ˇ˛<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:css="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Use of hyphens in group names in birds"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=macintosh"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 2008"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 2008"> <link rel=File-List href="HyphensBirdNames_files/filelist.xml"> <title>Use of hyphens in group names in birds</title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>James Remsen</o:Author> <o:Template>Normal.dotm</o:Template> <o:LastAuthor>James Remsen</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>441</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2012-06-18T03:36:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2012-06-18T03:36:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>1</o:Pages> <o:Words>3091</o:Words> <o:Characters>15769</o:Characters> <o:Company>Louisiana State University</o:Company> <o:Lines>426</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>103</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>21643</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>12.0</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:TrackMoves>false</w:TrackMoves> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:DrawingGridHorizontalSpacing>18 pt</w:DrawingGridHorizontalSpacing> <w:DrawingGridVerticalSpacing>18 pt</w:DrawingGridVerticalSpacing> <w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEvery>0</w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEvery> <w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery>0</w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:UseNormalStyleForList/> <w:DontUseIndentAsNumberingTabStop/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:FELineBreak11/> <w:WW11IndentRules/> <w:DontAutofitConstrainedTables/> <w:AutofitLikeWW11/> <w:HangulWidthLikeWW11/> </w:Compatibility> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="276"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Arial; 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color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050"> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="none [2412]"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#d8d8d8" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=Section1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Use of hyphens in group names in birds<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>J. V. Remsen, Jr. (Acting Chair, <a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html">South American Classification Committee</a>, American Ornithologists Union)<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Because Gill &amp; Wright (2006) have removed hyphens from all previously hyphenated group-names, and because the <a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a> (ver. 1 Oct. 2008) has published a vigorous critique of the use of hyphens, I herein provide a brief defense of hyphenated group-names.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I have little intrinsic interest in the subject and never thought that I would have spent several hours on the topic, but as Acting Chair of the American Ornithologists Union s South American Classification Committee and a 25-year member of the AOU s <span style='color:black'>Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of North and Middle American Birds</span>, I feel obligated to present a response to counteract the misinformation presented at the <a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a> (ver. 1 Oct. 2008).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The framework of the response follows the points and headings, in sequence, at the <a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a> site.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>"  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Our view is that hyphenated compound names do not, and cannot, reflect phylogenetic relationships accurately, and often misrepresent them. Many cases reflect historical guesses about relationships that were wrong or remain unproven. Compounding the mistakes of pseudotaxonomy are </i></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#7F7F7F'>[sic]</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>trespasses on English grammar</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#7F7F7F'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Beyond the hyperbole, note that a hyphen can reflect phylogeny if it correctly links related taxa.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>If that relationship is found incorrect, then the hyphen can be removed. In such cases, the hyphen represents a hypothesis, as does any taxonomic decision, and is subject to review and testing.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>"  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Reflecting the complexity of the topic, the  hyphenation problem was the single most contentious issue of the entire IOC English names project</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Given that some 30 or more people were involved at various stages of creating the Gill-Wright English name list, yet the final product (Gill &amp; Wright 2006) has only two authors, this admission suggests that the arguments presented by Gill and Wright and <a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a> are not as overwhelmingly convincing as the tone of the language indicated in<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a>.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Clearly, the other side of the issue is not reflected at <a href="http://www.worldbirdnames.org/rules-hyphen.html"><span style='color:windowtext'>IOC World Bird List</span></a>, although with respect to internal IOC Committee debate, Gill and Wright (2006: 8) stated  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='color:#943634'>After much debate and in the absence of a clear majority in favor of any one of the alternative rules</span></i> <span style='color: #7F7F7F'>[concerning hyphenation]</span> &  .<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>In fact, the IOC committee s original chair, Burt Monroe, was a proponent of hyphenated group-names (e.g., Sibley &amp; Monroe 1990).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Gill et al. (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Auk</i> 125: 986) again stated that  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='color:#5F497A'>these guidelines </span></i>[on hyphenated bird names]<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='color:#5F497A'> were a consensus-based product of constructive debate by more than 30 experts on the birds of the world, including distinguished members of the AOU and their peers in sister societies on other continents</span></i>. <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I suggest that this is an overstatement and point out that many distinguished members of the AOU and their peers in sister societies on other continents are not part of that consensus.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'> ISSUES OF GRAMMAR <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'>"  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>In terms of English grammar, it is incorrect to use a hyphen to create a new compound noun from an adjective (including participles) and a noun, or a noun acting as an adjective coupled to a noun.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Thus,  whistling-duck, i.e. a duck that whistles, and  night-heron, i.e. a heron of the night, are not correct constructions. In this sense, the use of hyphens to create new compound adjective-noun names, as recommended by Parkes (1978) is a novel, incorrect and, we assert, an undesirable practice if the other rules of formulation of the English names of birds are applied correctly</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>I am unable to find any such rule in the first six authoritative English grammar texts and writing manuals consulted; see <a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/Adjectives-nouns.htm">Grammar Details</a>.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I also suspect that if this usage were such a violation of grammar, a learned person such as Ken Parkes would have recognized this, as would the dozens of journal editors and thousands of ornithologists who have used hyphenated group-names.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'>"  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Consider a group of green suitcases of different sizes, all made by the same manufacturer. Why use &quot;big green-suitcase&quot; and  little green-suitcase when &quot;big green suitcase&quot; and  little green suitcase are simpler and perfectly clear? Similarly, Long-tailed Wood Partridge is clear without an extra hyphen (wood-partridge), as are Maroon Shining Parrot, Wilson's Storm Petrel, African Green Pigeon, and Biak Black Flycatcher</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The  suitcase example refers to a series of adjectives that modify a noun in a sentence, not a compound noun or name.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Rules of grammar in sentence structure are fairly rigid and may not apply to formation of names.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Further, strictly hypothetically, if  green suitcase became such a frequent combination that the two words clearly referred to a single item in everyday speech, then <a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/Adjectives-nouns.htm">Strunk &amp; White and other sources</a> would point out that they might go through the same evolution as  wild life, with a transitional period of hyphenation as  wild-life before becoming  wildlife. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Among the specific examples given is one that illustrates how hyphens can remove ambiguity.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>In  Maroon Shining Parrot , a hyphenated group-name  Shining-Parrot makes it clear that the parrot is not  shining maroon. <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>In fact, if those three words were written in text ( maroon shining parrot ) a hyphen or comma would be required for clarity, i.e., either  maroon, shining parrot for a parrot that is both maroon and shining,  maroon-shining parrot for a parrot that shines maroon, or  maroon shining-parrot to indicate that a shining-parrot is a class of parrot of which one is maroon.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Also, a hyphenated  Storm-Petrel signifies that these birds are not petrels in the Procellariidae, but species in a separate family, Hydrobatidae.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Finally, in the same genus as African Green-Pigeon is the  Little Green-Pigeon, in which case the hyphen removes any doubt as to which words modify which, as well as defining  Green-Pigeon as group name that refers only to species in the genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Treron</i> (whereas unhyphenated Green Pigeon does not make this clear).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Like it or not, most non-ornithological journals and texts do not put official names in upper case, despite the obvious advantage of distinguishing, for example, a  Singing Quail from a  singing quail, or my personal favorite, a  Hairy Woodpecker from a  hairy woodpecker (the latter prompting a revolution in vertebrate classification).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Use of hyphens preemptively reduces some of the ambiguity, as in the above example: a  maroon shining parrot or  little green pigeon without the use of upper-case letters presents obvious problems, whereas  maroon shining-parrot and  little green-pigeon signals to the non-ornithologist that the hyphenated parts of the name refer to a class of parrots or pigeons.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Absence of hyphens creates some unfortunately ambiguous names in terms of interpretation, e.g.,  Shade Bush Warbler for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Cettia parens</i>,  Aberrant Bush Warbler for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. flavolivacea</i>,  Ja River Scrub Warbler for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Bradypterus grandis</i>,  Friendly Bush Warbler for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>B. accentor</i>, and  Laura s Woodland Warbler for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Phylloscopus laurae</i> (to pick out a few examples just from Old World Warblers).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>More examples from Phasianidae: White Eared Pheasant, Blue Eared Pheasant, Jungle Bush Quail, Painted Bush Quail, Rock Bush Quail, Udzungwa Forest Partridge.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Examples from the Gruidae:<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Black Crowned Crane, Gray Crowned Crane.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>These represent mistakes in grammar by anyone s criteria.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'>"  </span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>Use of a hyphen to create a new compound noun by joining two categorically related nouns (in apposition) is grammatically correct. Thus director-actor, city-state, or singer-songwriter, are allowed and standard features of the written English language. Corresponding to these examples, compound bird-bird names, such as  tit-spinetail and  eagle-owl also are correct constructions, as recommended in the IOC guidelines</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The author claims to have a knowledge of grammar and that grammar supports the author s position.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>However, two and perhaps all three examples given are not nouns in apposition, but hybrid combinations that reflect dual roles (a  director-actor is <u>both</u> a director and actor).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This type of hyphen is clearly shorthand for  and. <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Thus, the three English examples given above as  corresponding to these examples are not analogous to the bird name examples.  Tit-Spinetail and  Eagle-Owl are not hybrids or combinations, i.e., not  part eagle and  part owl, but rather the first word modifies the second.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>More generally, new nouns are constantly added to the technical literature, many of which are compound words of novel construction.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Whether rules of grammar per se apply to invention of new nouns is, in my opinion, an open question.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:17.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'> ISSUES OF&nbsp;RELATIONSHIP <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'>"  The various screech owls and golden plovers constitute &quot;groups&quot; of species that are theoretically more closely related to each other than to other taxa. They are supposedly monophyletic. But accurate linking of English names to monophyletic  groups, as proposed by Parkes (1978), is almost impossible on a worldwide basis.</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>In a sense, formal English group names potentially parallel equivalent scientific names, such as a genus or subgenus. But the parallel is limited and doing so is not a desirable goal for many reasons. Among them, concordance of English names and avian genera is low for many historical reasons, with the result that only a small fraction of the related birds of the world share an English group name. Forcing consistency between English names and genera would require changing the names of thousands of species</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS"'>This is an overstatement.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Parkes (1978) did not propose to link all English names to monophyletic groups.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>His only targets were cases in which a group name was <u>already</u> in use but without a hyphen.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Neither Parkes (1978) nor the AOU has made any recommendations beyond use of hyphens in group names in which the group is proposed to be monophyletic.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Anyone who has followed the AOU committees, of which Parkes was a member, knows that stability in English names is a primary consideration.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Only about 140 of 2048 English names in North America are affected by the hyphenation of group names, and of these, about 20 are also hyphenated in the IOC List, leaving about 6% <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span>as the source of the controversy.</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Trebuchet MS"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'>"  For example, the African Grey Flycatcher (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Bradornis microrhynchus</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'>) is related to the Ethiopian Grey Flycatcher (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS"; color:#943634;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Bradornis pumilus<i>)</i></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS"; color:#943634'>, but not to the Little Grey Flycatcher (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Muscicapa epulata</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'>) also found in Africa, or to the American Gray Flycatcher (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Trebuchet MS";color:#943634;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Empidonax oberholseri</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS"; color:#943634'>) of North America. Which  gray flycatchers should we hyphenate?&nbsp; Simple consistency would favor hyphenating them all, creating a group of unrelated species. Hyphenating only the two related species of </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Bradornis</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Trebuchet MS";color:#943634'> would leave two unhyphenated species of  gray flycatchers, &nbsp;subject to new studies. </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#943634'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The AOU system does not add hyphens to all species with the same  last name, but only to species (a) proposed to form a monophyletic group that had existing double last names, such as the Whistling Ducks, or (b) recently split species for which the original single name was retained because of an absence of established names for the newly split species, such as the Slaty Antshrikes.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This system explicitly does not use a hyphen when to do so would imply false relationships, e.g., Great Blue Heron and Little Blue Heron have no hyphens.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>If <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>B. pumilus</i> is treated as a separate species from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>B. microrhynchus</i>, then the AOU system might indeed use a hyphen to indicate sister-species status.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The other two species would not be hyphenated.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Leaving two species of  gray flycatchers unhyphenated thus signals that they have nothing to do with each other or with the hyphenated <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Bradornis</i>  Gray-Flycatchers. <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The Gill-Wright system provides no information on relationships, or misleadingly implies that these flycatchers are related because they have the same  last names, whereas the Parkes/AOU system explicitly identifies relationships and non-relationships.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:#943634'>"  The implications, directly or indirectly, that hyphenated  groups are natural groups also can be misleading.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>For example, hyphenated group names are applied to unrelated taxa in different genera, such as the unrelated  wood-rails in Latin America (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:#943634'>Aramides<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>) and in Madagascar (</i>Canirallus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>). Another example are </i></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#7F7F7F'>[sic]</span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'> the unrelated  palm-swifts in the New World (</span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>Tachornis<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>) and in the Old World (</i>Cypsiurus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>).  Mountain-finches are in the genus </i>Leucosticte<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> (along with  rosy-finches ) and also in the genus </i>Poospiza<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> (along with<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span> warbling-finches ). <o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>I agree that the  wood-rails,  palm-swifts, and  mountain-finches indeed are examples of misleading hyphens.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>However, note that their removal still leaves the names with similar misleading connotations. It is only natural to think that birds with the last name  Wood Rail form a natural group, <u>with or without the hyphen</u>.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Hyphenated or not, using just the English names implies a relationship that is incorrect.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>A possible solution would be to make  woodrail a single word for one genus and leave  wood-rail for the other.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The IOC system retains hyphenated group names for species that have double last names consisting of two bird names, e.g., Hawk-Eagle, Quail-Dove, Nightingale-Thrush, etc.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The reason given for this is  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='color:#943634'>a hyphen should be inserted to signify that the taxon belongs to the family of the second word</span></i> (Gill and Wright 2006: 8), not phylogenetic relationships.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>However, these do not differ grammatically from other noun-to-noun names that are de-hyphenated, e.g. Wood Wren and Brush Finch.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Further, <u>not</u> hyphenating the latter creates potential ambiguity.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>For example,  Tepui Brush Finch could refer to a Brush Finch of the Tepuis or a Finch hat lives in Tepui Brush.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Without the hyphen, it is impossible to tell, and because the former meaning is the intended one, absence of a hyphen is grammatically incorrect.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>* I concur with Gill and Wright than retention of hyphens in  Bird-Bird last names is a good idea to avoid confusion, regardless of phylogenetic relationships.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Deleting the hyphen from for example, Ornate Hawk-Eagle, produces names that are potentially confusing & what exactly is an  Ornate Hawk Eagle, a Hawk or an Eagle?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:#943634'>"  In other cases, hyphens are used for subsets of congeneric species that share an English group name for historical reasons in the absence of convincing phylogenetic analysis.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>For example, Eastern Wood-Pewee and Western Wood-Pewee are inferred to be sister species, even though we lack a solid phylogeny of the genus </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#943634'>Contopus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Rather, this statement is a holdover from an early era when we assumed that eastern and western North American counterparts were sister species, which can be incorrect. <o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Consider the hyphen as a hypothesis that is strongly supported in this case by morphological, behavioral, biogeographical, and vocal data.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>If that hypothesis were refuted by genetic data, then I would personally vote for a proposal to remove the  Wood from their names.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Both AOU committees are amenable to proposals from anyone, at any time, and of any kind.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Proposals are considered on a case-by-case basis based on their individual merit.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:#943634'>"  Even more uncertain are the relationships among the 11 species in the Neotropical genus </span></i></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:#943634'>Knipolegus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, only 7 of which are named  Black-Tyrants. Finally, consider the use of  tody-tyrant for some species of </i>Hemitriccus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, but  pygmy-tyrant for other species of </i>Hemitriccus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> as well as for species in five other genera (</i>Pseudotriccus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, </i>Euscarthmus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>, </i>Myiornis<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, </i>Lophotriccus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>, </i>Atalotriccus<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>) of tyrant-flycatchers. <o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>This is indeed a mess, but as noted above, removal of the hyphens does not solve the problem.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>It is only natural to assume that all birds called  Pygmy Tyrant are more closely related to one another than to flycatchers with different last names, whether they are all called  Pygmy Tyrant or  Pygmy-Tyrant. <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>At least the use of hyphens makes it clear when these are proposed to be true relationships.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>A minor point here is that the differences in the last names in such cases typically reflecting a past history of being placed in a separate genus.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>For example, current <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hemitriccus</i> contains mainly species formerly placed in a separate genus, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Idioptilon</i>, which for decades were called Pygmy-Tyrants, whereas the species in narrowly defined <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Hemitriccus</i> were called Tody-Tyrants.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'> CONCLUSION <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#943634'>"  Given the dynamic and uncertain state of our knowledge about relationships among bird species, we prefer to follow plain, correct, and intuitive English, rather than to overload the orthography of English names of birds with phylogenetic inference through hyphens. <o:p></o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:#943634'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>The AOU committees, as well as some unknown number of members of the IOC committee, have a different preference, namely to use hyphens in existing group-names to indicate that existing data reflect monophyly of that group. </span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>What Gill &amp; Wright do not seem to recognize is that removal of hyphens does <u>not</u> remove the problem &#8211; birds with the same  last name will naturally be assumed to be related, and only hyphens can clarify when this is or is not the case.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Summary</span></u></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The IOC World List s main points are that (1) hyphenating adjectives to nouns to form group names is grammatically incorrect, and (2) such hyphens can be misleading as to relationships.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I here argue that (1) no evidence exists that I can find that such constructions are grammatically incorrect and plenty of evidence that use of hyphens to remove ambiguity is not only correct but also grammatically required, and (2) removal of hyphens does not remove the problem of incorrect inference of phylogenetic relationships.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>Addendum</span></u></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:blue'>:<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Gill et al. (2009.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Wilson J. Orn. 121: 652-655) have recently put many of these ideas in print.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Although they cited this web page as a pers. comm. from someone else, they did not address the many of the points outlined herein, especially:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>(1) Removal of hyphens does not remove the connotation that species with similar names are related, whereas insertion of hyphens makes such cases explicit.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This point essentially eviscerates their main point, as reflected in their title  On hyphens and phylogeny. <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>(2) If a phylogenetic hypothesis is falsified, then the hyphen can be removed (e.g., if the night heron genera do not form a monophyletic group).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>(3) Hyphens reduce ambiguity (i.e., their proper grammatical usage), particularly in lower-cased bird names in the vast majority of scientific journals and popular literature.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;tab-stops:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>Further, they continue to ignore the point that hyphens are <u>not</u> inserted in every species name in a genus, but only in the names of some sets of species thought to form a monophyletic group.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>No one has ever proposed that <u>all</u> such groups have hyphenated names, so their examples such as  rough-winged-swallows are obvious  straw man arguments, put forth not in the interests of objective discussion, but only to advocate their own agenda.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </div> </body> </html>