 32, 31b

Phylloscartes orbitalis Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant 31, 31b. 31c

Phylloscartes eximius Southern Bristle-Tyrant 31

Phylloscartes ventralis Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet 32a, 32b

Phylloscartes kronei Restinga Tyrannulet 34, 32a

Phylloscartes beckeri Bahia Tyrannulet 35, 32a

Phylloscartes virescens Olive-green Tyrannulet 32a

Phylloscartes gualaquizae Ecuadorian Tyrannulet 31cc

Phylloscartes nigrifrons Black-fronted Tyrannulet 31d, 31dd

Phylloscartes superciliaris Rufous-browed Tyrannulet 31e, 36b

Phylloscartes ceciliae Alagoas Tyrannulet 33, 36b

Phylloscartes flaviventris Rufous-lored Tyrannulet 31, 36, 36a, 36b

Phylloscartes parkeri Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet 37, 36a, 36b

Phylloscartes roquettei Minas Gerais Tyrannulet 36b

Phylloscartes paulista São Paulo Tyrannulet 38

Phylloscartes oustaleti Oustalet's Tyrannulet

Phylloscartes difficilis Serra do Mar Tyrannulet

Phylloscartes sylviolus Bay-ringed Tyrannulet 36b, 39

Mionectes striaticollis Streak-necked Flycatcher 36c

Mionectes olivaceus Olive-striped Flycatcher

Mionectes oleagineus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher 40, 40a, 40b

Mionectes macconnelli McConnell's Flycatcher 40, 40c

Mionectes rufiventris Gray-hooded Flycatcher 40

Leptopogon amaurocephalus Sepia-capped Flycatcher 41, 41a

Leptopogon superciliaris Slaty-capped Flycatcher 41d

Leptopogon rufipectus Rufous-breasted Flycatcher 41a, 41b

Leptopogon taczanowskii Inca Flycatcher 41aa

Sublegatus arenarum Northern Scrub-Flycatcher 41c, 41e, 42

Sublegatus obscurior Amazonian Scrub-Flycatcher 41f, 42

Sublegatus modestus Southern Scrub-Flycatcher 41f, 42

Inezia tenuirostris Slender-billed Tyrannulet 42a, 42aa, 42b, 42c, 42e

Inezia inornata Plain Tyrannulet 42a, 42d

Inezia subflava Amazonian Tyrannulet 43

Inezia caudata Pale-tipped Tyrannulet 43

Myiotriccus ornatus Ornate Flycatcher 43a

Tachuris rubrigastra Many-colored Rush Tyrant 43b

Culicivora caudacuta Sharp-tailed Tyrant 44

Myiornis auricularis Eared Pygmy-Tyrant 22d, 45, 45a

Myiornis albiventris White-bellied Pygmy-Tyrant 45a, 45b

Myiornis atricapillus Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant 46

Myiornis ecaudatus Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant 46, 46a

Oncostoma cinereigulare Northern Bentbill (V?) 45, 46b, 47

Oncostoma olivaceum Southern Bentbill 47

Lophotriccus pileatus Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant 22d, 45, 47c

Lophotriccus vitiosus Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant 47a, 47b

Lophotriccus eulophotes Long-crested Pygmy-Tyrant 47a

Lophotriccus galeatus Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant 48

Atalotriccus pilaris Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant 45, 49, 49a

Hemitriccus minor Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant 45, 50, 50a, 50b

Hemitriccus cohnhafti Acre Tody-Tyrant 50a

Hemitriccus spodiops Yungas Tody-Tyrant 50a

Hemitriccus flammulatus Flammulated Pygmy-Tyrant 22d, 53, 53a

Hemitriccus diops Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant 53, 53a

Hemitriccus obsoletus Brown-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant 53, 53a

Hemitriccus josephinae Boat-billed Tody-Tyrant 54

Hemitriccus zosterops White-eyed Tody-Tyrant 51, 55, 63d, 63e, 63ee

Hemitriccus griseipectus White-bellied Tody-Tyrant 51, 55, 63d

Hemitriccus orbitatus Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant 51, 63d

Hemitriccus iohannis Johannes's Tody-Tyrant 51, 56, 63d

Hemitriccus striaticollis Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant 51, 63d, 63e

Hemitriccus nidipendulus Hangnest Tody-Tyrant 51, 63d

Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant 51, 51a, 63d

Hemitriccus inornatus Pelzeln's Tody-Tyrant 57, 63d

Hemitriccus minimus Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant 51, 58

Hemitriccus granadensis Black-throated Tody-Tyrant 51, 63c, 63d

Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus Cinnamon-breasted Tody-Tyrant 59, 60, 60a

Hemitriccus mirandae Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant 51, 51b, 60, 60a, 60b

Hemitriccus kaempferi Kaempfer's Tody-Tyrant 60, 60a

Hemitriccus rufigularis Buff-throated Tody-Tyrant 51, 63d

Hemitriccus furcatus Fork-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant 61

Poecilotriccus ruficeps Rufous-crowned Tody-Flycatcher 62, 62a

Poecilotriccus luluae Johnson's Tody-Flycatcher 62, 62b, 62c

Poecilotriccus albifacies White-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher 63, 64a, 64b

Poecilotriccus capitalis Black-and-white Tody-Flycatcher 63, 64, 64a, 64b, 65

Poecilotriccus senex Buff-cheeked Tody-Flycatcher 63, 66

Poecilotriccus russatus Ruddy Tody-Flycatcher 63, 63b, 63d

Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher 63, 63b, 63d

Poecilotriccus fumifrons Smoky-fronted Tody-Flycatcher 63, 63c

Poecilotriccus latirostris Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher 63, 63c, 63dd

Poecilotriccus sylvia Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher 63, 63b, 63bb

Poecilotriccus calopterus Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher 63, 67

Poecilotriccus pulchellus Black-backed Tody-Flycatcher 63, 67

Taeniotriccus andrei Black-chested Tyrant 68

Todirostrum maculatum Spotted Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum poliocephalum Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher 69

Todirostrum cinereum Common Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum viridanum Maracaibo Tody-Flycatcher 70

Todirostrum nigriceps Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher 71

Todirostrum pictum Painted Tody-Flycatcher 71

Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher 71, 71a

Cnipodectes subbrunneus Brownish Twistwing 72, 72a, 72aa, 72b

Cnipodectes superrufus Rufous Twistwing 72d

Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Olivaceous Flatbill 72b, 72c

Rhynchocyclus brevirostris Eye-ringed Flatbill 73

Rhynchocyclus pacificus Pacific Flatbill 73

Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus Fulvous-breasted Flatbill 73

Tolmomyias sulphurescens Yellow-olive Flycatcher 72b, 74, 74a

Tolmomyias traylori Orange-eyed Flycatcher 74, 75

Tolmomyias assimilis Yellow-margined Flycatcher 74, 76, 76a

Tolmomyias poliocephalus Gray-crowned Flycatcher 74, 74b

Tolmomyias flaviventris Yellow-breasted Flycatcher 74, 77

Calyptura cristata Kinglet Calyptura 146

Neopipo cinnamomea Cinnamon Manakin-Tyrant 83, 83a

Platyrinchus saturatus Cinnamon-crested Spadebill

Platyrinchus mystaceus White-throated Spadebill 78, 78a

Platyrinchus coronatus Golden-crowned Spadebill 78b

Platyrinchus flavigularis Yellow-throated Spadebill

Platyrinchus platyrhynchos White-crested Spadebill

Platyrinchus leucoryphus Russet-winged Spadebill 78c

Onychorhynchus coronatus Royal Flycatcher 79

Myiophobus flavicans Flavescent Flycatcher 43a, 80

Myiophobus phoenicomitra Orange-crested Flycatcher 80

Myiophobus inornatus Unadorned Flycatcher 80

Myiophobus roraimae Roraiman Flycatcher 80, 80a

Myiophobus cryptoxanthus Olive-chested Flycatcher 80, 80c

Myiophobus fasciatus Bran-colored Flycatcher 80, 80c, 80d

Myiobius villosus Tawny-breasted Flycatcher 80e

Myiobius barbatus Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher 81, 81aa

Myiobius atricaudus Black-tailed Flycatcher 81a, 81aa

Terenotriccus erythrurus Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher 82

Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus Cinnamon Flycatcher 84, 84a

Hirundinea ferruginea Cliff Flycatcher 85

Nephelomyias pulcher Handsome Flycatcher 80, 80aa

Nephelomyias lintoni Orange-banded Flycatcher 80, 80b

Nephelomyias ochraceiventris Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher 80, 80b

Lathrotriccus euleri Euler's Flycatcher 86, 86a, 87

Lathrotriccus griseipectus Gray-breasted Flycatcher 86

Aphanotriccus audax Black-billed Flycatcher 87, 87a

Cnemotriccus fuscatus Fuscous Flycatcher 87b

Empidonax virescens Acadian Flycatcher (NB) 88

Empidonax traillii Willow Flycatcher (NB) 89

Empidonax alnorum Alder Flycatcher (NB) 89

Contopus cooperi Olive-sided Flycatcher (NB) 90, 91

Contopus fumigatus Smoke-colored Pewee 92, 92a

Contopus sordidulus Western Wood-Pewee (NB) 93, 93b, 93c

Contopus virens Eastern Wood-Pewee (NB) 93, 93b

Contopus cinereus Tropical Pewee 93a, 93b, 93bb

Contopus albogularis White-throated Pewee

Contopus nigrescens Blackish Pewee 93c

Mitrephanes phaeocercus Tufted Flycatcher 94, 94a

Mitrephanes olivaceus Olive Flycatcher 94, 94a

Sayornis nigricans Black Phoebe 94b

Pyrocephalus rubinus Vermilion Flycatcher 94c

Lessonia rufa Austral Negrito 95

Lessonia oreas Andean Negrito 95

Knipolegus orenocensis Riverside Tyrant 98d

Knipolegus poecilurus Rufous-tailed Tyrant 98c

Knipolegus poecilocercus Amazonian Black-Tyrant 97

Knipolegus franciscanus Caatinga Black-Tyrant 99

Knipolegus lophotes Crested Black-Tyrant

Knipolegus nigerrimus Velvety Black-Tyrant

Knipolegus signatus Jelski’s Black-Tyrant 98, 98a

Knipolegus cabanisi Plumbeous Black-Tyrant 98, 98a

Knipolegus cyanirostris Blue-billed Black-Tyrant

Knipolegus striaticeps Cinereous Tyrant 96

Knipolegus aterrimus White-winged Black-Tyrant 99

Knipolegus hudsoni Hudson's Black-Tyrant 97

Hymenops perspicillatus Spectacled Tyrant 100

Ochthornis littoralis Drab Water Tyrant 101

Satrapa icterophrys Yellow-browed Tyrant

Muscisaxicola fluviatilis Little Ground-Tyrant 101a, 101b

Muscisaxicola maculirostris Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant

Muscisaxicola griseus Taczanowski's Ground-Tyrant 101b, 102, 102a, 103

Muscisaxicola juninensis Puna Ground-Tyrant 103a, 103aa

Muscisaxicola cinereus Cinereous Ground-Tyrant 103, 103b

Muscisaxicola albifrons White-fronted Ground-Tyrant

Muscisaxicola flavinucha Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant

Muscisaxicola rufivertex Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant 103c

Muscisaxicola maclovianus Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant 103

Muscisaxicola albilora White-browed Ground-Tyrant 103a

Muscisaxicola alpinus Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant 102a, 103

Muscisaxicola capistratus Cinnamon-bellied Ground-Tyrant 103, 103d

Muscisaxicola frontalis Black-fronted Ground-Tyrant 103d

Agriornis montanus Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant 104

Agriornis albicauda White-tailed Shrike-Tyrant 105

Agriornis lividus Great Shrike-Tyrant 104

Agriornis micropterus Gray-bellied Shrike-Tyrant 104

Agriornis murinus Lesser Shrike-Tyrant 104, 106

Xolmis pyrope Fire-eyed Diucon 107

Xolmis cinereus Gray Monjita 108, 108a

Xolmis coronatus Black-crowned Monjita 108, 108a

Xolmis velatus White-rumped Monjita 108

Xolmis irupero White Monjita

Xolmis salinarum Salinas Monjita 109, 110

Xolmis rubetra Rusty-backed Monjita 108, 110

Xolmis dominicanus Black-and-white Monjita 108, 111

Myiotheretes striaticollis Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant 112

Myiotheretes pernix Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant 112, 112b

Myiotheretes fumigatus Smoky Bush-Tyrant 112a, 112b

Myiotheretes fuscorufus Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant 112a, 112b

Cnemarchus erythropygius Red-rumped Bush-Tyrant 113

Polioxolmis rufipennis Rufous-webbed Bush-Tyrant 114

Neoxolmis rufiventris Chocolate-vented Tyrant

Gubernetes yetapa Streamer-tailed Tyrant

Muscipipra vetula Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant

Fluvicola pica Pied Water-Tyrant 115

Fluvicola albiventer Black-backed Water-Tyrant 115

Fluvicola nengeta Masked Water-Tyrant 115a, 115b

Arundinicola leucocephala White-headed Marsh Tyrant 116

Alectrurus tricolor Cock-tailed Tyrant

Alectrurus risora Strange-tailed Tyrant 117

Tumbezia salvini Tumbes Tyrant 118

Ochthoeca frontalis Crowned Chat-Tyrant 119, 119c, 120

Ochthoeca jelskii Jelski's Chat-Tyrant 119, 119a

Ochthoeca pulchella Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant 119, 119b, 120a

Ochthoeca diadema Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant 119, 120a

Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant 121

Ochthoeca rufipectoralis Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant

Ochthoeca fumicolor Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant 121a

Ochthoeca oenanthoides d'Orbigny's Chat-Tyrant

Ochthoeca piurae Piura Chat-Tyrant 120b

Ochthoeca leucophrys White-browed Chat-Tyrant 120b

Colorhamphus parvirostris Patagonian Tyrant 121c

Colonia colonus Long-tailed Tyrant

Muscigralla brevicauda Short-tailed Field Tyrant 121b

Machetornis rixosa Cattle Tyrant 122

Legatus leucophaius Piratic Flycatcher 122b

Myiozetetes cayanensis Rusty-margined Flycatcher

Myiozetetes similis Social Flycatcher 122a

Myiozetetes granadensis Gray-capped Flycatcher

Myiozetetes luteiventris Dusky-chested Flycatcher 123

Phelpsia inornata White-bearded Flycatcher 124

Pitangus sulphuratus Great Kiskadee

Pitangus lictor Lesser Kiskadee 125

Conopias albovittatus White-ringed Flycatcher 126, 126a, 127

Conopias parvus Yellow-throated Flycatcher 126, 126a, 127

Conopias trivirgatus Three-striped Flycatcher 127, 127a

Conopias cinchoneti Lemon-browed Flycatcher

Myiodynastes chrysocephalus Golden-crowned Flycatcher 127b

Myiodynastes bairdii Baird's Flycatcher

Myiodynastes luteiventris Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher (NB) 128a

Myiodynastes maculatus Streaked Flycatcher 128, 128a

Megarynchus pitangua Boat-billed Flycatcher 129

Tyrannopsis sulphurea Sulphury Flycatcher

Empidonomus varius Variegated Flycatcher 129a, 130b

Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus Crowned Slaty Flycatcher 130

Tyrannus niveigularis Snowy-throated Kingbird

Tyrannus albogularis White-throated Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus Tropical Kingbird 130b

Tyrannus savana Fork-tailed Flycatcher 131

Tyrannus tyrannus Eastern Kingbird (NB)

Tyrannus dominicensis Gray Kingbird

Rhytipterna holerythra Rufous Mourner 131a, 131b

Rhytipterna simplex Grayish Mourner 131a, 132

Rhytipterna immunda Pale-bellied Mourner

Sirystes albogriseus Choco Sirystes 132a, 132b

Sirystes albocinereus White-rumped Sirystes 132b

Sirystes subcanescens Todd’s Sirystes 132b

Sirystes sibilator Sibilant Sirystes 132b

Casiornis rufus Rufous Casiornis 133, 133a, 133b

Casiornis fuscus Ash-throated Casiornis 133, 133a, 133b

Myiarchus semirufus Rufous Flycatcher 133c

Myiarchus tuberculifer Dusky-capped Flycatcher 134, 135

Myiarchus swainsoni Swainson's Flycatcher 136

Myiarchus venezuelensis Venezuelan Flycatcher 137

Myiarchus panamensis Panama Flycatcher 137, 138

Myiarchus ferox Short-crested Flycatcher 137, 138

Myiarchus apicalis Apical Flycatcher

Myiarchus phaeocephalus Sooty-crowned Flycatcher 137, 138a, 138b

Myiarchus cephalotes Pale-edged Flycatcher 138a

Myiarchus crinitus Great Crested Flycatcher (NB) 139

Myiarchus tyrannulus Brown-crested Flycatcher 140, 140a

Myiarchus magnirostris Galapagos Flycatcher 140b

Ramphotrigon megacephalum Large-headed Flatbill 141, 142, 142a, 142b

Ramphotrigon ruficauda Rufous-tailed Flatbill

Ramphotrigon fuscicauda Dusky-tailed Flatbill

Attila phoenicurus Rufous-tailed Attila 143

Attila cinnamomeus Cinnamon Attila 143a

Attila torridus Ochraceous Attila 143b

Attila citriniventris Citron-bellied Attila

Attila bolivianus Dull-capped Attila 144

Attila rufus Gray-hooded Attila

Attila spadiceus Bright-rumped Attila 145

 


 

 

1.  [relationships of family, sequence of genera] [add subfamilies?]. Sibley & Ahlquist (1985, 1990) found that the Tyrannidae consisted of two major groups, the "Mionectidae" for Mionectes and several genera of small flycatchers placed in the subfamily Elaeniinae (sensu Traylor 1979a); Sibley & Ahlquist's data also indicated that the "Mionectidae" and Tyrannidae were not sister groups.  Subsequent analyses (S. Lanyon 1985, W. Lanyon 1988a, b) did not support such a division. However, Chesser (2004) found the same deep division in the Tyrannidae, but found that the two groups were sisters. Tello et al. (2009) found that Mionectes was deeply embedded in the Tyrannidae and sister to Leptopogon.  For detailed discussions of relationships among genera, see Traylor (1977) and Lanyon (1985, 1986, 1988a, 1988b, 1988c). [incorp. Birdsley (2002), Fitzpatrick 2004].  Tello et al. (2009) have conducted the first comprehensive, gene-based analysis of relationships within the family and have discovered a number of novel relationships not yet reflected in the classification above or the Notes below, including grouping of Onychorhynchus, Myiobius, and Terenotriccus with Oxyruncus (Oxyruncidae).  Ohlson et al. (2013) proposed dividing the Tyrannidae into  families: Onychorhynchidae (for Onychorhynchus, Myiobius, and Terenotriccus), Platyrinchidae (for Calyptura, Neopipo, and Platyrinchus), Tachuridae (for Tachuris), Rhynchocyclidae (for Mionectes through Oncostoma, with three subfamilies), and Tyrannidae (with remaining genera, divided into five subfamilies and several additional tribes); this was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  SACC proposal needed. <wait for results from ongoing whole genome project on suboscines>

 

2. Although Fitzpatrick (2004) followed Traylor's (1977, 1979a) broad definition of Phyllomyias, he noted that this genus is likely polyphyletic, with P. fasciatus, P. griseocapilla, and P. griseiceps possibly forming a group unrelated to the other species, which would force minimally the resurrection of Tyranniscus (see Note 6).

 

2a. The species burmeisteri was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) separated in the genus Acrochordopus based on tarsal morphology, but Acrochordopus was merged into Phyllomyias by Traylor (1977, 1979a). Acrochordopus was considered to belong in the Cotingidae by Ridgway (1907), but see Wetmore & Phelps (1956); the name Idiotriccus was formerly (e.g. Ridgway 1907) used for Acrochordopus.

 

2b. Wetmore (1972), Stiles & Skutch (1989), Sibley & Monroe (1990), Ridgely & Tudor (1994), and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) recognized the northern subspecies zeledoni as a separate species based from Phyllomyias burmeisteri on described vocal differences; this treatment returns to earlier ones (Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1941c, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) that treated the two as separate before Meyer de Schauensee's (1966, 1970) and Traylor's (1977<?>, 1979a) classifications. Stiles & Skutch (1989) further recognized Andean birds as a separate species, P. leucogonys, from Central American P. zeledoni, returning to the classification of (REF). Elevation of these taxa to species rank was not followed by Fitzpatrick (2004) due to lack of published analyses of vocal differences or other data. SACC proposal needed.

 

3. The species virescens (with urichi), reiseri , and sclateri, were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1941b, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Xanthomyias, but this was merged into Phyllomyias by Traylor (1977, 1979a).

 

3a. Phyllomyias reiseri and P. virescens were considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), Meyer de Schauensee (1970), and Traylor (1977<?>, 1979a, 1982), but see Zimmer (1955), Meyer de Schauensee (1966), Stotz (1990), and Hayes (1995); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990), along with P. urichi (Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

3b. Newly described: Herzog et al. (2008). SACC proposal passed to recognize P. weedeni. Herzog et al. (2008) proposed that its closest relative is P. fasciatus.

 

4. [split from virescens; Silva (1996).]; followed by Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

5. "Tyranniscus australis," considered a valid species by Meyer de Schauensee (1970), was shown by Traylor (1982) to be a synonym of Phyllomyias sclateri. See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

5a. Called "Crested Tyrannulet" in Wetmore (1972).

 

6. The species nigrocapillus, cinereiceps, and uropygialis were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1941b, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in a separate genus, Tyranniscus, but they were transferred to Phyllomyias by Traylor (1977, 1979a). <check gracilipes -- in Tyranniscus in Pinto 1944>

 

7. Phyllomyias plumbeiceps and P. griseocapilla were formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1941c, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in a separate genus, Oreotriccus, but this was merged into Phyllomyias by Traylor (1977, 1979a), a return to the classification of <check Cory & Hellmayr 1927>, Pinto (1944).

 

7a. The tarsal morphology of Tyrannulus has been interpreted to indicate that it belongs in the Cotingidae (Ridgway 1907). Traylor (1977) considered Tyrannulus most closely related to Myiopagis because of plumage similarities to M. gaimardii.

 

7b. The genus Myiopagis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) included in Elaenia; Zimmer (1941b) treated the two as separate, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.  Tello et al. (2009) found that Myiopagis and Suiriri were sister genera, and that Elaenia was the sister to these two. Within Myiopagis, Rheindt et al. (2009) found the following relationships (caniceps + olallai) + [(subplacens + gaimardii) + (flavivertex + viridicata)].  SACC proposal needed to change linear sequence.

 

7c. Hilty (2003) suspected that Myiopagis caniceps might not belong in that genus, but Rheindt et al. (2009) confirmed that it belongs there.

 

7cc. "Serpophaga araguayae," known only from the type specimen from Goiás, Brazil, and formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970), is a synonym of Myiopagis c. caniceps (Silva 1990). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

7ccc.  Genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2009, Cuervo et al. 2014) reveal that Myiopagis caniceps consists of two species, with strong plumage differences between them (Fitzpatrick 2004), and that M. olallai is nested within M. caniceps as currently defined.  SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

7d. Ridgway (1907) considered Myiopagis gaimardii to be in the monotypic genus Elainopsis and placed it in the Cotingidae based on tarsal morphology, but see Zimmer (1941a) for placement in Myiopagis.  Recent genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2009, Tello et al. 2009) confirm this placement.

 

7e. "Serpophaga berliozi," described as a valid species from Amazonas, Peru, is now considered a synonym of Myiopagis g. gaimardii (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Mayr 1971, Traylor 1979a).

 

8. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Coopmans & Krabbe (2000).

 

8b. Myiopagis viridicata and M. cotta of Jamaica are sister species (Fitzpatrick 2004); they were considered conspecific by <REF>.

 

8c. Hilty (2003) suspected that Myiopagis viridicata might consist of more than one species; genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2009) indicate a very deep split between cis- and trans-Andean populations.

 

8cc.  The species name placens was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) applied to Myiopagis viridicata, but see [REF].

 

8d. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Elaenia martinica and E. chiriquensis were sister species.

 

8e. Olrog (1963) suggested that Elaenia spectabilis should be considered conspecific with E. flavogaster.

 

8ee. Genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a) indicate that the traditional linear sequence of Elaenia species, as given here, does not accurately reflect phylogenetic relationships among taxa. SACC proposal needed to change linear sequence.

 

8f. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Elaenia flavogaster and E. gigas were closely related based on vocal, behavioral, and plumage similarities, but genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a) indicate that they are not closely related.

 

9. Elaenia ridleyana was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1941a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1979a) considered a subspecies of E. spectabilis or of E. chiriquensis (Cory & Hellmayr 1927); treated here as a species separate from following Sick (1985) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994); E. ridleyana forms a superspecies with E. spectabilis (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

10. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) suggested that Elaenia albiceps may consist of two or three species. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Elaenia pallatangae and E. albiceps might be closely related; they may hybridize to an uncertain extent in N. Peru (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990). Rheindt et al. (2008a) found that Andean populations (Cuzco) were genetically more similar to sympatric populations of E. pallatangae but suggested that this could be due to gene flow between them. Rheindt et al. (2009) provided evidence that the subspecies chilensis is actually more closely related E. pallatangae.  SACC proposal needed.

 

10a. Elaenia frantzii and E. obscura were considered to form a superspecies by AOU (1983) but not by subsequent authors; they were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered conspecific; Zimmer (1941a) provided rationale for their treatment as separate species, and this has been followed in most subsequent classifications. Genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a) indicate that they are not closely related. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that E. dayi might also be closely related to these two; genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008) indicate that E. dayi and E. obscura are sister species.

 

10aa. Rheindt et al. (2008a) proposed that the subspecies sordida be treated as a separate species from E. obscura based on genetic distance and some suggestion that it might be more closely related to E. dayi than to other E. obscura.  SACC proposal needed.

 

10b. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested that the subspecies brachyptera might deserve recognition as a separate species from Elaenia chiriquensis based on vocal differences.  Rheindt et al. (2008a) supported species rank for brachyptera based on genetic distance.  Rheindt et al. (2015) found that that brachyptera should be ranked as a separate species based on voice and genetic distance.  SACC proposal passed to elevate brachyptera to species rank.

 

10c. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Elaenia albiceps and E. parvirostris to form a superspecies. Genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a) indicate that they are not closely related. Although they seem to intergrade in some areas of central Bolivia, they are sympatric without interbreeding in Argentina (Traylor 1982).

 

10cc. Zimmer (1941a) proposed that Elaenia cristata and E. ruficeps were probably sister species based on morphology and habitat similarities, and this is strongly supported by genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a).

 

10ccc. "Elaenia aenigma," described as a valid species from eastern Ecuador, is a synonym of E. parvirostris (Zimmer 1941b, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

10d. The subspecies modesta was formerly (REF) considered a separate species from Elaenia albiceps, but see Zimmer (1941a). Jaramillo (2003) suggested that E. albiceps consists of more than one species.

 

10e. The subspecies tyleri of Cerro Duida was described as a separate species from Elaenia dayi (Chapman 1929).

 

10f. The subspecies olivina of the Tepui region was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Elaenia pallatangae, but they were treated as conspecific by Zimmer (1941a). Genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008a, 2009) indicate that olivina is not particularly closely related to E. pallatangae; it was treated as a separate species (“Tepui Elaenia”) by Dickinson & Christidis (2014). SACC proposal badly needed.

 

10g. Elaenia pallatangae and E. albiceps may hybridize to an uncertain extent in Ecuador and N. Peru (Fitzpatrick 2004, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990).

 

11. Ornithion brunneicapillus was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1941, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific with Middle American O. semiflavum, but Slud (1964) noted vocal differences between the two and recommended treatment as separate species. This has been followed by most subsequent classifications (e.g., Wetmore 1972, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a, Stiles & Skutch 1989, Fitzpatrick 2004), thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927); they constitute a superspecies (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004). Correct spelling for species name is brunneicapillus, not brunneicapillum (David & Gosselin 2002a).

 

11b. The tarsal morphology of Ornithion has been interpreted to indicate that it belongs in the Cotingidae (Ridgway 1907).  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) indicate that it is the sister to Camptostoma.

 

11c. Ornithion brunneicapillus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed with Middle American O. semiflavum in a separate genus, Microtriccus, which Zimmer (1941c) merged into Ornithion; this has been followed by most subsequent classifications (e.g., Traylor <?>1977, 1979, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Fitzpatrick 2004), but Wetmore (1972) maintained Microtriccus on the basis of differences in primary shape, rectrix shape, and relative tail length.

 

11cc. "Ornithion fasciatus," described as a valid species from Peru, is now considered a synonym of Ornithion inerme (Zimmer 1941c, Meyer de Schauensee 1966). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

11d. Camptostoma obsoletum forms a superspecies with Middle American C. imberbe (AOU 1983, 1998, Fitzpatrick 2004); Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that they might be conspecific, but they are sympatric in Costa Rica (Stiles & Skutch 1989).

 

11e. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Camptostoma obsoletum may consist of more than one species; Rheindt et al. (2008c) found genetic evidence consistent with at least three species, but recommended waiting for additional analyses.  Ridgway (1907) treated the Central American and western South American subspecies as a separate species, C. pusillum.

 

12. Some authors (Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Short 1975, Sibley & Monroe 1990) considered S. affinis as a species separate from S. suiriri, but they intergrade in southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Paraguay, and southwestern Brazil (Laubmann 1940, Zimmer 1955, Traylor 1982, Hayes 1995, 2001). Their vocalizations are similar (Zimmer et al. 2001), and all 17 specimens from the Paraguayan hybrid zone are intermediate, suggesting free interbreeding (Hayes 1995, 2001).

 

13. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Zimmer et al. (2001).  Kirwan et al. (2014) proposed that the species name islerorum is a synonym of affinis.  SACC proposal passed to change to Suiriri affinis.

 

14. Morphological data indicate that Mecocerculus is almost certainly polyphyletic (Lanyon 1988a), but no choice now but to retain as is without further study. With leucophrys as the type species for the genus, placement of the genus arbitrarily reflects the position of M. leucophrys in Lanyon's (1988a) phylogeny.

 

14a. Mecocerculus poecilocercus and M. hellmayri form a superspecies (Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

14b. Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) suggested that he subspecies pallidior of western Peru might be considered a separate species from Mecocerculus leucophrys.

 

15. Anairetes nigrocristatus was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1940b, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a) considered conspecific with A. reguloides, but see Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for recognition as a separate species, as was suspected was the best treatment by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004) and are sister taxa (DuBay & Witt 2012).

 

15a. Spizitornis was formerly (e.g., Oberholser 1920b, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1940b) used for Anairetes, but see <REF>, Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

15b. Genetic data (Roy et al. 1999) confirm that Anairetes parulus and A. fernandezianus are sister species.

 

15b. Anairetes alpinus was formerly (e.g., reluctantly by Zimmer 1940b) placed in the monotypic genus Yanacea, but this was merged into Anairetes by Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970).  DuBay & Witt (2012) founded that alpinus is indeed embedded in Anairetes and is sister to A. parulus + A. flavirostris, and together they are sister to A. reguloides + A. nigrocristatus.

 

16. Uromyias agilis and U. agraphia were traditionally (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor (1977, 1979a) placed in Uromyias, many recent classifications (e.g., Dickinson 2003) have merged Uromyias into Anairetes. Although Lanyon (1988a), Ridgely & Tudor (1994), and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) maintained Uromyias on the basis of morphological and vocal characters, Roy et al.'s (1999) genetic data found that it is embedded within Anairetes.  DuBay & Witt (2012), however, refuted this and proposed restoring Uromyias.  SACC proposal passed to recognize Uromyias.  Uromyias agilis and U. agraphia form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

17. Chebez & Agnolin (2012) provided evidence that Serpophaga is not monophyletic and named a new genus, Holmbergphaga, for the species for the species cinerea, hypoleuca, and nigricans.  However, if split, the name Ridgwayornis Bertoni, 1925, would have priority.

 

17a. Silva (1990) showed that "Serpophaga araguayae," formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a valid species ("Bananal Tyrannulet"), is actually a synonym of Myiopagis c. caniceps.

 

18. Serpophaga munda is often considered a subspecies (e.g., Zimmer 1955, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a, Straneck 1993) or morph (Short 1975) of S. subcristata, but see Olrog (1963) and Herzog (2001).

 

19. "Serpophaga griseiceps," known from four specimens from Bolivia, was formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Zimmer 1955, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970). Traylor (1979) treated S. griseiceps as a synonym of S. munda; rationale, however, was not published. Straneck (1993) resurrected S. griseiceps as a valid species, but see Herzog & Barnett (2004), who concluded that "griseiceps" most likely represents the juvenal plumage of S. munda. See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa. Straneck (2007) described a new species, Serpophaga griseicapilla, for the taxon previously suspected to be S. "griseiceps." SACC proposal passed to recognize griseicapilla.  SACC proposal to change English name did not pass.

 

20. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) noted that vocal differences suggest that Phaeomyias murina might consist of more than one species. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies tumbezana (with inflava and maranonica) of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru to represent a separate species based on differences in vocalizations.  Rheindt et al. (2008c) found genetic evidence consistent with two species, and Zucker et al. (2016) found additional evidence for multiple species within P. murina.  SACC proposal badly needed. <Mike Harvey working on one>

 

21. The genus Capsiempis was merged into Phylloscartes by Traylor (1977<?>, 1979a), but see Lanyon (1988a) for resurrection of the genus on morphological data, which suggest that Capsiempis was closer to Phaeomyias and Nesotriccus than to Phylloscartes. In terms of voice, Capsiempis is most like Inezia (Zimmer & Whittaker 2000).  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) indicate that it is the sister to Phaeomyias + Phyllomyias (griseiceps).

 

21a. The name Habrura was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) used for Polystictus, but see <REF>.

 

21b. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Fitzpatrick (2004) noted that evidence for treatment of Polystictus pectoralis and P. superciliaris as congeneric is weak

 

21c. Fitzpatrick (2004) noted that the possibly extinct subspecies bogotensis probably deserves treatment as a separate species from Polystictus pectoralis. Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) suggested that the northern subspecies brevipennis might also deserve treatment as a separate species.

 

22. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis and P. dinelliana to form a superspecies.

 

22a. Pseudocolopteryx is feminine, so the correct spelling of the species name is dinelliana (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

22aa. Ábalos & Areta (2009) provided evidence that P. flaviventris includes two cryptic species (P. flaviventris and P. citreola) that differ in vocalizations and displays, and do not respond to cross-playback experiments.  SACC proposal passed to treat citreola as a species.

 

22b. Pseudotriccus pelzelni and P. simplex form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004) and might be conspecific (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

22c. Called "Olive-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant" in Wetmore (1972).

 

22cc.  The English name “Pygmy-Tyrant” is applied to species in Pseudotriccus, Euscarthmus, Myiornis, Lophotriccus, and some Hemitriccus; therefore, either the hyphens should be removed or the names changed.  SACC proposal pending.

 

22d. Pseudotriccus ruficeps was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed in the monotypic genus Caenotriccus, but see Zimmer (1940) for its merger into Pseudotriccus.

 

23. See Sick (1985), Ridgely & Tudor (1994), and Fitzpatrick (2004) for reasons for maintaining Corythopis torquatus and C. delalandi as separate species; they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

23a. Corythopis was formerly (e.g., Pinto 1937, Meyer de Schauensee 1966) placed in the Conopophagidae, but see Ames et al. (1968) for independent anatomical data sets that show that this species belongs in the Tyrannidae. <Sibley-Ahlquist etc. REFS>. Tello and Bates (2007) and Tello et al. (2009) found strong support for a sister relationship between Corythopis and Pseudotriccus, a relationship previously identified by morphological data (Lanyon 1988b).

 

24. Corythopis is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is torquatus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

24a. Euscarthmus was formerly (<REF>) placed in the Formicariidae [=Thamnophilidae] because of similarities in tarsal scutellation.

 

25. Pseudelaenia leucospodia was formerly placed in the genus Phaeomyias (e.g., Zimmer 1941b, Meyer de Schauensee 1970), Myiopagis (e.g., Traylor 1977, 1979a), or Elaenia (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927), but see Lanyon (1988a).  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) confirm that it is not the sister to any of these genera but is a member of a group of genera that includes Phaeomyias.  SACC proposal needed to change linear sequence. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

25a. Stigmatura napensis and S. budytoides were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) considered conspecific, and napensis was described as a subspecies of S. budytoides; recent authors have followed Zimmer (1940b) in treating them as separate species; they are considered to form a superspecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

25b. Stigmatura was formerly (<REF>) placed in the Formicariidae [=Thamnophilidae] because of its superficial resemblance to the genus Formicivora.

 

26. The species vilissimus, bolivianus, cinereicapilla, gracilipes, acer, and viridiflavus (with chrysops and albigularis) were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1941b, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in a separate genus, Tyranniscus, but see Traylor (1977) for separation in the genus Zimmerius.

 

26a. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies flavidifrons of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru to represent a separate species from Zimmerius chrysops based on differences in voice. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), Krabbe & Nielsson (2003), and Fitzpatrick (2004) also noted that the taxon albigularis from w. Ecuador and sw. Colombia might be a species distinct from Zimmerius chrysops. Rheindt et al. (2008b) found that albigularis is actually the sister taxon to Zimmerius vilissimus. SACC proposal passed to elevate albigularis to species rank.  Rheindt et al. (2014) found genetic and vocal evidence for treatment of the subspecies minimus from NW Venezuela and the Santa Marta Mountains, including tentatively also cumanensis from the Turimiquire Mtns. in eastern Venezuela, as a separate species from Z. chrysops.  SACC proposal needed.

 

27. Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994), followed by Hilty (2003) and Fitzpatrick (2004), considered the South American improbus group of subspecies to be a separate species from Zimmerius vilissimus. SACC proposal to treat improbus as a separate species did not pass. Traylor (1982) suspected that the subspecies parvus, from Honduras to NW Colombia, should also be considered a separate species.  Rheindt et al. (2014) found additional genetic and vocal support for treating improbus (with tamae) as a separate species as well as petersi and extralimital parvus.  Dickinson & Christidis (2014) treated improbus (“Mountain Tyrannulet”) and petersi (“Venezuelan Tyrannulet”) as separate species.  SACC proposal badly needed.

 

27a. Called "Mistletoe Tyrannulet" in Stiles & Skutch (1989).

 

28. Correct spelling for species name is cinereicapilla (David & Gosselin 2002a).

 

28a. Zimmerius cinereicapilla was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered conspecific with Z. gracilipes.

 

28b. Zimmerius acer was treated as a separate species from Zimmerius gracilipes by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), but Zimmer (1941) treated them as conspecific; Pinto (1944), however, treated them as separate species and noted that both had been collected at Santarem, Brazil (Gyldenstolpe 19## REF - check). Most recent classifications (e.g., Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Dickinson 2003, Fitzpatrick 2004) have followed Zimmer (1941) in treating them as conspecific. Rheindt et al.'s (2008b) genetic data indicate that acer and gracilipes are not sisters, with acer basal to all other Zimmerius taxa sampled. SACC proposal passed to elevate acer to species rank. SACC proposal did not pass to change English name of Z. acer.

 

29. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Alvarez-Alfonso & Whitney (2001).

 

29a. Alvarez-Alfonso & Whitney (2001) considered Zimmerius cinereicapilla and Z. villarejoi to be sister species.

 

29b.  Whitney et al. (2013) described a new species, Zimmerius chicomendesi, from southwestern Amazonian Brazil that is likely most closely related to Z. villarejoi; recognized by Dickinson & Christidis (2014), but with reservations.  SACC proposal passed to recognize Z. chicomendesi.

 

30. Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) and Traylor (1979) considered chrysops to be a subspecies of Zimmerius viridiflavus; see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) for rationale for keeping Z. chrysops as a separate species, a treatment supported by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), Zimmer (1941), and Fitzpatrick (2004); they constitute a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990). SACC proposal to treat Z. chrysops as conspecific with Z. viridiflavus did not pass. More recent genetic data (Rheindt et al. 2008b) indicate that current species limits in the chrysops-viridiflavus group do not reflect relationships indicated by genetic or vocal data. SACC proposal to elevate flavidifrons to species rank did not pass.

 

31. The species poecilotis, ophthalmicus, orbitalis, venezuelanus, eximius, gualaquizae, and flaviventris were formerly (e.g., Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Pogonotriccus, but this was merged into Phylloscartes by Traylor (1977<?>, 1979a). The species poecilotis through eximius do form a distinctive group within the genus and thus the English name Bristle-Tyrant is retained for them, following Ridgely & Tudor (1994). Hilty & Brown (1986), Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), Hilty (2003), and Fitzpatrick (2004) retained Pogonotriccus because this group has consistent morphological and behavioral differences from Phylloscartes.  See also Graves (1988) and Fitzpatrick & Stotz (1997) for support for retention of Pogonotriccus. Dickinson & Christidis (2014) also resurrected Pogonotriccus.  SACC proposal badly needed.

 

31a. The southern subspecies ottonis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Phylloscartes ophthalmicus.

 

31b. Phylloscartes lanyoni and P. orbitalis are sister taxa (Graves 1988) that form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990); Fitzpatrick (2004) also considered P. venezuelanus a member of this superspecies.

 

31c. Phylloscartes orbitalis was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) placed in the genus Capsiempis.

 

31cc. Phylloscartes gualaquizae, one of the former members of Pogonotriccus (see Note 31 above), is not a member of that group (Robbins et al. 1987, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

31d. Vocal and foraging behavior suggests that Phylloscartes nigrifrons might be most closely related to P. flaviventris and P. parkeri (Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

31dd. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) placed Phylloscartes nigrifrons in Leptopogon.

 

31e. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) placed Phylloscartes superciliaris in Mecocerculus, and Ridgway placed it in Leptotriccus with P. sylviolus and P. flaviventris.

 

32. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Graves (1988).

 

32a. Phylloscartes ventralis is considered to form a superspecies with Panamanian P. flavovirens (AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe (1990) and also P. virescens (Fitzpatrick 2004); they were all considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927). Phylloscartes kronei and P. beckeri are also probably part of this species group (Fitzpatrick 2004).  Proposal needed to change linear sequence (from northwest to southeast).

 

32b. "Phylloscartes pammictus," known only from the unique type specimen from "Rio de Janeiro" and formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944), is now considered a synonym of Phylloscartes v. ventralis (Traylor 1979b). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

33. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Teixeira (1987).

 

34. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Willis & Oniki (1992).

 

35. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Gonzaga & Pacheco (1995).

 

36. Formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) called "Yellow-bellied Bristle-Tyrant"; see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for reasons for the need for their new English name for this species.

 

36a. Phylloscartes flaviventris and P. parkeri form a superspecies (Fitzpatrick and Stotz 1997, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

36b. Phylloscartes ceciliae, P. superciliaris, P. roquettei, and P. sylviolus might be closely related to, or part of, the P. flaviventris-P. parkeri superspecies (Fitzpatrick and Stotz 1997, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

36c.  Vocal differences between populations in Peru suggest that more than one species may be involved in Mionectes striaticollis (Hosner et al. 2015b).

 

37. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Fitzpatrick and Stotz (1997).

 

38. Straube & Pacheco (2002) proposed that the species name should be changed from paulistus to paulista, and this was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004). SACC proposal passed to change to paulista.

 

39. Phylloscartes sylviolus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the (then) monotypic genus Leptotriccus, but this was merged into Phylloscartes by Traylor (1977<?>, 1979a).

 

40. Mionectes oleagineus, M. macconnelli, and M. rufiventris were formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1941c, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Pipromorpha, but this was merged into Mionectes by Traylor (1977, 1979), as first proposed by van Rossem (1938), and a merger supported by morphological data (Ames 1971, Lanyon 1988a; cf. Zimmer 1941c); Wetmore (1972) tentatively maintained Pipromorpha on the basis of plumage differences, evident even in juvenal plumage, and primary shape in adult males. SACC proposal to resurrect Pipromorpha did not pass. New genetic data (Miller et al. 2008) are consistent with resurrecting Pipromorpha as a genus-level taxon; the three species of Pipromorpha form a monophyletic group that shows a 14% sequence divergence (cytochrome b) from the other two. SACC proposal to reinstate Pipromorpha did not pass.

 

40a. Ridgway (1907) treated the Middle American subspecies assimilis (with dyscola) as a separate species from M. oleagineus.  Apparently parapatric populations of some populations of M. oleagineus show no signs of gene flow between them, suggesting that more than one species may be involved (Miller et al. 2008).

 

40b. "Mionectes turi," described from "Cayenne" as a valid species, is now considered a synonym of Mionectes oleagineus wallacei (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

40c. Genetic data (Miller et al. 2008) suggest that M. macconnelli peruanus of southwestern Amazonia may be the sister to M. oleagineus, M. rufiventris, and M. m. macconnelli and thus should be treated as a separate species; additional gene sampling and vocal analyses needed.

 

40d.  Hilty & Ascanio (2014) found vocal evidence that the tepui subspecies Mionectes m. roraimae should be treated as a separate species.  SACC proposal badly needed.

 

41. Linear sequence of species in Leptopogon follows Bates & Zink (1994), who showed that genetic data indicate that the lowland species amaurocephalus is sister to the ancestor of the rest of the genus, and the highest-elevation species are most recently derived.

 

41a. Leptopogon rufipectus and L. taczanowskii are sister species (Zimmer 1941c, Bates & Zink 1994) that form a superspecies (Parker et al. 1985, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

41b. Leptopogon rufipectus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) known as L. erythrops, but see <REF>.

 

41c. Traylor (1977) considered Sublegatus so closely related to Elaenia, as reflected in their traditional placement in linear sequences, that they might be considered congeneric, but syringeal morphology (Lanyon 1988a) does not support a close relationship.

 

41d. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that further study might show that the distinctive southern subspecies albidiventris might be a separate species from Leptopogon superciliaris.

 

41e. Called "Mangrove Scrub Flycatcher" in Haverschmidt & Mees (1994).

 

41f. Haverschmidt & Mees (1994), who treated Sublegatus obscurior as a subspecies of S. modestus, called the composite species "Forest Scrub Flycatcher".

 

42. All Sublegatus were formerly considered conspecific (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970), with the composite species called "Scrub Flycatcher." Species limits in Sublegatus have been fluid and confusing, including different treatments by the same author (e.g., Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a vs. Traylor 1982); Zimmer (1941b) considered the taxon glaber, currently treated as a subspecies of S. modestus, to be a separate species that included S. obscurior (and also the subspecies orinocensis, and pallens, as well as the taxa peruvianus and sordidus, which were considered synonyms of S. obscurior by Traylor 1979a); see also Fitzpatrick (2004). Seasonal movements may also complicate evidence of sympatry (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1982). Vocal differences exist among the three taxa recognized as species here, but formal analysis and additional research badly needed. See Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for a synopsis.

 

42a. The genus Inezia is likely polyphyletic (Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

42aa. Short (1975) and Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Inezia tenuirostris and I. inornata to form a superspecies.

 

42b. The tarsal morphology of Inezia has been interpreted to indicate that it belongs in the Cotingidae (Ridgway 1907? REF).

 

42c. Inezia tenuirostris was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) placed in Phaeomyias, but see Zimmer (1955).

 

42d. Inezia inornata was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Smith 1971) placed in Serpophaga, but see Parkes (1973) and Lanyon (1988a).

 

43. Inezia caudata was formerly (e.g., Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a, Ridgely & Tudor 1994) considered a subspecies of I. subflava, with the composite species known as "Pale-tipped Tyrannulet"; Zimmer & Whittaker (2000) showed that caudata merits recognition as a separate species based on vocal differences; they also recommended use of "Inezia" as English name.  Inezia caudata was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) placed in the genus Capsiempis.

 

43a. The intrafamilial relationships of the distinctive genus Myiotriccus are uncertain; <REF?> and Fitzpatrick (2004) proposed that it was most closely related to Myiophobus based on cranial, plumage, and nest characters.  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) indicate that it is sister to “Myiophobus” ochraceiventris and along with Onychorhynchus, a member of the Oxyruncidae.  SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

43b. The intrafamilial relationships of the distinctive genus Tachuris are uncertain; <REF cited by Fitzpatrick 2004> proposed that it was most closely related to Pseudocolopteryx.  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) indicate that it is a member of a group consisting mainly of the flatbills, but that it has no close relatives.  SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

44. Fitzpatrick (2004) summarized the unique characters of Culicivora and suggested that it was closest to Polystictus based on plumage, bill morphology, behavior, and habitat.  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) confirm this relationship.

 

44a. Called "Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant" by Ridgely & Tudor (1994).

 

45. Lanyon (1988b) used syringeal and skull morphology to propose that the genera Myiornis through Onychorhynchus represented a monophyletic group, the "flatbills." Birdsley (2002) questioned the monophyly of the group based on an analysis of morphological and behavioral data. Genetic data (Tello and Bates 2007) indicate that the flatbills are monophyletic if Platyrinchus and Onychorhynchus are removed. Tello et al. (2009) found that the genera from Myiornis through Tolmomyias in the sequence presented above form a monophyletic if Cnipodectes is removed.  SACC proposal needed.  Within the flatbills, Myiornis was merged into Hemitriccus by Lanyon (1988b) based on syringeal morphology, and this merger is supported by the genetic data of Tello & Bates (2007) and Tello et al. (2009), who also found that Lophotriccus was paraphyletic with respect to Oncostoma, and that Hemitriccus was paraphyletic with respect to these two genera and Atalotriccus. Although further taxon-sampling needed, a case could be made that these five genera should be combined (Hemitriccus has priority). SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

45a. Although Meyer de Schauensee (1970) considered Myiornis albiventris to be a subspecies of M. auricularis, this was not followed by previous (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1940) or subsequent authors; they are considered to form a superspecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

45b. Called "White-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant" in Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and Parker et al. (1982).

 

46. Myiornis atricapillus was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1940, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of M. ecaudatus, but most recent classifications have followed Wetmore (1972) in considering the evidence insufficient for treatment as conspecific, thus returning to the classification of Ridgway (1907) and Cory & Hellmayr (1927); they constitute a superspecies (AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

46a. Myiornis was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) treated in a separate genus, Perissotriccus, but this was merged into Myiornis by Zimmer (1940); this has been followed by most subsequent authors, but not by Wetmore (1972), who maintained Perissotriccus on the basis of differences in wing shape, bill shape, relative tail length, and extent of rictal bristles.

 

46b. The authenticity of a specimen from northern Colombia (Romero & Rodriguez 1965) was questioned by Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Fitzpatrick (2004); examination of the specimen by F. G. Stiles confirmed the identification. Whether this record represents a wandering individual or sympatry with O. olivaceum cannot yet be determined. SACC proposal passed to remove this species from the Hypothetical List and to add it to the main list.

 

47. Oncostoma cinereigulare and O. olivaceum form a superspecies (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004); they were considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

47a. Lophotriccus vitiosus and L. eulophotes form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were treated as conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Pinto (1944).

 

47b. The subspecies congener was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) considered a separate species from Lophotriccus vitiosus, but see Meyer de Schauensee (1966).<Zimmer>

 

47c. The name squamaecristatus was previously considered to have priority over pileatus (e.g., Ridgway 1907).

 

48. Lophotriccus galeatus was formerly (e.g., Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Colopteryx (based on its unusually narrow outer primaries), but this was merged into Lophotriccus by Traylor (1977, 1979a).

 

49. Lanyon (1988b) recommended that Atalotriccus be merged into Lophotriccus, and this was followed by AOU (1998); however, see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for reasons to maintain as separate genus until relationships are resolved.

 

49a. Called "Light-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant" in Wetmore (1972).

 

50. Hemitriccus minor was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Snethlagea (based on bill morphology), but this was merged into Hemitriccus by Traylor (1977, 1979).

 

50a. Cohn-Haft (1996) provided morphological and vocal evidence for treating Hemitriccus minor and H. spodiops as sister species.  Zimmer et al. (2013) described a new species from southwestern Amazonian Brazil, Hemitriccus cohnhafti, that they found to be the sister species to H. spodiops.  SACC proposal passed to recognize H. cohnhafti.

 

50b. Hemitriccus as defined by Traylor (1979) and used here is likely paraphyletic with respect to Lophotriccus (Cohn-Haft 1996) and perhaps Atalotriccus and Oncostoma.

 

51. The species spodiops, zosterops (with griseipectus), orbitatus, striaticollis (with iohannis), nidipendulus, margaritaceiventer, minimus (as "aenigma"), granadensis, mirandae (with kaempferi), and rufigularis were formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Idioptilon, but recent classifications have followed Traylor (1977, 1979) in merging Idioptilon into Hemitriccus.  However, genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) that a broadly defined Hemitriccus is not monophyletic.  SACC proposal needed.

 

51a. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) suspected that Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer might consist of more than one species; Cory & Hellmayr (1927) treated the subspecies impiger and septentrionalis both as separate species, and Chapman (1929) described the subspecies duidae as a species; all were considered conspecific with H. margaritaceiventer by Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970).

 

51b. Hemitriccus mirandae was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed in Todirostrum.

 

52. [Cohn-Haft (1996) ... .]

 

53. Hemitriccus flammulatus, H. diops, and H. obsoletus form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were treated as conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Pinto (1944), but most recent authors have followed Zimmer (1940) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966) in treating them as separate species.

 

53a. These three Hemitriccus were called "Bamboo-Tyrants" by Ridgely & Tudor (1994). SACC proposal to change to "Tody-Tyrants" as in other Hemitriccus did not pass.  SACC proposal pending to modify English names of “tody-tyrants” and “pygmy-tyrants.”

 

54. Hemitriccus josephinae was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in monotypic genus Microcochlearius, but recent classifications have followed Traylor (1977, 1979a) in merging this into Hemitriccus.

 

55. Hemitriccus griseipectus was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a, <check R-T>) considered conspecific with H. zosterops, but see Cohn-Haft et al. (1997) for rationale for treatment as separate species, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

56. Hemitriccus iohannis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1940, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of H. striaticollis, but see Traylor (1982) for rationale for recognition as a separate species.

 

57. Hemitriccus inornatus was considered a doubtful species by Meyer de Schauensee (1966).

 

57a. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer and H. inornatus to form a superspecies.

 

58. For use of minimus instead of aenigma, see Stotz (1992).

 

58a. Hemitriccus minimus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed in the genus Snethlagea, but this was merged into Hemitriccus by Traylor (1977, 1979), who also considered it a subspecies of Hemitriccus (Snethlagea) minor, following Zimmer (1940). See also Note 50.

 

59. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1979).

 

60. Hemitriccus kaempferi was described as and formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of H. mirandae; for recognition of kaempferi as a species separate from mirandae, see Fitzpatrick (1976) and Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1979).

 

60a. Fitzpatrick & O'Neill (1979), Sibley & Monroe (1990), and Fitzpatrick (2004) considered Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus, H. mirandae, and H. kaempferi to form a superspecies.

 

60b. Hemitriccus mirandae was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) placed in the genus Todirostrum.

 

61. Hemitriccus furcatus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Ceratotriccus (based on tail structure), but this was merged into Hemitriccus by Traylor (1977, 1979a). Thus, it was renamed "Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant" by Ridgely & Tudor (1994).  Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that H. furcatus was most closely related to the H. mirandae superspecies.

 

62. Poecilotriccus ruficeps and P. luluae form a superspecies (Parker et al. 1985, <>Johnson and Jones 2001, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

62a. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Poecilotriccus ruficeps might consist of two or more species-level taxa.

 

62b. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Johnson and Jones (2001).

 

62c. Johnson and Jones suggested "Lulu's Tody-Tyrant" for the English name. The logical "Rufous-headed" is already in use in Pseudotriccus pygmy-tyrants. SACC proposal passed to make the English name "Johnson's Tody-Tyrant", in honor of its recently deceased describer, Ned. K. Johnson. "Johnson's Tody-Tyrant" also adopted by Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

63. The species albifacies, capitalis, senex, russatus, plumbeiceps, fumifrons, latirostris, sylvia, chrysocrotaphum, and calopterus were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a) placed in Todirostrum, but Lanyon (1988b) provided morphological evidence for their transfer to Poecilotriccus. Note that the English names of former Todirostrum exported to Poecilotriccus did not change from "Tody-Flycatcher" to "Tody-Tyrant." SACC proposal passed to change English names of all Poecilotriccus to "Tody-Flycatcher." Tello and Bates (2007) and Tello et al. (2009) found that (with limited taxon-sampling) Poecilotriccus + Todirostrum forms the sister group to other tody-tyrants (Myiornis through Hemitriccus).

 

63a. The northern subspecies schistaceiceps was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) considered a separate species from P. sylvia.

 

63aa.  Called “Slaty-headed Tody Flycatcher” by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).

 

63b. Poecilotriccus russatus and P. plumbeiceps form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

63bb. "Todirostrum hypospodium," known only from the type specimen from "Bogotá" and treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and reluctantly so by Meyer de Schauensee (1966), is now considered a synonym of P. s. sylvia (Traylor 1979b). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

63c. Poecilotriccus latirostris and P. fumifrons form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

63d. Hemitriccus spodiops, H. zosterops, H. griseipectus, H. orbitatus, H. striaticollis, H. iohannis, H. nidipendulus, H. margaritaceiventer, H. inornatus, H. granadensis, and H. rufigularis, and Poecilotriccus russatus and P. plumbeiceps were all formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1940, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) placed in the genus Euscarthmornis, now included in Hemitriccus; see Zimmer (1953b) for the use of Idioptilon over Euscarthmornis, where they were transferred by Meyer de Schauensee (1966), except for Poecilotriccus russatus and P. plumbeiceps, which were transferred by Zimmer (1940) to Todirostrum. Traylor (1977<?>, 1979b) then merged Idioptilon into Hemitriccus.

 

63dd. "Poecilotriccus nattereri," described from Brazil and treated as a distinct species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Pinto (1944), is now considered a synonym of Poecilotriccus latirostris ochropterus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

63e. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Hemitriccus granadensis might consist of more than one species-level taxa, and that it might be most closely related to the Hemitriccus mirandae superspecies.

 

63ee. "Hemitriccus rothschildi," described from French Guiana and treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), is now regarded as a synonym of Hemitriccus z. zosterops (Zimmer 1940, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

63f. Hemitriccus zosterops was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a subspecies of H. striaticollis, but <Zimmer REF?> provided rationale for treating zosterops as a separate species.

 

64. Included in Poecilotriccus capitalis is Todirostrum tricolor, considered a valid species by Traylor (1979b), but tricolor may not even be a valid subspecies; see Parker et al. (1997) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001).

 

64a. Poecilotriccus capitalis and P. albifacies have been considered conspecific (Fitzpatrick 1976), but see Traylor & Fitzpatrick (1982) for rationale for treating them as separate species.

 

64b. Poecilotriccus albifacies was considered a synonym of "P. tricolor" by Fitzpatrick (1976) and Traylor (1979b), but "P. tricolor" is now considered a dubious taxon; see Traylor & Fitzpatrick (1982).

 

65. See David & Gosselin (2002a) for why the species name is capitalis rather than capitale.

 

66. Poecilotriccus (Todirostrum/Platyrinchus) senex was considered a dubious taxon by Meyer de Schauensee (1970), but see Fitzpatrick (1976).

 

67. Poecilotriccus pulchellus was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1940, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1979b, Dickinson 2003) considered conspecific with P. calopterus, but see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for rationale for treating it as a separate species, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

68. Traylor (1977, 1979a) and Lanyon (1988b) merged Taeniotriccus into Poecilotriccus, but see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Fitzpatrick (2004) for reasons to maintain as monotypic genus until more data are available.

 

69. Called "Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994).

 

70. Todirostrum viridanum was formerly (e.g., Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific with T. cinereum, but recent authors (e.g., Hilty 2003, Fitzpatrick 2004) tend to follow Meyer de Schauensee & Phelps (1978) in treating them as separate species, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927); see caveats in Ridgely & Tudor (1994); they form a superspecies (AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

71. Todirostrum nigriceps, T. pictum, and T. chrysocrotaphum form a superspecies (Fitzpatrick 1976, 2004, Sibley & Monroe 1990).  Zimmer (1940) considered nigriceps and pictum as subspecies of T. chrysocrotaphum, and this was followed by Phelps & Phelps (1950a) <check>.  Meyer de Schauensee (1970) treated pictum as a subspecies of T. chrysocrotaphum with the composite species called "Painted Tody-Flycatcher." Recent treatments usually follow Wetmore (1972), Fitzpatrick (1976), and Traylor (1977<?>, 1979a) in ranking all three as a species, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

71a. The subspecies guttatum was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from T. chrysocrotaphum, but most classifications have followed Zimmer (1940) in treating them as conspecific.

 

72. Zimmer (1939c) pointed out that the toe structure of Cnipodectes subbrunneus suggests a relationship to the Pipridae, not Tyrannidae.

 

72a.  The Amazonian subspecies C. s. minor was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Cnipodectes subbrunneus; they were treated as conspecific by Cory and Hellmayr (1927), and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

72a. Called "Brownish Flycatcher" by Eisenmann (1955), Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970), Ridgely (1976), Parker et al. (1982), AOU (1983, 1998), Hilty & Brown (1986), Sibley & Monroe (1990), and Dickinson (2003), in addition to most older literature; called "Brown Flycatcher" in Wetmore (1972). Ridgely & Tudor (1994) introduced the novel name "Twistwing", and this was followed by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), Hilty (2003) and Fitzpatrick (2004). SACC proposal to change English name did not pass. SACC proposal to change English name passed on second try after description of C. superrufus.

 

72b. Genetic data (Tello and Bates 2007) indicate that Tolmomyias and Rhynchocyclus are sister genera, as reflected in their traditional linear classification, and that Cnipodectes may be the sister genus to these two.

 

72bb. Ridgway (1907) treated the Amazonian subspecies minor as a separate species from C. subbrunneus.

 

72c.  Ridgway (1907) used the name Craspedoprion instead of Rhynchocyclus., which he applied to Tolmomyias.

 

72d. Newly described: Lane et al. (2007). SACC proposal passed to recognize C. superrufus.

 

73. Rhynchocyclus pacificus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979a) considered a subspecies of R. brevirostris, but Zimmer (1939a) treated it as a separate species and noted that it is probably more closely related to R. fulvipectus; it was treated as a species by Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and AOU (1998), the latter of whom considered R. brevirostris and R. pacificus to form a superspecies.

 

74. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) used the English group name "Flatbill" for the species of Tolmomyias, returning to a name used by Cory & Hellmayr (1925).

 

74a. The AOU (1998), Hilty (2003), and Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Tolmomyias sulphurescens almost certainly consists of multiple species.  Ridgway treated Middle American subspecies cinereiceps and flavoolivaceus each as a separate species from T. sulphurescens.

 

74n. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) treated the subspecies klagesi as a separate species from Tolmomyias poliocephalus, but see Meyer de Schauensee (1966).

 

75. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Schulenberg & Parker (1997).

 

76. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), followed by Hilty (2003), considered populations of Central America and trans-Andean South America to represent a separate species, T. flavotectus, from Tolmomyias assimilis; they restricted the name "Yellow-margined Flycatcher/Flatbill" to the latter and called the Amazonian species "Zimmer's Flatbill." The latter is also likely to consist of more than one species (see Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). Fitzpatrick (2004) concluded that further research was needed before any changes are made to current species limits.  Whitney et al. (2013) described a new species in the complex, Tolmomyias sucunduri, from south-central Amazonian Brazil.  SACC proposal to treat sucunduri as a species did not pass.

 

76a. Tolmomyias assimilis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a subspecies of T. sulphurescens, but Zimmer (1939a) provided rationale for considering it a separate species, and for treatment of Central American flavotectus, considered a separate species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), as a subspecies of T. assimilis.  Zimmer (1939a), followed by Pinto (1944), considered flavotectus to have priority over assimilis as the species name, but see <>.

 

77. Tolmomyias flaviventris almost certainly involves more than one species; see Bates et al. (1992) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994). The subspecies viridiceps is almost certainly a distinct species, and was so considered by Ridgely et al. (2001) and Hilty (2003). However, Zimmer (1939a) considered them conspecific because the subspecies he considered the subspecies subsimilis and dissors to represent taxa that were intermediate between the two, and this treatment was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004) in the absence of published data supporting a split. SACC proposal needed.  <<wait ongoing project>>

 

78. Ridgway (1907) used the genus name Platytriccus for Platyrinchus.

 

78a. Middle American Platyrinchus cancrominus was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1939c, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) treated as a subspecies of P. mystaceus, but they are locally sympatric in Costa Rica and differ in vocalizations (Slud 1964. Stiles & Skutch 1989), as formerly treated by Ridgway (1907) and Cory & Hellmayr (1927); they form a superspecies (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

78a. The northern albogularis group was considered a separate species from Platyrinchus mystaceus by Olson (1993a).

 

78b. Platyrinchus coronatus was placed by Ridgway (1907) in a separate genus, Placostomus.

 

78c. Platyrinchus leucoryphus was called P. platyrhynchos in Cory & Hellmayr (1927); see Meyer de Schauensee (1966) for the potentially confusing nomenclature of these species.

 

79. Ridgway (1907), Cory & Hellmayr (1927), and Pinto (1944) considered the four subspecies groups in Onychorhynchus coronatus as separate species: mexicanus of Middle America and northwestern Colombia, occidentalis of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru, coronatus of Amazonia, and swainsoni of southeastern Brazil. Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) and considered them all as conspecific without providing justification, and this was followed by Traylor (1977<?>, 1979b), AOU (1983, 1998), Sibley & Monroe (1990), Fitzpatrick (2004), and Ridgely & Tudor (1994), who provided rationale for their continued treatment as conspecific, but not by Wetmore (1972), who considered the evidence insufficient for the broad treatment. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) returned to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927). Collar et al. (1992) considered occidentalis as a separate species. See Whittingham & Williams (2000) for analysis and discussion of morphological characters. SACC proposal needed.

 

80. Morphological (Lanyon 1988a) and genetic (Ohlson et al. 2008) data strongly suggest that Myiophobus is a polyphyletic genus. Placement in linear sequence here arbitrarily assigned where type species of the genus falls in Lanyon's (1988a) phylogeny, in which there are three species groups that are each evidently monophyletic but the groups themselves may not be each others' closest relatives: (1) M. flavicans, M. phoenicomitra, M. inornatus, and M. roraimae; (2) M. lintoni and M. ochraceiventris; and (3) M. cryptoxanthus and M. fasciatus; placement of M. pulcher is uncertain (Fitzpatrick 2004).  Recent genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2009) establish that the three groups above are unrelated and that pulcher belongs in group 2; for that group, they described a new genus, Nephelomyias.  SACC proposal passed to recognize Nephelomyias.

 

80a. The southern subspecies rufipennis, described as a separate species from M. roraimae, was considered conspecific with M. roraimae by Meyer de Schauensee (1966) without providing rationale, despite their greatly disjunct ranges, and subsequent authors have followed Meyer de Schauensee (1966).

 

80aa. The subspecies bellus of the eastern slope of the Andes and Eastern and Central Cordilleras of Colombia has a longer tail and wing to other subspecies (though not 100% diagnostically) and differs in plumage from nominate Myiophobus pulcher of the West slope (Salaman et al. 2002, Donegan et al. 2007). Some calls may also differ, although a thorough vocal study is warranted (Donegan et al. 2007).

 

80b. Myiophobus lintoni and M. ochraceiventris form a superspecies (Parker et al. 1985, Sibley & Monroe 1990); genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2009) confirm that they are sister species.

 

80c. Myiophobus fasciatus and M. cryptoxanthus form a superspecies (Parker et al. 1985, Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), but see Zimmer (1939c) for rationale for their treatment as separate species.

 

80d. The subspecies rufescens of arid western Peru and northern Chile was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Myiophobus fasciatus, but Zimmer (1939c) and Koepcke (1961) reported specimens that showed signs of intergradation between rufescens and M. f. crypterythrus (cf. Ridgely & Tudor 1994); thus, Meyer de Schauensee (1966) considered them conspecific, and this has been followed by subsequent authors. Jaramillo (2003), however, suggested that rufescens should be considered a separate species.

 

80e.  Myiobius villosus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as conspecific with M. (b.) sulphureipygius; Cory & Hellmayr (1927) treated them as separate species, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

81. Cory & Hellmayr (1927), Wetmore (1972), and the AOU (1983, 1998) treated the sulphureipygius group as a separate species from Myiobius barbatus, but see Zimmer (1939b) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for rationale for continued treatment as conspecific; however, Ridgely and Greenfield (2001) returned to AOU classification, followed by Hilty (2003) and Fitzpatrick (2004), with the name "Whiskered Flycatcher" applied to the Amazonian barbatus group, as in Cory & Hellmayr (1927). SACC proposal to treat sulphureipygius as separate species did not pass. The name formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for sulphureipygius was xanthopygus. The subspecies mastacalis of southeastern Brazil was formerly (e.g., REF) treated as a separate species, but see Zimmer (1939b). SACC proposal pending to treat mastacalis as separate species did not pass.

 

81a. The subspecies ridgwayi of southeastern Brazil was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Myiobius atricaudus, but they were treated as conspecific by Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and subsequent classifications. Parker et al. (1996) implied that ridgwayi deserved treatment as a separate species. SACC proposal to treat ridgwayi as separate species did not pass.

 

81aa. Myiobius atricaudus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as conspecific with M. barbatus; Cory & Hellmayr (1927) treated them as separate species, and this has been followed in most subsequent classifications.

 

82. Lanyon (1988c) and Mobley & Prum (1995) merged Terenotriccus into Myiobius based on morphological data, followed by Sibley & Monroe (1990), but differences in voice and behavior have resulted in continued treatment in monotypic genus (Ridgely & Tudor 1994, AOU 1998, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003).

 

83. Neopipo cinnamomea was formerly (e.g., <check Hellmayr>, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the Pipridae ("Cinnamon Manakin"); placement in Tyrannidae follows Mobley and Prum (1995).

 

83a. Called "Cinnamon Tyrant-Manakin" in Sibley & Monroe (1990), "Cinnamon Tyrant" in Mobley & Prum (1995), Fitzpatrick (2004), and Schulenberg et al. (2007), and "Cinnamon Neopipo" in Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003), thus perhaps setting a new temporal record for lack of stability in an English name.  SACC proposal to change English name to "Cinnamon Neopipo" did not pass. SACC proposal to change to "Cinnamon Tyrant" did not pass. SACC proposal passed to change to "Cinnamon Manakin-Tyrant."

 

84. The northern subspecies vieillotioides was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus, but see Zimmer (1939c).

 

84a. Pyrrhomyias is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is cinnamomeus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

85. The southern and eastern bellicosa group was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Hirundinea ferruginea,, but they were considered conspecific by <Zimmer> Meyer de Schauensee (1966). Sibley and Monroe (1990) followed Cory & Hellmayr (1927) in treating them as separate species.

 

86. Species in the genus Lathrotriccus were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1939b, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Haverschmidt & Mees 1994) included in Empidonax, but see Zink & Johnson (1984), Lanyon & Lanyon (1986) and Cicero & Johnson (2002). <check latter to see if griseipectus sampled -- if not cite R&T 94, Parker et al. 95 for inclusion in L. rather than E.>

 

86a. The lawrencei subspecies group (with johnstoni) was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) considered as a separate species from Lathrotriccus euleri; Zimmer (1939b) provided rationale for treating them as conspecific.

 

87. Genetic data indicate that Aphanotriccus and Lathrotriccus are sister genera and that Cnemotriccus is the sister to Aphanotriccus + Lathrotriccus (Lanyon & Lanyon 1986, Cicero & Johnson 2002); this relationship is consistent with the morphological and ecological data of Lanyon (1986).

 

87a. Aphanotriccus audax was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed in the genus Praedo, but most subsequent classifications have followed Griscom (1935) and Traylor (1979) in merging this into Aphanotriccus; Wetmore (1972) maintained recognition of Praedo because of differences in extent of rictal bristles.

 

87b. Pronounced differences in vocalizations, habitat, and nest construction indicate that widespread C. f. bimaculatus should be treated as a separate species from nominate Cnemotriccus f. fuscatus (Belton 1984). Hilty (2003) also suggested that C. f. duidae should be treated as a separate species based on voice.  SACC proposal needed.

 

88. Genetic data indicate that Empidonax and Contopus are sister genera and that Mitrephanes is the sister to Empidonax + Contopus (Lanyon & Lanyon 1986, Cicero & Johnson 2002).

 

89. Empidonax traillii and E. alnorum were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific ("Traill's Flycatcher"), but Stein (1958, 1963) showed that they were vocally distinguishable, reproductively isolated species.

 

90. Contopus cooperi was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in a monotypic genus Nuttallornis, but its merger into Contopus by Traylor (1977, 1979b) has been followed by all subsequent authors. <check recent genetic data for support, Zink-Johnson-Cicero papers>.

 

91. The correct species epithet was shown to be cooperi, not borealis as in most recent literature (or mesoleucus, as in Cory & Hellmayr 1927), by Banks and Browning (1995).

 

91a. Called "Boreal Pewee" in Sibley & Monroe (1990).

 

92. Contopus fumigatus formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1939b, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1979b) included the Middle American taxa now generally considered separate species (C. pertinax and C. lugubris; e.g., AOU 1983, 1998, Ridgely & Tudor 1994); they were previously also treated as separate species by Ridgway (1907), Cory & Hellmayr (1927), and Wetmore (1972); they constitute a superspecies (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990). No formal analysis has been published.  Meyer de Schauensee (1970) used "Greater Pewee" for the composite species.

 

92a. The name formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927) used for the Contopus known from South America except C. cooperi was Myiochanes, but see <REF>.

 

93. Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) considered Contopus sordidulus to be conspecific with Contopus virens, with the composite name "Wood Pewee", but this treatment has seldom been followed, before (e.g., AOU 1957) or after (e.g., Traylor 1977<?>, 1979b); see, for example, Rising & Schueler (1980).

 

93x. Contopus sordidulus was called C. richardsonii in much early literature (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a), but see Phillips and Parkes (1955) for why the latter applies to Sayornis phoebe.

 

93a. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Contopus cinereus to form a superspecies with C. sordidulus and C. virens.

 

93b. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies punensis of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru to represent a separate species from Contopus cinereus based on vocal differences.

 

93bb.  The species name formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for Contopus cinereus was brachytarsus.

 

93c. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) considered Contopus nigrescens to be a subspecies of C. cinereus.

 

94. Mitrephanes olivaceus is often (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1938, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, AOU 1983, 1998) considered conspecific with M. phaeocercus, but see Webster (1968).  They constitute a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

94a. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) called these two species "Northern Tufted-Flycatcher" and "Olive Tufted-Flycatcher."  Dickinson & Christidis call the latter “Olive-tufted Flycatcher.”

 

94b. The South American latirostris subspecies group was considered a separate species from northern Sayornis nigricans by (REFS <check Ridgway>).

 

94c. The Galapagos subspecies nanus and dubius were each treated as a separate species from Pyrocephalus rubinus by Ridgway (1907). The obscurus subspecies group of coastal Peru was also treated/proposed as a separate species by Ridgway (1907), but see Zimmer (1941c).

 

95. Lessonia oreas was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific with L. rufa (with composite species known as "Rufous-backed Negrito"). Traylor (1977) apparently recognized the two as separate species, as suggested (without explicit rationale) by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990). Evidence for treatment as separate species was presumably based only on plumage differences, but see Areta & Miller (2014) for additional support based on feather structure and potential display differences.

 

96. Knipolegus striaticeps was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Entotriccus, but recent classifications have followed Traylor (1977<?>, 1979b) in merging this into Knipolegus.

 

97. Knipolegus hudsoni and K. poecilocercus were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Phaeotriccus, but recent classifications have followed Traylor (1979) in merging this into Knipolegus.  Hosner & Moyle (2012) found that both species are embedded within Knipolegus, and that they are not sister species.  SACC proposal passed to modify linear sequence of species.  SACC proposal on English names in Knipolegus did not pass.

 

98. The history of Knipolegus signatus and K. cabanisi is complex and confusing. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) treated them as separate species in separate genera: signatus in Ochthodiaeta (now Myiotheretes) and cabanisi in Knipolegus.  Meyer de Schauensee (1970) also treated them as separate species in separate genera, with signatus in Myiotheretes ("Jelski's Bush-Tyrant") and cabanisi in Knipolegus ("Plumbeous Tyrant").  Traylor (1979, 1982) identified signatus and cabanisi as sister taxa, transferred signatus to Knipolegus, and considered them conspecific, but noted that they might also be considered separate species, as also noted by Ridgely & Tudor (1994). Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered them conspecific and coined the name "Andean Tyrant" for the composite species, and this was followed by Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Fitzpatrick (2004); Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) also considered them conspecific but used "Plumbeous Tyrant," but see Ridgely & Tudor (1994) for reasons not to use that English name.  Hosner & Moyle (2012) presented evidence that cabanisi merits treatment as a separate species. SACC proposal passed to treat cabanisi as a species. 98a. "Knipolegus subflammulatus," formerly treated as a valid species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1966), is now known to be the immature male plumage of K. signatus cabanisi (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Mayr 1971, Traylor 1982). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

98c. Knipolegus poecilurus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) placed in Cnemotriccus. Brodkorb (1937) described a monotypic genus for it, Eumyiobius, and this was followed by Pinto (1944).  Zimmer (1937c) provided rationale for its placement in Knipolegus, and all subsequent authors have followed this.  Hosner & Moyle (2012) found that poecilurus was the sister species to K. poecilocercus.

 

98d. Fitzpatrick (2004) noted that differences in degree of sexual dimorphism suggest that Amazonian subspecies could be considered separate species from nominate Knipolegus orenocensis.

 

99. Silva & Oren (1992) considered the subspecies franciscanus to be a separate species from aterrimus; see also Ridgely & Tudor (1994). Hosner & Moyle (2012) found that franciscanus is actually more closely related to K. lophotes + K. nigerrimus.  SACC proposal passed to treat franciscanus as a species.  SACC proposal passed to modify linear sequence of species.  Hosner & Moyle (2012) recommended use of the English name Caatinga Black-Tyrant because it was already the most frequently used name for the taxon when treated as a species.

 

100. The name formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) used for the genus Hymenops was Lichenops, but Hymenops has priority (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

100a. Hymenops is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is perspicillatus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

101. Ochthornis was merged into Ochthoeca by Traylor (1977<?>, 1979b), but Lanyon (1988b) provided morphological evidence for continued recognition of Ochthornis as a genus separate from Ochthoeca, as in Meyer de Schauensee (1970) etc.

 

101a. Genetic data (Chesser 2000) strongly support the monophyly of a core group of Muscisaxicola species, but support for inclusion of the two small species (M. maculirostris and M. fluviatilis) is weak; see also Muscigralla (Note 121c). Within the core group, Chesser (2000) found support for two monophyletic groups: (1) M. griseus, M. juninensis, M. cinereus, M. albifrons, M. flavinucha, and M. rufivertex , and (2) M. maclovianus, M. albilora, M. alpinus, M. capistratus, and M. frontalis; this finding is consistent with traditional linear sequences.

 

101b. "Muscisaxicola titicacae," described from Lake Titicaca, Peru, is now considered a synonym of Muscisaxicola fluviatilis (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

102. Muscisaxicola griseus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979b, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1994) treated as a subspecies of M. alpinus, but see Chesser (2000).

 

102a. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) called M. griseus "Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant" (the name used by Meyer de Schauensee 1966 and all subsequent references for broadly defined M. alpinus) and coined "Paramo Ground-Tyrant" for M. alpinus after the split with M. griseus. "Taczanowski's Ground-Tyrant" was coined for M. griseus by Dickinson (2003), leaving "Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant" for M. alpinus; this was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004). SACC proposal passed to change English names.

 

103. Muscisaxicola is masculine, so the correct spellings of the species names are griseus, cinereus, maclovianus, alpinus, and capistratus; flavinucha and albilora, however, are invariable (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

103a. Cory & Hellmayr (1927) considered Muscisaxicola juninensis to be closely related to, and perhaps a subspecies of, M. albilora, but see REF.

 

103aa. "Muscisaxicola tenuirostris," described from Junín, Peru, is now considered a synonym of Muscisaxicola juninensis (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

103b. Muscisaxicola cinereus was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) treated as a subspecies of M. alpinus, but recent treatments have followed Traylor (1977REF?, 1979b) in treating it as a separate species, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990). Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) suggested that the subspecies M. c. argentina actually belongs in M. alpinus.

 

103c. The northern subspecies occipitalis may be a separate species from Muscisaxicola rufivertex (REF?, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

103d. Genetic data (Chesser 2000) indicate that Muscisaxicola capistratus and M. frontalis are sister species, consistent with their placement in traditional linear sequences.

 

104. Agriornis is masculine, so the correct spellings of the species names are montanus, lividus, micropterus, and murinus (David & Gosselin 2002b); andicola, however, is invariable.

 

105. Formerly known as Agriornis andicola, but that name is considered preoccupied (Meyer de Schauensee 1966; see Zimmer 1937b, Traylor 1979b and Sibley & Monroe 1990); see Dickinson (2003) for a return to use of A. albicauda. SACC proposal passed to change to albicauda.

 

106. Agriornis murinus was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Xolmis (and known as "Mouse-brown Monjita"), but following Smith & Vuilleumier (1971), subsequent authors (e.g., Traylor 1979b) have treated this species in Agriornis. See Ridgely & Tudor (1994), however, for some doubts as to this classification.

 

107. Xolmis pyrope was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Pyrope, but see Smith & Vuilleumier (1977) and Traylor (1977) for a return to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

108. Xolmis is masculine, so the correct spellings of the species names are cinereus, coronatus, velatus, and dominicanus; rubetra, however, is invariable (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

108a. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Xolmis cinereus and X. coronatus to form a superspecies,

 

109. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): by Nores & Yzurieta (1979), as a subspecies of Xolmis (Neoxolmis) rubetra, but generally treated as a species by subsequent authors (e.g., Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Fitzpatrick 2004), but not by Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) or Dickinson (2003). SACC proposal to treat salinarum as a subspecies of X. rubetra did not pass.

 

110. Neoxolmis rubetra was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Xolmis, but was moved to Neoxolmis by Traylor (salinarum not yet described); Lanyon (1986) and Vuilleumier (1994) provided additional morphological evidence in support of recognizing Neoxolmis as a separate genus. Sibley & Monroe (1990) retained the two species in Xolmis, based on a personal communication from R. Ridgely, and treated them as forming a superspecies. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) retained it in Xolmis but noted that it was a "rather aberrant Xolmis"; nonetheless. they also stated "we question whether it is very close to Neoxolmis" but instead suggested that it might be closer to Agriornis. Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001) followed the placement of rubetra with salinarum in Neoxolmis. Fitzpatrick (2004) retained rubetra in Xolmis. SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

111. Xolmis dominicanus was placed in the monotypic genus Heteroxolmis by Lanyon (1986), based on morphological data, and this was followed by Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Dickinson (2003).

 

112. <Myiotheretes pernix and M. fumigatus form a superspecies.>

 

112a. Sibley & Monroe 1990) considered Myiotheretes fumigatus and M. fuscorufus to form a superspecies, but see Parker & O'Neill (1980).

 

112b. Myiotheretes pernix, M. fumigatus, and M. fuscorufus were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) placed in a separate genus, Ochthodiaeta.

 

113. Cnemarchus erythropygius was formerly (e.g., Traylor 1979b, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in Myiotheretes, but Lanyon (1988b) provided morphological evidence for recognition of Cnemarchus as a genus separate from Myiotheretes, thus returning to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

114. Polioxolmis rufipennis was formerly placed in Cnemarchus (Cory & Hellmayr 1927), or Xolmis (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1979b), but Lanyon (1988b) provided morphological evidence for recognition of Polioxolmis as a genus separate from Xolmis.

 

115. Fluvicola albiventer is often considered a subspecies of F. pica (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1937b, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1977<?>, 1979b, AOU 1998, Dickinson 2003); Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered them as separate species and as forming a superspecies; Ridgely & Tudor (1994) provided rationale for treatment as separate species.

 

115a. Fluvicola nengeta was formerly (e.g., <check Cory & Hellmayr 1927> Pinto 1944) known as Fluvicola climazura, but see Schneider (1938).

 

115b. The subspecies atripennis from w. Ecuador and nw. Peru might be a species distinct from Fluvicola nengeta (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

116. Arundinicola was merged into Fluvicola by <?> Traylor (1979b); <> provided morphological evidence for continued recognition of Arundinicola as a genus separate from Fluvicola.

 

117. Alectrurus risora was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Yetapa, but see <REFS> and Fitzpatrick (2004).

 

118. Lanyon (1986) merged Tumbezia into Ochthoeca based on morphological data, followed by Sibley & Monroe (1990), but genetic data do not indicate that it is definitely embedded within Ochthoeca (García-Moreno et al. 1998).

 

119. Lanyon (1986) separated Ochthoeca frontalis, O. jelskii, O. diadema, and O. pulchella into the genus Silvicultrix, but genetic data (García-Moreno et al. 1998) indicated that this would make Ochthoeca paraphyletic.

 

119a. Ochthoeca jelskii was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of O. pulchella or of O. frontalis (e.g., Zimmer 1937b), but Traylor (1985) provided rationale for treatment as a separate species, more closely related to O. frontalis, which has been followed by most subsequent authors. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered them to form a superspecies; Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990), however, treated jelskii as a subspecies of O. frontalis. SACC proposal needed.

 

119b. Ochthoeca pulchella was at one time (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a subspecies of O. frontalis until they were shown to be sympatric (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

119c. Ochthoeca frontalis was formerly (e.g. Zimmer 1937b) known as Ochthoeca albidiadema, but frontalis has priority <REF>.

 

120. García-Moreno et al. (1998) suggested that the plumage and genetic differences between the frontalis and spodionota subspecies groups warranted species-level recognition for each.

 

120a. Ochthoeca diadema and O. pulchella form a superspecies (<>Traylor 1985, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

120b. Ochthoeca piurae and O. leucophrys form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), but most authors have followed Koepcke (1961b) in considering them as separate species. Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) recommended a return to their treatment as conspecific.

 

121. García-Moreno et al. (1998) suggested that the plumage and genetic differences between subspecies groups north and south of the Marañon should be recognized at the species level, with Ochthoeca thoracica the name for the southern species. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) reported that there are also vocal differences that would support this split. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) further recognized Venezuelan nigrita as a separate species from O. cinnamomeiventris, as done by Cory & Hellmayr (1927); see Zimmer (1937b) for the rationale for treating them all as conspecific based on plumage pattern, the treatment followed by Fitzpatrick (2004). SACC proposal needed.

 

121a. Hilty (2003) suggested that Ochthoeca fumicolor consists more than one species; Cory & Hellmayr (1927) considered the subspecies superciliosa of Venezuela to be a separate species.

 

121b. Colorhamphus parvirostris was formerly considered related to Mecocerculus or Elaenia (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970), but <Traylor 1979b etc.>. Lanyon (1986) presented morphological data that confirmed its close relationship to Ochthoeca but considered it best treated in its former monotypic genus.

 

121c. Muscigralla is sometimes (Vuilleumier 1971) merged into Muscisaxicola. Morphological data (Lanyon 1986) suggest that the two genera may not be closely related, but genetic data (Chesser 2000) support a close relationship.

 

122. Machetornis is feminine, so the correct spelling of the species name is rixosa (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

122a. The Middle American subspecies, texensis, was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Myiozetetes similis, but was considered conspecific with M. similis by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and most subsequent authors; under the former treatment, the English name "Vermilion-crowned Flycatcher" was applied to the similis group, but it is sometimes applied to the species as a whole (e.g., Wetmore 1972).

 

122b.  Legatus leucophaius was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) known as L. albicollis.

 

123. Myiozetetes luteiventris was formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in Tyrannopsis, but recent classifications have followed Traylor (1979) in transferring it from Tyrannopsis to Myiozetetes, a return to the classification of Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Phelps & Phelps (1950a); morphological data (Lanyon 1984) support this transfer.

 

124. Phelpsia inornatus was formerly placed in Myiozetetes (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) or Conopias (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a); Lanyon (1986) provided morphological data for recognition of Phelpsia as a genus separate from Myiozetetes or Conopias.

 

125. Lanyon (1986) provided morphological evidence for placement of Pitangus lictor in a monotypic genus, Philohydor, as suggested by Haverschmidt (1957) and Wetmore (1972); this has been followed by some authors (e.g., Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003, Fitzpatrick 2004) but not others (e.g., AOU 1998).

 

126. South American parvus is usually (e.g., Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003, Fitzpatrick 2004) considered a separate species from Conopias albovittatus of Central America and northwestern South America; Ridgely & Tudor (1994) provided rationale for treating parvus as a separate species. SACC proposal passed to split parvus from albovittatus.

 

126a. Conopias albovittatus and C. parvus) were formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Wetmore 1972, AOU 1983) treated in a separate genus, Coryphotriccus, from Conopias, based mainly on bill shape differences, but most recent classifications have followed Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and Traylor (1977, 1979) in merging Coryphotriccus into Conopias; see Lanyon (1984) for morphological support for this merger.

 

127. Conopias is masculine, so the correct spellings of the species names are albovittatus, parvus, and trivirgatus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

127a. Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that the Amazonian subspecies berlepschi might be a separate species from Conopias trivirgatus.

 

127b. Myiodynastes chrysocephalus forms a superspecies with Middle American M. hemichrysus (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were considered conspecific by Cory & Hellmayr (1927).

 

128. The southern, migratory subspecies solitarius was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) considered to be a separate species from Myiodynastes maculatus, but at that time, it was not realized that solitarius was an austral migrant that invaded the range of M. maculatus outside of the breeding season; see Zimmer (1937b) for rationale for treatment of this distinctive taxon as a subspecies of M. maculatus.

 

128a. Myiodynastes luteiventris and M. maculatus are sister species (Zimmer 1937d).

 

129. Frequently (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) misspelled as "Megarhynchus."

 

129a. Hilty (2003) that Empidonomus varius might consist of more than one species.

 

130. Lanyon (1986) provided morphological data for placing aurantioatrocristatus in a monotypic genus, Griseotyrannus, and this treatment was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004); this was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  Tello et al. (2009) used Griseotyrannus but their data showed that the two species are closer in genetic distance than many congeners in the same analysis.

 

130b. "Tyrannus apolites," known only from the type specimen from "Rio de Janeiro" and treated as a valid species by Ridgway (1907), Cory & Hellmayr (1927), and Pinto (1944), is presumed to be a hybrid (T. melancholicus X Empidonomus varius) (Meise 1949, Meyer de Schauensee 1970).

 

131. Tyrannus savana was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1937c, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the genus Muscivora, but recent classifications have followed Smith (1966) and Traylor (1977<?>, 1979c) in merging Muscivora into Tyrannus, which then also forced the renaming of this species from Muscivora tyrannus to Tyrannus savana because the species name tyrannus was preoccupied in Tyrannus.

 

131a. Rhytipterna holerythra and R. simplex evidently form a superspecies (AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

131b. The genus Rhytipterna was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1966) placed in the Cotingidae, but subsequent to the anatomical analyses of Warter (1965) and Ames (1971), it was placed in the Tyrannidae, near Myiarchus. See also Snow (1973) for rationale for removal from Cotingidae. (REFS).

 

132. See W. E. Lanyon (1985) for evidence for the close relationship of the genera Rhytipterna through Ramphotrigon.

 

132a. Sirystes was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) thought to be a cotinga, but Cory & Hellmayr (1927) placed it in the Tyrannidae, near Tyrannus; Warter's (1965) analysis of skull morphology indicated that it was close to Myiarchus, and this was further strengthened by analyses of syringeal morphology and behavior (Lanyon & Fitzpatrick 1983).

 

132b. The trans-Andean subspecies albogriseus and the Amazonian subspecies albocinereus were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as separate species; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific with S. sibilator, and subsequent authors have followed that treatment.  Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), followed by Hilty (2003), treated albogriseus as a separate species from Sirystes sibilator, based mainly on differences in vocalizations. <earlier treatments as 2 species?>.  Donegan (2013) interpreted vocal and plumage variation to indicate that four species should be recognized: in addition to trans-Andean albogriseus, also albocinereus of western Amazonia and subcanescens of the Guianan Shield.  This was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  SACC proposal passed to recognize four species in Sirystes.  SACC proposal did not pass to change English name of Choco Sirystes.

 

133. Casiornis rufus and C. fuscus form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990); reasons for treating them as separate species are weak (Traylor 1979b, Ridgely & Tudor 1994).

 

133a. Casiornis is masculine, so the correct spellings of the species names are rufus and fuscus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

133b. The genus Casiornis was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1966) placed in the Cotingidae, but subsequent to the anatomical analyses of Ames (1971), it was placed in the Tyrannidae, near Myiarchus. See also Snow (1973) for rationale for removal from Cotingidae. (REFS).

 

133c. Joseph et al. (2004) found that Myiarchus semirufus was basal to all other Myiarchus, that its level of sequence divergence from other Myiarchus was exceptional, and that in some analyses it grouped more closely with Rhytipterna immunda than with other Myiarchus; resurrection of the monotypic genus Muscifur may be necessary pending additional taxon sampling.

 

134. The classification of Myiarchus followed here follows Lanyon (1967, 1978). Genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) indicate that the genus is monophyletic, with the possible exception of M. rufus (see Note 133c) and M. magnirostris (not sampled; see Note 140b); within the genus, two major divisions are evident: (1) a primarily South American group that consists of all the resident species in this classification except M. tyrannulus but including Jamaican M. barbirostris, and (2) a Middle American-North American-Caribbean group that consists of all the extralimital taxa, M. tyrannulus, and M. crinitus.

 

134a. Myiarchus tuberculifer forms a superspecies with Jamaican M. barbirostris (AOU 1998); they were formerly considered conspecific (REF), but see Lanyon (1978) for a return to the classification of Ridgway (1907) and Cory & Hellmayr (1927). Lanyon (1978) also showed that lowland tuberculifer group intergrades with montane atriceps group in the southern Andes; they had been considered separate species by (REF). Genetic data (Joseph & Wilke 2004, Joseph et al. 2004) indicate that M. tuberculifer is a paraphyletic taxon (with respect to M. barbirostris and M. swainsoni), and also that Andean M. t. atriceps is not a monophyletic taxon, with a northern population more closely related to a Central American group of populations (of the taxa sampled, nigricapillus is the oldest name) than to southern M. t. atriceps and M. t. tuberculifer.  The species name lawrenceii was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for M. tuberculifer.

 

135. Formerly (e.g., AOU 1957, REFS) known as "Olivaceous Flycatcher."

 

136. The pelzelni and phaeonotus subspecies groups were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927) each treated as separate species from Myiarchus swainsoni (and also by Haverschmidt & Mees 1994); Zimmer (1938) provided rationale for treating them all as conspecific. [species limits problems - L. Joseph et al. 2003 paper] Genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) indicate that M. swainsoni is paraphyletic with respect to M. tuberculifer, with all the subspecies except nominate swainsoni more closely related to M. tuberculifer than to M. s. swainsoni, the M. ferox group (see Note ___), or M. cephalotes. SACC proposal needed.

 

137. Genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) provide strong support for considering M. ferox, M. phaeocephalus, M. panamensis, and M. venezuelensis to form a monophyletic group (M. apicalis not sampled). Myiarchus venezuelensis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1938, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of M. ferox, but Lanyon (REF) treated it as a separate species based on sympatry and vocal differences; genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) suggest that venezuelensis may be nested with M. ferox, but the identification of the venezuelensis blood sample cannot be confirmed.

 

138.  Myiarchus panamensis was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Zimmer 1938, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of M. ferox, but Lanyon (1978) treated it as a separate species based on vocal differences; they have been considered to form a superspecies (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990), but genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) cannot yet confirm a sister relationship.

 

138a. Myiarchus phaeocephalus and M. cephalotes were treated as forming a superspecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990), but genetic data cannot confirm a sister relationship between the two; additionally, M. phaeocephalus itself may be paraphyletic (Joseph et al. 2004).

 

138b. "Myiarchus toddi," known only from the type specimen from northern Peru and treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927), is now considered an aberrant M. phaeocephalus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979c, Sibley & Monroe 1990). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

139. Occasionally (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) called "Great-crested Flycatcher," but the correct orthography is "Great Crested Flycatcher."

 

140. Myiarchus tyrannulus is considered to form a superspecies with M. nugator of the Lesser Antilles (AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990). Genetic data (Joseph et al. 2004) indicate that nugator is nested within M. tyrannulus, and that nugator might be more closely related to M. tyrannulus of nearby Venezuela and Trinidad than either is to other M. tyrannulus.

 

140a. The subspecies brevipennis of the Netherlands Antilles and Los Roques archipelago (Venezuela) was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from M. tyrannulus; it was treated as conspecific with M. tyrannulus and all subsequent authors.

 

140aa. Formerly (e.g., AOU 1957, REFS) known as "Wied's Crested Flycatcher."

 

140b. Myiarchus magnirostris was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Cory & Hellmayr 1927) treated in a separate monotypic genus, Eribates, but Traylor (1977) merged this into Myiarchus.

 

141. See Lanyon (1985) for proposed close relationship of Ramphotrigon to Myiarchus. Ramphotrigon was included in the Cotingidae by Ridgway (1907).

 

142. Ramphotrigon is neuter, so the correct spelling of the species name is megacephalum; fuscicauda and ruficauda, however, are invariable (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

142a. Called "Bamboo Flatbill" in Hilty (2003).

 

142b. Ramphotrigon megacephalum was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944) placed in Tolmomyias, but Zimmer (1939a) transferred it to Ramphotrigon, where placed by all subsequent authors.

 

143. Attila phoenicurus was formerly (e.g., Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) treated in the monotypic genus Pseudattila, but Traylor (1977, 1979c) merged it into Attila, and this treatment has been followed in most subsequent classifications, returning to the earlier treatment by Hellmayr (1929); Zimmer (1936e) described monotypic Pseudattila to highlight its differences from other Attila in form of the tarsus, wing formula, bill size, and tarsus length.

 

143a. The genus Attila was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1966) placed in the Cotingidae, but subsequent to the anatomical analyses of Warter (1965) and Ames (1971), it was placed in the Tyrannidae, near Myiarchus. See also Snow (1973) for reasons for removal from the Cotingidae. (REFS).

 

143b. Attila torridus was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929) considered conspecific with A. cinnamomeus, but see Zimmer (1936e) for rationale for treatment as a separate species.

 

144. Called "White-eyed Attila" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Ridgely & Greenfield (1994).

 

145.  Some of the color morphs of Attila spadiceus were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) considered as separate species, e.g. “A. viridescens” and “A. wightii.”  The Middle American flammulatus subspecies group was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from A. spadiceus; Ridgway (1907) also treated the subspecies parvirostris of northeastern Colombia, as well as its rufous phase “A. rufipectus,” as separate species.  Hellmayr (1929) considered all of these conspecific with A. spadiceus, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.  Leger and Mountjoy (2003) found major vocal differences between South American and Middle American populations of Attila spadiceus, strongly suggesting that at least two species are involved, but did not adequately sample populations from west of Andes in South America; these are vocally similar to the Middle American flammulatus group (P. Coopmans, pers. comm.).

 

146.  Recent genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2012) indicate that Calyptura is a tyrant-flycatcher, most closely related to Platyrinchus and Neopipo, and this was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  SACC proposal pending to transfer (from Incertae Sedis) to Tyrannidae.

 


 

OXYRUNCIDAE (SHARPBILL) 1

Oxyruncus cristatus Sharpbill

 


 

1. The relationships of Oxyruncus have been controversial unresolved. It was previously included in the Cotingidae in this classification, as in Snow (2004a), based on Sibley et al. (1984), Sibley & Ahlquist (1985, 1990), and Prum et al. (2000). Oxyruncus had been formerly placed in a monotypic family Oxyruncidae (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Wetmore 1960, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Ames 1971, AOU 1983, 1998) or in the Tyrannidae (Mayr & Amadon 1951). Lanyon (1985) found no relationship between Oxyruncus and traditional members of the Cotingidae, but rather a relationship between Oxyruncus and the Tyrannidae or Tityridae. Prum (1990a) found some morphological evidence for a relationship to Pachyramphus but concluded that Oxyruncus was not a member of the "Schiffornis group" that includes Pachyramphus (Prum & Lanyon 1989). Recent genetic data (Johansson et al. 2002, Chesser 2004) found no strong support for any of these relationships, and Ohlson et al. (2007) found strong evidence against inclusion of Oxyruncus in the Cotingidae. Thus the traditional ranking of Oxyruncus as a monotypic family was the best portrayal of our understanding of its relationships at that time. SACC proposal passed to resurrect Oxyruncidae.  Tello et al. (2009) have confirmed the distinctiveness of Oxyruncus relative to the traditional family groupings but found that the tyrannid genera Onychorhynchus, Myiobius, and Terenotriccus grouped with Oxyruncus, and proposed that these genera be moved to Oxyruncidae.  SACC proposal needed.  <<wait ongoing project>>

 


 

COTINGIDAE (COTINGAS) 1

Carpornis cucullata Hooded Berryeater 19, 19a

Carpornis melanocephala Black-headed Berryeater 19, 19a

Pipreola riefferii Green-and-black Fruiteater 19b, 19c, 19d

Pipreola intermedia Band-tailed Fruiteater 19c

Pipreola arcuata Barred Fruiteater

Pipreola aureopectus Golden-breasted Fruiteater 20

Pipreola jucunda Orange-breasted Fruiteater 20

Pipreola lubomirskii Black-chested Fruiteater 20

Pipreola pulchra Masked Fruiteater 20

Pipreola frontalis Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater 20b, 20c

Pipreola chlorolepidota Fiery-throated Fruiteater 20c, 20d

Pipreola formosa Handsome Fruiteater

Pipreola whitelyi Red-banded Fruiteater

Ampelioides tschudii Scaled Fruiteater 21

Zaratornis stresemanni White-cheeked Cotinga 13, 17

Phytotoma raimondii Peruvian Plantcutter 17, 18

Phytotoma rutila White-tipped Plantcutter 18

Phytotoma rara Rufous-tailed Plantcutter 18

Phibalura flavirostris Swallow-tailed Cotinga 11b, 11c

Doliornis remseni Chestnut-bellied Cotinga 14, 15, 16, 17

Doliornis sclateri Bay-vented Cotinga 16

Ampelion rubrocristatus Red-crested Cotinga 12, 12a, 17

Ampelion rufaxilla Chestnut-crested Cotinga 12

Phoenicircus carnifex Guianan Red-Cotinga 24

Phoenicircus nigricollis Black-necked Red-Cotinga 24

Rupicola rupicola Guianan Cock-of-the-rock 22, 22a, 23

Rupicola peruvianus Andean Cock-of-the-rock 22, 22a, 23

Snowornis subalaris Gray-tailed Piha 32

Snowornis cryptolophus Olivaceous Piha 32

Haematoderus militaris Crimson Fruitcrow 35

Querula purpurata Purple-throated Fruitcrow

Pyroderus scutatus Red-ruffed Fruitcrow 35

Cephalopterus ornatus Amazonian Umbrellabird 34, 35

Cephalopterus penduliger Long-wattled Umbrellabird 34

Perissocephalus tricolor Capuchinbird 35

Cotinga nattererii Blue Cotinga 25, 25a

Cotinga maynana Plum-throated Cotinga 25

Cotinga cotinga Purple-breasted Cotinga 25

Cotinga maculata Banded Cotinga 25, 25b

Cotinga cayana Spangled Cotinga

Lipaugus weberi Chestnut-capped Piha 28, 29, 29a

Lipaugus fuscocinereus Dusky Piha 30

Lipaugus uropygialis Scimitar-winged Piha 30, 31

Lipaugus unirufus Rufous Piha 31a

Lipaugus vociferans Screaming Piha 31a, 31b

Lipaugus lanioides Cinnamon-vented Piha

Lipaugus streptophorus Rose-collared Piha

Tijuca atra Black-and-gold Cotinga 28

Tijuca condita Gray-winged Cotinga 28a

Procnias albus White Bellbird 26, 27, 27a

Procnias averano Bearded Bellbird 26

Procnias nudicollis Bare-throated Bellbird 26

Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema Purple-throated Cotinga 27a

Carpodectes hopkei Black-tipped Cotinga 32a, 33a, 33b

Xipholena punicea Pompadour Cotinga 33

Xipholena lamellipennis White-tailed Cotinga 33

Xipholena atropurpurea White-winged Cotinga 33

Gymnoderus foetidus Bare-necked Fruitcrow 32a

Conioptilon mcilhennyi Black-faced Cotinga 32a

 

 


 

1. For sequence of genera in this family and their sequence, see Prum & Lanyon (1989), Prum (1990a, 2001), and Prum et al. (2000). Recent genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007) suggest that this linear sequence does not correctly reflect phylogeny; see details in Notes below. These new data indicate that the Cotingidae consists of four major groups, the relations among which are unresolved: (1) Pipreola + Ampelioides; (2) Zaratornis, Phytotoma, Ampelion, and Doliornis; (3) Rupicola + Phoenicircus; and (4) the rest of the genera. SACC proposal passed to change linear sequence.  Tello et al. (2009) confirmed that these genera formed a monophyletic group and the monophyly of the four groups above except that Snowornis clustered with group 3.  Ohlson et al. (2013) proposed recognizing three subfamilies, Pipreolinae for lineage 1, Phytotominae for lineage 2, and Cotinginae for lineages 3 and 4.  Berv & Prum (2014) produced a comprehensive phylogeny for the family reflecting many of these divisions and additional new relationships among taxa; they proposed recognition of 5 subfamilies: (1) Pipreolinae for Ampelioides and Pipreola; (2) Rupicolinae for Snowornis, Carpornis, Rupicola, and Phoenicircus; (3) Phytotominae for Zaratornis, Phytotoma, Phibalura, Doliornis, and Ampelion; (4) Cephalopterinae for Haematoderus, Querula, Pyroderus, Cephalopterus, and Perissocephalus; and Cotinginae for the rest of the genera.  SACC proposals needed for linear sequence of genera and recognition of subfamilies. <<wait for results from ongoing genomic project on suboscines>>

 

11b. Phibalura has been traditionally placed in the family Cotingidae (e.g. Meyer de Schauensee 1970) but with no obvious close relatives. Snow (1982) suggested that it might be related to Laniisoma, based mainly on plumage similarities, which is now placed in the Tityridae. Berv & Prum (2014) found that Phibalura belongs in the Cotingidae.  SACC proposal passed to transfer (from Incertae Sedis) to Cotingidae.

 

11c.  Hennessey (2011) summarized plumage, vocal, and other evidence in support of treatment of the isolated subspecies boliviana as a separate species.  SACC proposal to treat boliviana as separate species did not pass.

 

12. Ampelion rubrocristatus and A. rufaxilla were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) treated in the genus Heliochera, but see <REF>.

 

12a. Ampelion is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is rubrocristatus; rufaxilla, however, is invariable (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

13. Some authors (e.g., Snow 1973, 1979b, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990) have merged Zaratornis into Ampelion; for continued separation of Zaratornis from Ampelion, see Lanyon & Lanyon (1989), Robbins et al. (1994), Snow (2004a), Ohlson et al. (2007), and Berv & Prum (2014).

 

14. Some authors (e.g., Snow 1973, 1979b, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990) have merged Doliornis into Ampelion; for continued separation of Doliornis from Ampelion, see Lanyon & Lanyon (1989), Robbins et al. (1994) and Berv & Prum (2014).

 

15. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Robbins et al. (1994).

 

16. Doliornis remseni and D. sclateri form a superspecies (Robbins et al. 1994).  Genetic data are consistent with their treatment as separate species (Berv & Prum 2014).

 

17. The genus Phytotoma was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in its own family, Phytotomidae, but it is more closely related to Ampelion than the latter is to most other cotingas (Lanyon & Lanyon 1989, Prum REF). Genetic data strongly support its inclusion within the traditional Cotingidae (Lanyon 1985, Sibley & Ahlquist 1990, Prum et al. 2000, Johansson et al. 2002, Chesser 2004, Ohlson et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009). Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, Berv & Prum 2014) strongly support a monophyletic group that consists of Zaratornis, Phytotoma, Ampelion, and Doliornis. <Parker ref>

 

18. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Phytotoma raimondii and P. rutila to form a superspecies, but did not include P. rara.

 

19. Carpornis was included in Ampelion by Hellmayr (1929) and Pinto (1944); Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970)<earlier REF?> placed these two species in Carpornis, and this has been followed in all subsequent treatments.  Tello et al. (2009) found that Carpornis represented a very distinct lineage, and proposed that it was likely the sister to the common ancestor of their groups 2 and 3 (see Note 1).  Berv & Prum (2014) found that it was the sister to Snowornis.

 

19a. Carpornis is feminine, so the correct spellings of the species names are cucullata and melanocephala (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

19b. The isolated subspecies tallmanorum may deserve recognition as a separate species from Pipreola riefferii (O'Neill & Parker 1981, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Snow 2004a, Berv & Prum 2014).  Berv & Prum (2014) treated the subspecies melanolaema of the Coastal Range of Venezuela as a separate species based on genetic distance and plumage differences

 

19c. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered Pipreola riefferii and P. intermedia to form a superspecies despite some geographic overlap in Peru; they are sister taxa (Snow 2004a, Berv & Prum 2014).  Pipreola intermedia was originally described as a subspecies of Pipreola riefferii, but Hellmayr (1929) provided rationale for their treatment as separate species.

 

19d. See Zimmer (1930) for the use of Pipreola rather than Euchlornis, as in Ridgway (1907) and Hellmayr (1929).

 

20. Pipreola aureopectus, P. jucunda, P. lubomirskii, and P. pulchra were considered conspecific by Snow (1973, 1979b), but most authors, including Snow (1982<check>, 2004a) and Berv & Prum (2014), have treated them as separate species based on parapatry or apparent sympatry without signs of intergradation; they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

20b. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested that the subspecies squamipectus of Ecuador might deserve recognition as a separate species from P. frontalis.

 

20c. Snow (1982, 2004a) considered P. frontalis and P. chlorolepidota to be sister species, as corroborated by Berv & Prum (2014).

 

20d. Pipreola chlorolepidota was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929) known as Euchlornis sclateri, but see Zimmer (1930).

 

21. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007, Berv & Prum 2014) indicate that Ampelioides and Pipreola are sister genera.

 

21a.  The name Stictornis was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for Ampelioides.

 

22. The two species of Rupicola were formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in their own family, Rupicolidae, but see (Snow 1973<?>, 1979c) for inclusion within Cotingidae, as in Pinto (1944), Phelps & Phelps (1950a), and REFS; this has been confirmed in all subsequent genetic analyses (e.g., Berv & Prum (2014).

 

22a. Rupicola rupicola and R. peruviana form a superspecies (Snow 1979b, Haffer 1987).

 

23. Rupicola is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is peruvianus; rupicola, however, is invariable (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

23a. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, Berv & Prum 2014) indicate that Phoenicircus and Rupicola are sister genera, as suggested by Hellmayr (1929)

 

24. Phoenicircus nigricollis and P. carnifex form a superspecies (Haffer 1974, Snow 1979b, 2004a, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

25. Cotinga nattererii, C. maynana, C. cotinga, and C. maculata, along with Middle American C. amabilis and C. ridgwayi, form a superspecies (Haffer 1974, AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Snow (1979b) only included C. amabilis, C. ridgwayi, and C. nattererii in the superspecies, with C. cotinga and C. maculata forming a separate superspecies, but he suggested that the other three might be included.  Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that Cotinga nattererii, C. amabilis, and C. ridgwayi might be considered conspecific, and that C. maculata and C. cotinga might be considered conspecific.

 

25a. Formerly (e.g., Wetmore 1972) known as "Natterer's Cotinga."

 

25b. The species name cincta was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for C. maculata.

 

26. The three species of Procnias, along with Central American P. tricarunculatus, were considered to form a superspecies by the AOU (1983); Snow (2004a) proposed that P. tricarunculatus and P. albus were sister species, and that P. averano and P. nudicollis were sister species.

 

27. Procnias is masculine, so the correct spelling of the species name is albus (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

27a. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007) indicate that Procnias and Porphyrolaema are sister genera. SACC proposal passed to change linear sequence.  However, Tello et al. (2009) and Berv & Prum (2014) found that two were not particularly closely related.  SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

28. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007) suggested that Tijuca and Lipaugus are sister genera, as suggested by Snow (1982).  Berv & Prum (2014) found that Tijuca atra was embedded in Lipaugus and sister to L. lanioides and thus merged Tijuca into Lipaugus.  SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

28a. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Snow (1980).

 

29. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Cuervo et al. (2001).

 

29a. The genus Lipaugus was placed in the Tyrannidae by Wetmore (1972) based on its similarities in plumage and morphology to Laniocera and Rhytipterna; however, Warter (1965) and <Prum REFS> provided evidence for retention in Cotingidae, as confirmed by all recent genetic data.

 

30. Lipaugus fuscocinereus and L. uropygialis presumably form a superspecies (Remsen 1984b) that may also include L. weberi (Snow 2004a).  Berv & Prum (2014) corroborated that Lipaugus fuscocinereus and L. uropygialis are sister species.

 

31. Lipaugus uropygialis was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979b) placed in the monotypic genus Chirocylla, but see Remsen (1982) and Prum REF.

 

31a. Lipaugus unirufus and L. vociferans were considered to form a superspecies (Snow 1979b, AOU 1983); Snow (1979b) suggested that they might be best treated as conspecific.  Berv & Prum (2014), however, found that they are not sister species.

 

31b. Lipaugus vociferans was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929) known as L. cineraceus.

 

32. Snowornis subalaris and S. cryptolophus were formerly placed in the genus Lipaugus (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979b), but see Prum et al. (2000), Prum (2001), Ohlson et al. (2007), Tello et al. (2009), and Berv & Prum (2014). Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) used the genus name Lathria for these two species, but <REF>.

 

32a. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007) have revealed a monophyletic group that consists of (Procnias +? Porphyrolaema) + [(Xipholena + Carpodectes) + (Conioptilon + Gymnoderus)]. SACC proposal passed to change linear sequence.  Tello et al. (2009) and Berv & Prum (2014) found the same relationships except that Procnias was not part of this assemblage. SACC proposal needed. <<wait ongoing project>>

 

33. The three species of Xipholena form a superspecies (Snow 1979b, 2004a, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

33a. Carpodectes hopkei forms a superspecies with Central American C. nitidus and C. antoniae (Snow 1979b, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Hellmayr (1929) considered them all as conspecific, but most authors have followed Ridgway (1907), Meyer de Schauensee (1966), and Wetmore (1972) in treating them each as separate species.

 

33b. Called "White Cotinga" in Wetmore (1972).

 

34. The two species of Cephalopterus, along with Central American C. glabricollis, form a superspecies (Snow 1979b, AOU 1983, Haffer 1987, Sibley & Monroe 1990); they were treated as conspecific by Hellmayr (1929), but see Meyer de Schauensee (1966), Snow (2004a) and Berv & Prum (2014).

 

35. Genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, Berv & Prum 2014) indicate that Haematoderus, Querula, Pyroderus, Cephalopterus, and Perissocephalus form a monophyletic group.  Berv & Prum (2014) found that Perissocephalus was embedded in Cephalopterus.

 


 

PIPRIDAE (MANAKINS) 1

Neopelminae

Tyranneutes stolzmanni Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin 2, 3

Tyranneutes virescens Tiny Tyrant-Manakin 3

Neopelma pallescens Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin 2, 2a

Neopelma chrysocephalum Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin 2a

Neopelma aurifrons Wied's Tyrant-Manakin 2a

Neopelma chrysolophum Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin 2a, 2b, 2c

Neopelma sulphureiventer Sulphur-bellied Tyrant-Manakin 2a, 2d

 

Piprinae

Chloropipo flavicapilla Yellow-headed Manakin 16

Chloropipo unicolor Jet Manakin 16

Antilophia bokermanni Araripe Manakin 13, 13a

Antilophia galeata Helmeted Manakin 13

Chiroxiphia lanceolata Lance-tailed Manakin 14

Chiroxiphia pareola Blue-backed Manakin 14

Chiroxiphia boliviana Yungas Manakin 14, 14a, 15

Chiroxiphia caudata Swallow-tailed Manakin 14, 14b

Ilicura militaris Pin-tailed Manakin 3a

Masius chrysopterus Golden-winged Manakin 3a

Corapipo altera White-ruffed Manakin 3a, 4, 5

Corapipo leucorrhoa White-bibbed Manakin 4, 5

Corapipo gutturalis White-throated Manakin 5

Xenopipo uniformis Olive Manakin 16

Xenopipo atronitens Black Manakin

Cryptopipo holochlora Green Manakin 16, 16b

Lepidothrix coronata Blue-crowned Manakin 7, 7a, 8, 8a

Lepidothrix nattereri Snow-capped Manakin 8

Lepidothrix vilasboasi Golden-crowned Manakin 8, 9

Lepidothrix iris Opal-crowned Manakin 8

Lepidothrix suavissima Orange-bellied Manakin 8, 10, 10a

Lepidothrix serena White-fronted Manakin 8

Lepidothrix isidorei Blue-rumped Manakin 11, 11a

Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla Cerulean-capped Manakin 11, 11b

Heterocercus aurantiivertex Orange-crowned Manakin 17, 17a

Heterocercus flavivertex Yellow-crowned Manakin 17, 18

Heterocercus linteatus Flame-crowned Manakin 17, 19, 21a

Manacus manacus White-bearded Manakin 12, 12a, 12b

Pipra aureola Crimson-hooded Manakin 21, 21a

Pipra filicauda Wire-tailed Manakin 11, 21

Pipra fasciicauda Band-tailed Manakin 21

Machaeropterus deliciosus Club-winged Manakin 6

Machaeropterus regulus Striped Manakin 6a

Machaeropterus pyrocephalus Fiery-capped Manakin

Dixiphia pipra White-crowned Manakin 20, 20a, 20b

Ceratopipra cornuta Scarlet-horned Manakin

Ceratopipra mentalis Red-capped Manakin 22

Ceratopipra erythrocephala Golden-headed Manakin 12a, 22

Ceratopipra rubrocapilla Red-headed Manakin 22

Ceratopipra chloromeros Round-tailed Manakin

 


 

1. Sequence of genera and composition of the family follow Prum (1990a, 1992). Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009, McKay et al. 2010) confirm the monophyly of the Pipridae as constituted above, but also provide evidence that the existing linear sequence of genera conflicts in several ways with phylogenetic data.  SACC proposal passed to change linear sequence of genera.  Ohlson et al. (2013) proposed recognizing two subfamilies, Neopelminae and Piprinae, and additional tribes within Piprinae.  SACC proposal passed to recognize subfamilies; their results also indicate that modifications to the linear sequence of genera are also needed.  SACC proposal passed to revise sequence.

 

2. Warter (1965) proposed that Neopelma belonged in the Tyrannidae based on morphology, but see Lanyon (1985) and Prum (1990), who supported its placement in Pipridae and proposed a sister relationship to Tyranneutes. Recent genetic data (Barber & Rice 2007) confirmed the placement of both genera in the Pipridae and their sister relationship; this was confirmed by Tello et al. (2009) and Ohlson et al. (2013), who found that these two were sister to all other piprid genera (thus consistent with the linear sequence above).

 

2a. Snow (1979c) suspected that the species of Neopelma formed a superspecies.

 

2b. Neopelma chrysolophum was formerly (e.g., Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, 1979c) considered a subspecies of N. aurifrons, but see Pacheco & Whitney (1995) for evidence for recognition as a separate species, as suggested by Meyer de Schauensee (1966).

 

2c. Called "Pinto's Tyrant-Manakin" in Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and "Serra Tyrant-Manakin" in Snow (2004b).

 

2d. Elaenia viridicata huallagae Carriker, 1934, is a synonym of Neopelma sulphureiventer (Zimmer 1941a, Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

 

3. The two species of Tyranneutes form a superspecies (Snow 1979c, 2004b, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

3a.  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009) indicate that Masius and Corapipo are sister genera, with Ilicura sister to these two (thus consistent with linear sequence above).  Ohlson et al. (2013) found similar results except that they could not confirm the monophyly of Corapipo with respect to Masius.

 

4. Corapipo altera was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979c, AOU 1983) considered conspecific with C. leucorrhoa, but recent classifications (e.g., Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, AOU 1998, but not Snow 2004b), have usually considered it a separate species, based largely on Wetmore (1972), who pointed out they differ strongly in the shape of the outer primary and show no signs of current or past intergradation; they constitute a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990). Ridgely & Tudor (1994) reversed the traditional English names of C. altera and C. leucorrhoa, presumably a lapsus.

 

5. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suspected that Corapipo leucorrhoa (with altera) might best be treated as a subspecies of C. gutturalis; Snow (1979) considered them to form a superspecies.

 

6. Machaeropterus deliciosus was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in monotypic genus Allocotopterus, but see Snow (1975), Prum & Wilson (1987), Prum (1992, 1994), and Ohlson et al. (2013).

 

6a. Snow (2004b) considered the Amazonian striolatus subspecies group to be a separate species from Machaeropterus regulus of SE Brazil based on <??REF>.

 

7. The genus Lepidothrix was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Zimmer 1936d, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979, Ridgely & Tudor 1994) included within broadly defined Pipra, but see Prum (1990b?, 1992, 1994a, b) and Rego et al. (2007).

 

7a.  Palct (2009) proposed a new name, Neolepidothrix, based on the premise that Lepidothrix Bonaparte, 1854, was preoccupied by Lepidothrix Menge, 1854, which refers to a genus of thysanuran insects; see, however, Zuccon (2011) for conservation of Lepidothrix.

 

8. The lowland species of Lepidothrix form a superspecies (Haffer 1974, AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Snow (1979c) also included L. isidorei and L. coeruleocapilla.

 

8a. Ridgway (1907) treated trans-Andean velutina and the green-bellied exquisita subspecies group as separate species from L. coronata; they were treated as conspecific with L. coronata by Hellmayr (1929), and this treatment has been followed in most subsequent classifications.  Gyldenstolpe (1951) suggested that green-bellied exquisita subspecies group deserved recognition as a separate species, but they intergrade with the black-bellied coronata group where in contact (Haffer 1970, REF).

 

9. "Pipra obscura," formerly considered a distinct species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970), is the female plumage of L. vilasboasi (Haffer 1970, Snow 1979c, 2004b, Gonzaga 1989, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Sick 1997x). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

10. Lepidothrix suavissima was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979) treated as a subspecies of L. serena, but see Prum (1990, 1992, 1994b) and Snow (2004b).

 

10a. Called "Tepui Manakin" in Sibley & Monroe (1993).

 

11. Lepidothrix isidorei and L. coeruleocapilla form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Snow 2004b); genetic data (Ohlson et al. 2013) show that they are sister species..

 

11a. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested that the southern subspecies leucopygia might represent a separate species.

 

11b. Sibley & Monroe (1990) noted that the correct spelling for the species name is coeruleocapilla, not “caeruleocapilla” as in Hellmayr (1929) and Meyer de Schauensee (1970)

 

12. Many classifications (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Wetmore 1972, AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Snow 2004b, Kirwan & Green 2011) have considered the vitellinus subspecies group (and also, or along with, Middle American candei, cerritus, and aurantiacus) to be separate species. Species limits in this genus are problematic, with hybrid zones between taxa that differ strongly in color (Haffer 1967, REFS), and with paraphyly of M. manacus sensu stricto (Brumfield & Braun 2001, Brumfield et al. 2001, 2008). [The problem is that cis- and trans-Andean "M. manacus" are not sister taxa fide Brumfield - I suspect that the best solution would be to split these two and elevate all the other "traditional species to species rank; proposal welcomed - JVR]

 

12a. "Manacus coronatus," known only from the type specimen from "Upper Amazon" and considered a distinct species by Ridgway (1907) and reluctantly by Hellmayr (1929), is now considered a hybrid (Manacus manacus X Ceratopipra erythrocephala) (Parkes 1961). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

12b.  Broadly defined Manacus manacus was called “Bearded Manakin” by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  SACC proposal needed.

 

13. Snow (2004b) proposed that Antilophia and Chiroxiphia were sister genera <check for earlier refs>; this has been confirmed by genetic data (Tello et al. 2009, Ohlson et al. 2013).

 

13a. Described since Meyer de Schauensee (1970): Coelho and Silva (1998).

 

14. The four species of Chiroxiphia, along with Middle American C. linearis, form a superspecies (Snow 1975, 1979c, Haffer 1987, Sibley & Monroe 1990, AOU 1998).  The name Chiroprion was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for the genus, but Chiroxiphia Cabanis, 1847, has priority.

 

14a. Chiroxiphia pareola likely consists of more than one species (REF, Hilty 2003). Ridgway (1907) treated yellow-crowned populations from western Amazonia, regina, as a separate species; Hellmayr (1929) treated regina as a subspecies of C. pareola, and this treatment has been followed in most subsequent classifications.

 

14b.  Called “Blue Manakin” in [REFS] Kirwan & Greene (2011).

 

15. Chiroxiphia boliviana was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a subspecies of C. pareola, but see Parker & Remsen (1987) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994); evidence for treatment as separate species is weak.

 

16. Xenopipo (now Cryptopipo) holochlora, X. (now Chloropipo) flavicapilla, X. (now Chloropipo) unicolor, and X. uniformis were formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) all placed in Chloropipo; for treatment of all in Xenopipo, see Prum (1992); they were even considered to form a superspecies by Snow (1979c).  Ohlson et al.’s (2013), however, found that Chloropipo and broadly defined Xenopipo were polyphyletic, and described a new genus, Cryptopipo, for holochlora, which they found to be sister to Lepidothrix; they also resurrected Chloropipo for flavicapilla and unicolor, and retained uniformis in Xenopipo with atronitens.  SACC proposal passed to recognize Cryptopipo and resurrect Chloropipo.

 

16b. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested that the subspecies litae should be considered a separate species from Xenopipo holochlora.

 

17. The three species of Heterocercus form a superspecies (Snow 1979c, Haffer 1987, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that they all could be considered conspecific.  Genetic data (Tello et al. 2009, Ohlson et al. 2013) confirm that Heterocercus, despite its morphological distinctiveness, is nested within typical piprid genera.

 

17a. Called "Orange-crested Manakin" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994), Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), and Kirwan & Green (2011). SACC proposal needed.

 

18. Called "Yellow-crested Manakin" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994), Hilty (2003), and Kirwan & Green (2011). SACC proposal needed.

 

19. Called "Flame-crested Manakin" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Kirwan & Green (2011). SACC proposal needed.

 

20. Even after the removal of the species in Lepidothrix (see Note 7), the monophyly of Pipra as currently constituted is in doubt.  Prum (1992, 1994a) resurrected the monotypic genus Dixiphia for Pipra pipra to keep Pipra monophyletic.  Rego et al. (2007) also found that retaining P. pipra in Pipra makes that group nonmonophyletic.  SACC proposal to recognize Dixiphia did not pass.  Rego et al. (2007) also found that Pipra may not be monophyletic because the P. aureola group is more closely related to Heterocercus than to other Pipra, which in turn may be more closely related to Machaeropterus.  Rego et al. (2007) proposed resurrecting the genus name Ceratopipra for the erythrocephala group.  SACC proposal to recognize Ceratopipra did not pass.  Subsequently, Tello et al. (2009) found that the aureola group (as represented by filicauda) was not closely related the erythrocephala group plus P. pipra; they found that the erythrocephala group was sister to P. pipra and that they were sister to Machaeropterus.  SACC proposal passed to revise generic limits.  McKay et al. (2010) also found strong support for the latter relationship but did not sample any taxa from the aureola group.  Ohlson et al. (2013) found strong support for treating Dixiphia and Ceratopipra as separate genera.

 

20a. Dixiphia pipra almost certainly consists of more than one species (AOU 1998), with the foothill taxon coracina nearly parapatric with lowland populations, from which it evidently differs in display behavior and voice (Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003).

 

20b.  Kirwan et al. (2016) noted that Dixiphia Reichenbach 1850 is a synonym of Arundinicola, and therefore named a new genus, Pseudopipra, for this taxon.  SACC proposal badly needed

 

21. Pipra filicauda was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in the monotypic genus Teleonema; see Haffer (1970) and Prum (1992) for merger of Teleonema into Pipra; this was subsequently reinforced by genetic data (Rego et al. 2007).

 

21. Pipra aureola, P. filicauda, and P. fasciicauda form a superspecies (Snow 1979c, 2004b, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

 

21a. "Pipra anomala," known only from the type specimen from Pará and formerly considered a distinct species (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944), is now considered a hybrid (Heterocercus linteatus X Pipra aureola) (Parkes 1961).  "Pipra heterocerca," known only from the type specimen from an uncertain locality and tentatively considered a distinct species by Hellmayr (1929), is now considered a hybrid (Pipra filicauda X P. aureola (Haffer 1970, 1974, 2002). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa.

 

22. Ceratopipra mentalis, C. erythrocephala, and C. rubrocapilla form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, AOU 1998); Snow (1979c) also included C. chloromeros in that superspecies, but its distribution widely overlaps that of C. rubrocapilla.  Hellmayr (1929) and Pinto (1944) considered C. erythrocephala and C. rubrocapilla to be conspecific.

 


 

TITYRIDAE (TITYRAS) 1

Tityra inquisitor Black-crowned Tityra 2, 2a, 2b

Tityra cayana Black-tailed Tityra 2bb

Tityra semifasciata Masked Tityra 2bbb

Schiffornis major Varzea Schiffornis 2c, 2d, 2e, 4

Schiffornis veraepacis Northern Schiffornis 3

Schiffornis aenea Foothill Schiffornis 3

Schiffornis olivacea Olivaceous Schiffornis 3

Schiffornis stenorhyncha Russet-winged Schiffornis 3

Schiffornis turdina Brown-winged Schiffornis 3, 5, 5a

Schiffornis virescens Greenish Schiffornis 5, 5b

Laniocera rufescens Speckled Mourner 6, 6a

Laniocera hypopyrra Cinereous Mourner 6, 6a

Iodopleura isabellae White-browed Purpletuft 6b, 6c

Iodopleura fusca Dusky Purpletuft 6b

Iodopleura pipra Buff-throated Purpletuft 6b

Laniisoma elegans Shrike-like Cotinga 6d, 7, 7a

Xenopsaris albinucha White-naped Xenopsaris 7b

Pachyramphus viridis Green-backed Becard 8, 8a, 8b

Pachyramphus versicolor Barred Becard 8b

Pachyramphus spodiurus Slaty Becard 8b, 9

Pachyramphus rufus Cinereous Becard 8b, 9, 9a

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus Cinnamon Becard 9a

Pachyramphus castaneus Chestnut-crowned Becard 9aa, 9c

Pachyramphus polychopterus White-winged Becard 9b, 9bb

Pachyramphus albogriseus Black-and-white Becard 9b, 9d

Pachyramphus marginatus Black-capped Becard 9b

Pachyramphus surinamus Glossy-backed Becard

Pachyramphus homochrous One-colored Becard 10

Pachyramphus minor Pink-throated Becard 10

Pachyramphus validus Crested Becard 10, 11, 11a

 

 


 

1. In this classification, the genera Tityra through Phibalura were formerly placed tentatively in the Cotingidae, following Prum et al. (2000). They had formerly been scattered among the Tyrannidae, Cotingidae, and Pipridae. Prum and Lanyon (1989) and Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) found that Tityra, Schiffornis, and Pachyramphus formed a distinct group, separate from the rest of the Tyrannidae; Sibley & Ahlquist (1990) proposed that they were most closely related to core Tyrannidae than to other tyrannoid families such as the Cotingidae or Pipridae. More recent genetic data (Johansson et al. 2002, Chesser 2004, Barber & Rice 2007) confirm that the genera Tityra through at least Pachyramphus form a monophyletic group, but Chesser (2004) found that this group is more closely related to the Pipridae than to the Cotingidae or Tyrannidae. SACC proposal passed to remove from Cotingidae (and place as Incertae Sedis or as separate family, Tityridae).  Ericson et al. (2006), Barber & Rice (2007), and Tello et al. (2009) not only confirmed the monophyly of the group but also proposed elevation to family rank.  SACC proposal passed to recognize Tityridae.  Within this group, Barber & Rice (2007) found genetic evidence for two major groups: (a) Laniisoma, Laniocera, and Schiffornis, and (b) Iodopleura, Tityra, Xenopsaris, and Pachyramphus.  They proposed that the two groups be ranked as subfamilies (Laniisominae and Tityrinae).  Tello et al. (2009) confirmed these relationships, and Ohlson et al. (2013) also recommended subfamily rank for the two lineages; this treatment was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  SACC proposal needed.

 

2. The relationships of the distinctive genus Tityra have been controversial, with some authors (e.g., Traylor 1977, 1979b) including it in the Tyrannidae and others (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, REFS) in the Cotingidae. Morphological (Prum and Lanyon 1989) and genetic (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990, Prum et al. 2000, Johansson et al. 2002, Chesser 2004, Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data revealed that Tityra and other genera formed a distinct group of uncertain affinities within the tyrannoid assemblage; see Barber & Rice (2007) and Note 1 for summary,

 

2a. "Tityra leucura," sometimes tentatively considered a species (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Snow 1979a, Dickinson 2003), is widely regarded as a variant of some sort of T. inquisitor (Hellmayr 1929, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Fitzpatrick 2004). See Hybrids and Dubious Taxa. Whittaker (2008), however, has presented evidence that it represents a valid species restricted to southwestern Amazonian Brazil, and this was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014). SACC proposal to recognize T. leucura did not pass.

 

2b. Tityra inquisitor was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) placed in a monotypic genus, Erator, but this was merged into Tityra by Hellmayr (1929); although this has been followed by most subsequent classifications, see Wetmore (1972) for resurrection of Erator, based on differences in skull structure as well as the original characters given by Ridgway (i.e., tarsal structure, bill shape, and lack of bare skin on face).  To emphasize the distinctiveness of this species from tityras, Wetmore (1972) called it "Black-crowned Becard." Vocalizations and general plumage pattern of T. inquisitor are like those of the other two species of Tityra (e.g., see Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). Barber and Rice (2007) confirmed that it is basal to T. cayana + T. semifasciata.

 

2bb. The subspecies brasiliensis of the Atlantic Forest region was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Tityra cayana; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

2bb. The subspecies nigriceps of nw. Ecuador and sw. Colombia was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Tityra semifasciata; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

2c. The genus Schiffornis was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979c, AOU 1983) included in the Pipridae. Morphological (Prum & Lanyon 1989) and genetic (Chesser 2004, Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data indicate that it does not belong in that family but rather forms a group with the genera Tityra through Pachyramphus.

 

2c.  The name Scotothorus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for Schiffornis.

 

2d. Schiffornis major was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929) placed in the monotypic genus Massornis, but see Zimmer (1936d). Barber and Rice (2007) showed that it is the sister to S. turdina + S. virescens.

 

2e. Formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) known as "Greater Manakin," but see Prum & Lanyon (1989). Called "Greater Schiffornis" in Sibley & Monroe (1990). Prum & Lanyon (1989) suggested "Varzea Mourner," and this was followed by Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Snow (2004b).

 

3. Schiffornis turdina formerly included the species S. olivacea, S. veraepacis (including subspecies dumicola, rosenbergi, “buckleyi” and acrolophites), S. aenea, and S. stenorhyncha (including subspecies panamensis), although many authors had noted that more than one species was involved (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Stiles & Skutch 1989, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). Ridgway (1907) treated the subspecies amazona (with stenorhyncha), veraepacis, wallacii, furva, rosenbergi, and olivacea each as separate species from S. turdina.  Nyári (2007) presented evidence that at least five species should be recognized. SACC proposal to treat as five species did not pass.  Donegan et al. (2011) presented additional evidence that at least five species should be recognized, with only the subspecies steinbachi, amazonum, wallacii and intermedia remaining in S. turdina.  SACC proposal passed to split S. turdina into multiple species.  SACC proposals passed to determine English names.

 

4. The species in the genus Schiffornis were formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) called "Manakins," but most references have followed the AOU (1998) in changing the English group name to "Schiffornis." SACC proposal to change Schiffornis to "Mourner" as an English name did not pass.

 

5. Schiffornis turdina, broadly defined, and S. virescens were considered to form a superspecies (Snow 1979c, Sibley & Monroe 1990); the parapatric distributions of the species of the turdina group (see Note 3) indicate that they should all be part of that superspecies.

 

5a. Schiffornis is feminine, so the correct spelling of the species name is turdina (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 

5b.  The species name for S. virescens was formerly unicolor (e.g., Ridgway 1907), but see [REF].

 

6. The genus Laniocera was formerly placed in the Pipridae (e.g., Ridgway 1907) or Cotingidae (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) but then transferred to the Tyrannidae (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Traylor 1979c, Fitzpatrick 2004) based on the anatomical analysis of Ames (1971). Snow (1973) also provided rationale for its removal from the Cotingidae, but Prum et al. (2000) tentatively placed this group in the Cotingidae. However, morphological (Prum & Lanyon 1989), ecological (Londoño and Cadena 2003), and genetic (Chesser 2004, Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data indicate that Laniocera belongs in the "Schiffornis group" of genera (here the Tityridae), most closely related to Schiffornis or Laniisoma. See also Note 1.

 

6a. Laniocera rufescens and L. hypopyrra form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, AOU 1998, Fitzpatrick 2004).

 

6b. Iodopleura isabellae and I. fusca form a superspecies (Snow 1979b, 2004a, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that they might be best treated as conspecific. Haffer (1987) considered all three Iodopleura to form a superspecies.

 

6c. The genus Iodopleura has been placed traditionally (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1973, 1979b, 2004a) in the Cotingidae, where also placed tentatively by Prum et al. (2000). Morphological (Prum & Lanyon 1989) and additional genetic (Chesser 2004, Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data, however, indicate that Iodopleura is a member of the "Schiffornis group" (here Tityridae); see also Note 1.

 

6d. The genus Laniisoma has been placed traditionally (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1973, 1979b) in the Cotingidae, and was tentatively placed there by Prum et al. (2000). Morphological (Prum & Lanyon 1989) and recent genetic (Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data indicate that Laniisoma is a member of the "Schiffornis group" (here Tityridae) and is the sister genus to Laniocera; see also Note 1.

 

7. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) treated the Andean subspecies buckleyi as a separate species (including also venezuelensis and cadwaladeri) from Laniisoma elegans of southeastern Brazil, returning to the species limits of Hellmayr (1929); not followed by Snow (2004a).

 

7a. Called "Elegant Mourner" in Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Snow (2004a), and “Laniisoma” in Dickinson & Christidis (2014).  Although considered by Snow (1982) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) "not in the slightest shrike-like," its bill shape and body size is roughly similar to that of many shrikes (Laniidae), as reflected in the genus name.  Now that it is no longer a true cotinga, however, proposal needed to change English name.

 

7b. The relationships of Xenopsaris have been controversial. Some authors have considered it closely related to Pachyramphus (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1966), whereas others have considered it not closely related to Pachyramphus (with the resemblance in plumage between the two considered superficial or convergent) and closely related to serpophagine tyrannids (Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Smith 1971, Snow 1973) or incertae sedis within Tyrannidae (Traylor 1977); it was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) placed in the Cotingidae. Prum & Lanyon (1989)'s morphological analysis strongly supported a sister relationship to Pachyramphus, and genetic data (Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) confirm that relationship; see Fitzpatrick (2004) for rationale for maintaining as a separate genus pending further data.

 

7c. Called "Reed Manakin" in Prum & Lanyon (1989).

 

8. The relationships of the genus Pachyramphus have been controversial, with some authors (e.g., Traylor 1977) including it in the Tyrannidae and others (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Prum et al. 2000) in the Cotingidae. Morphological (Prum & Lanyon 1989, REFS) and genetic (Chesser 1994, Barber & Rice 2007, Tello et al. 2009) data indicate that Pachyramphus does not belong in either family but rather forms a group with the genera Tityra through Pachyramphus (here Tityridae).

 

8a. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered Andean xanthogenys a species separate from P. viridis, and this was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004), Barber & Rice (2007), and Dickinson & Christidis (2014). SACC proposal needed.

 

8b. Barber & Rice (2007) found that P. viridis, P. versicolor, P. spodiurus, and P. rufus formed a monophyletic group within the genus, with P. versicolor basal, followed by P. viridis, with P. rufus and P. spodiurus as sister species. Proposal needed for minor change in linear sequence.

 

9. Pachyramphus spodiurus has sometimes (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) been considered a subspecies of P. rufus, with the composite species called "Crested Becard," but see Zimmer (1936f) for maintaining the species limits of Hellmayr (1929); they form a superspecies (Snow 1979a, AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990). Barber & Rice (2007) confirmed that they are sister taxa.

 

9a.  The species names cinereus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for Pachyramphus rufus. The name atricapillus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) applied to the Guianas population and treated as a separate species from Pachyramphus rufus; Hellmayr (1929) treated atricapillus as a synonym of P. rufus, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

9aa. Pachyramphus cinnamomeus and P. castaneus form a superspecies (Snow 1979a, AOU 1983, 1998, Sibley & Monroe 1990). Barber & Rice (2007) not only found that they are sister species, but also found some evidence that P. castaneus might be paraphyletic with respect to P. cinnamomeus.

 

9b. Pachyramphus albogriseus and P. marginatus have been considered to form a superspecies (Snow 1979a, AOU 1983), and Sibley & Monroe (1990) also included Middle American P. major in this superspecies. Barber & Rice (2007), however, found that P. polychopterus is embedded in this group and that it is likely the sister species to P. albogriseus.

 

9bb.  The subspecies dorsalis of w. Colombia and W. Ecuador and nanus (treated formerly under the species name atricapillus) of Amazonia were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Pachyramphus polychopterus; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

9c. Called "Grey-naped Becard" in " in Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001).

 

9d. The subspecies ornatus of Central American and n. Colombia was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Pachyramphus albogriseus; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications.

 

10. Pachyramphus homochrous, P. minor, and P. validus were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907, Hellmayr 1929, Zimmer 1936f, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) placed in a separate genus, Platypsaris, but most recent authors have followed Snow (1973, 1979a) in merging the latter into Pachyramphus. They form a superspecies, along with Middle American P. aglaiae (Snow 1979a, AOU 1983, Sibley & Monroe 1990); Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that they might all be considered conspecific, and Webster (1963) tentatively treated homochrous and aglaiae as conspecific. Hilty & Brown (1986) and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), and Hilty (2003) retained Platypsaris based on differences in voice and nest shape and placement. Although genetic data show that they form a monophyletic group, resurrection of Platypsaris would make Pachyramphus a paraphyletic group ( Barber & Rice 2007).

 

11. Pachyramphus validus was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Zimmer 1936f, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) known as Platypsaris rufus, but the merger of Platypsaris into Pachyramphus meant that rufus was preoccupied in Pachyramphus, forcing the use of validus for that species (Snow 1973, 1979a).  Pachyramphus validus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) placed in the monotypic genus Hylonax. The subspecies dorsalis of w. Colombia and W. Ecuador and nanus (treated formerly under the species name atricapillus) of Amazonia were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) treated as a separate species from Pachyramphus polychopterus; Hellmayr (1929) treated them as conspecific, and this has been followed in all subsequent classifications. The name atricapillus was formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1907) used for this species when placed in Platypsaris.

 

11a. Called "Plain Becard" in Fitzpatrick (2004).

 


 

INCERTAE SEDIS

 

Piprites chloris Wing-barred Piprites 12, 13, 14

Piprites pileata Black-capped Piprites 12, 13, 14, 15

 


 

12. The relationships of the genus Piprites have been controversial. Traditionally (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Snow 1979c) placed in the Pipridae, Ames (1971) suggested that it belonged in the Tyrannidae and was closely related to the genus Myiobius. Prum (1990) was unable to place it within either the Pipridae or Cotingidae.  Genetic data have been equivocal concerning its relationships.  Prum et al. (2000) were unable to place it within any existing family.  Ericson et al. (2006) Ohlson et al. (2008), and Prum et al. (2015) found that it was sister to a limited sample of genera in the Tyrannidae.  Barber & Rice (2007) showed that it was not a member of the Tityridae and was sister to the Tyrannidae genera sampled.  Tello et al. (2009) found genetic support for its placement in the Tyrannidae, as a member of the group that includes the “flatbills” and other genera.  Ohlson et al. (2013) found that it was sister to all lineages in the Tyrannidae and proposed family rank for Piprites, and this was followed by Dickinson & Christidis (2014). SACC proposal pending to recognize family Pipritidae.

 

13. The two South American Piprites were considered to form a superspecies with Middle American P. griseiceps by the AOU (1983), but Snow (1979c, 2004b) and Sibley & Monroe (1990) excluded P. pileata from the superspecies, because it is so different from the other two, which were formerly (e.g., REF) placed in a separate genus, Hemipipo.

 

14. Formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) known as "Wing-barred Manakin."

 

15. Formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) known as "Black-capped Manakin."

 

16. Piprites is feminine, so the correct spelling of the species name is pileata (David & Gosselin 2002b).

 


 

Part 9. Oscine Passeriformes, A (Vireonidae to Sturnidae)