A classification of the bird species of South America

South American Classification Committee

 

American Ornithologists' Union

HYBRIDS AND DUBIOUS TAXA

 

This list (incomplete) contains taxa that have been described as species and treated as such at least once in the Cory-Hellmayr series ("Birds of the Americas"), in the Peters Checklist series, or in more recent classifications, but are now known or suspected to be invalid as species, i.e., they are either plumages of other species, variants of some sort, or hybrids. Eventually, some of these will likely be shown to be valid species. Meyer de Schauensee's (1970) comparable list contained five taxa now known to be valid species: Ara caninde (= A. glaucogularis), Picumnus fuscus, Todirostrum senex, Idioptilon inornatum (= H. inornatus), and Nemosia rourei. Those names treated as species in Meyer de Schauensee's (1970) are also mentioned in footnotes in the main list.

 

SACC is grateful to Mark Brown with help with many of these accounts.

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Literature Cited (click)

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Crypturellus rubripes
(Taczanowskii, 1886). "Jelski's Tinamou": described from northwestern Peru; treated as a species by Peters (1931) and Hellmayr & Conover (1942); now known to be the male plumage of C. transfasciatus (Koepcke 1962).

Crax incommoda Sclater, 1875. "Troublesome Curassow": known from a female aviary specimen; now considered to be aberrant female of C. daubentoni (REF, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax annulata Todd, 1915. "Annulated Curassow": described from northern Colombia; treated as a species by Hellmayr & Conover (1942) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); now considered to be female plumage of barred morph of C. alberti (REF, del Hoyo 1994).  Includes also Crax incommoda Sclater, 1879 (not the same as the bird of the same name described by Sclater 1875 – see previous account) and C. pinima Ogilvie-Grant, 1893; see discussion in Todd and Carriker 1922).

Crax viridirostris Sclater, 1875. "Green-billed Curassow": known from the type specimen, an aviary bird of unknown origin; now considered to be aberrant C. alberti or a hybrid (C. alberti X Crax sp.) (Hellmayr & Conover 1942, Teixeira REF, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax carunculata Temminck, 1816. "Carunculated Curassow": described from “Brazil” (uncertain locality); now considered a synonym of C. globulosa (REF, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax yarrellii Anon. {Edward Turner} Bennett, 1831. "Yarrell’s Curassow": known from a specimen described from the Río Marañón, Peru; now considered a synonym of C. globulosa (REF, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax sclateri Gray, 1867. "Sclater’s Curassow": described from specimens from Paraguay and Mato Grosso; now considered a synonym of C. fasciolata (Goeldi <Ibis REF>, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax rubrirostris Spix, 1825. "Spix’s Curassow": described from <>; now known to be the male plumage of C. blumenbachii (Sclater & Salvin 1870, del Hoyo 1994).

Crax estudilloi Allen et al., 1977. "Estudillo's Curassow": known from a single aviary specimen from Bolivia; considered probably a hybrid (C. fasciolata and Crax sp.) by Vuilleumier & Mayr (1987). [Leo Joseph paper]

Chondrohierax megarhynchus <>. "Large-billed Kite": Large-billed individuals were formerly (e.g., Peters 1931) treated as a separate species from C. uncinatus, but see Hellmayr & Conover (1949) and Amadon (1964).

Accipiter pectoralis (Drapiez, 1838). "Rufous-breasted Hawk": long thought to be a distinct species (e.g., Peters 1931, Pinto 1938, Hellmayr & Conover 1949, Phelps & Phelps 1958a) until Partridge (1961) showed that this is the immature plumage of A. poliogaster.

Accipiter salvini (Ridgway, 1876). "Salvin's Hawk": treated by some as a distinct species (e.g., Friedmann 1950); now considered to be a pale morph of A. striatus ventralis (REF).

Morphnus taeniatus Gurney, 1879. "Banded Crested Eagle": known from throughout much of range of M. guianensis; treated as a valid species by REFS and Friedmann (1950); now considered to be dark morph of M. guianensis with heavily banded underparts (Lehman 1943, Hellmayr & Conover 1949, Thiollay 1994).

Spizaetus devillei Dubois, 1874. "Deville's Hawk-Eagle ": described from two specimens from Ecuador; treated as a valid species by Conover (1946) and Hellmayr & Conover (1949); now considered to be an immature plumage of Oroaetus isidori (Amadon 1950).

Aramides gutturalis Sharpe, 1894. "Red-throated Wood-Rail": known from a single specimen from Peru; treated as a distinct species by Peters (1934) and Hellmayr & Conover (1942), although Peters (1934) predicted that it would prove to be a subspecies of A. wolfi; now considered to be a badly prepared specimen of A. cajaneus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Taylor 1996). However, Thomas Brooks has recently suggested that this taxon needs re-evaluation: http://www.redlist.org.

Geotrygon erythropareia Salvadori, 1893. "Dark Quail-Dove": known from three specimens from Ecuador and one from Bolivia; considered to be a distinct but dubious species by REFS and Meyer de Schauensee (1966). Chapman (1926) and Meyer de Schauensee (1970) considered this to be a dark color phase of G. frenata, and Hellmayr and Conover (1942) considered it a dubious taxon. Sibley & Monroe (1990), however, considered it to be a valid subspecies, from Ecuador, of G. frenata. <trace>

Ciccaba minima Carriker, 1935. "<> Owl": described from La Paz, Bolivia; now considered a synonym of Megascops ingens ingens (Bond 1951a, Traylor 1952<>).

Chaetura nubicola Brodkorb, 1938. "Brodkorb's Swift": described <>; treated as a valid species by Peters (1940); known to be a synonym of Streptoprocne rutila (REF, Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Threnetes cristinae Ruschi, 1975. "Cristina's Barbthroat": known from Espírito Santo, Brazil ; now considered a synonym of T. leucurus loehkeni (Hinklemann 1988a, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Threnetes grzimeki Ruschi, 1973. "Grzimek's Barbthroat": known from <>; now considered an immature plumage of Glaucis hirsutus (Vuilleumier & Mayr 1987, Hinklemann 1988a, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Threnetes longicauda Cory, 1915. "Long-tailed Barbthroat": known from type specimen from Ceará, Brazil; now considered a synonym of Anopetia gounellei (Peters 1940).

Phaethornis maranhaoensis Grantsau, 1968. "Maranhao Hermit": known from <>; treated as a species by Meyer de Schauensee (1970) and Vuilleumier & Mayr (1987); now considered a synonym (adult male plumage) of P. nattereri (Hinklemann 1988a, b, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Phaethornis nigrirostris Ruschi, 1973. "Black-billed Hermit": known from <>; now considered a synonym (aberrant black-billed individuals) of P. eurynome (Hinkelmann 1988a, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Phaethornis apheles (Heine, 1884). "Heini's Hermit": known from "northern Peru"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); considered a probable synonym of P. zonura by Peters (1945), the latter now considered a subspecies of P. griseogularis (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Schuchmann 1999).

Phaethornis fumosus Schlüter, 1901. "Schluter's Hermit": known from "Colombia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); treated as a synonym of P. guy apicalis by Peters (1945); now considered to be melanistic individuals of P. augusti (Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Phaethornis fuliginosus Simon, 1901. "Sooty Hermit": known from type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and as a subspecies of P. anthophilus by Peters (1945); now considered to be a melanistic individual of an uncertain species of Phaethornis (Hinkelmann 1999).

Colibri buckleyi (Boucard, 1893). "Buckley’s Violet-ear": known only from type specimen from Misqui, Bolivia; treated as a synonym of Chrysuronia oenone josephinae by Peters (1945); now considered to represent an aberrant C. coruscans (Cory 1918, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Chrysolampis chlorolaemus Elliot, 1870. "Elliot's Topaz": known from the type specimen from "New Grenada", later thought to be "Bahia"; treated as a valid species and in the monotypic genus Crinis by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); now considered a hybrid (Anthracothorax nigricollis X Chrysolampis mosquitus) (Peters 1945).

Heliangelus dubius Hartert, 1897. "Hartert's Sunangel": known from two "Bogotá" specimens; treated provisionally as a valid species by Cory (1918); possibly a melanistic Heliangelus amethysticollis (Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Heliangelus claudia Hartert, 1895. "Claudia's Sunangel": known from "Bogotá" specimens; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); considered an aberrant Heliangelus amethysticollis clarisse (Peters 1945, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990).

Heliangelus violicollis Salvin, 1891. "Sarayacu Sunangel": known from two specimens from uncertain localities in Ecuador; treated provisionally as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Chapman (1926); possibly an aberrant Heliangelus strophianus (Peters 1945, Zimmer 1951b, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Schuchmann 1999), but that would suggest that its type locality is incorrect (Zimmer 1951b). Graves (2001) concluded that it was a color variant of H. strophianus.

Heliangelus squamigularis Gould, 1871. "Olive-throated Sunangel": known only from "Bogotá" and "Antioquia," Colombia; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918), but as "H. barrali" (squamigularis has priority), Hartert (1922), and Peters (1945); status considered uncertain by Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and Schuchmann (1999); Hilty & Brown (1986) considered it to represent a hybrid. Graves (1990) determined that this is a hybrid, Heliangelus amethysticollis X Eriocnemis cupreoventris.

Heliangelus speciosa (Salvin, 1891). "Green-throated Sunangel": known only from "Bogotá" specimens; treated provisionally as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945), the latter of whom suggested that it might be conspecific with "H. squamigularis"; Meyer de Schauensee (1966) considered it a probable hybrid (Heliangelus sp. X Eriocnemis sp. or Ramphomicron microrhynchum); Graves (1990) determined that this is a hybrid, most likely Heliangelus amethysticollis X Eriocnemis cupreoventris.

Heliangelus rothschildi Boucard, 1892. "Rothschild's Sunangel": known only from "Bogotá" specimens; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); probably a hybrid (Heliangelus sp. X Eriocnemis sp. or Ramphomicron microrhynchum) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Heliangelus luminosus (Elliot, 1878). "Glistening Sunangel": known only from "Colombia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919), but as Ionolaima luminosa, in same genus as Heliodoxa schreibersii, and by Peters (1945); probably a hybrid (Heliangelus sp. X Eriocnemis sp. or Ramphomicron microrhynchum) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Heliangelus simoni (Boucard, 1892). "Simon’s Sunangel": known from "Colombia"; treated as a synonym of "Heliangelus speciosus" by Cory (1918); status uncertain (Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Heliangelus prosantis (Oberholser, 1905). "Oberholser’s Sunangel": known from "Bogotá"; treated as a synonym of "Heliangelus rothschildi" (Simon and Hellmayr 1908, Cory 1918; cf. Walters 1980); status uncertain (Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Lophornis insignibarbis Simon, 1890. "Bearded Coquette": known from one specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and as a questionable taxon by Peters (1945) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); possibly a hybrid (L. stictolophus X L. chalybeus) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Lophornis regulus (Gould, 1846). "Great-crested Coquette": known from Peru and Bolivia; treated as a separate species from L. delattrei by Cory (1918); now treated as a synonym of the latter (Peters 1945, Zimmer 1950c).

Lophornis melaniae Floericke, 1920. "Dusky Coquette": known from one specimen from "Colombia" (Meyer de Schauensee 1970); treated as a questionable species by Peters (1945) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); probably an aberrant individual or faded skin of L. delattrei (Schuchmann 1999).

Lesbia ortoni Lawrence, 1870; "Orton's Comet": known from "Quito Valley," Ecuador; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Chapman (1926); treated as a synonym of Zodalia glyceria by Peters (1945). Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) suspected that it was a hybrid (Aglaiocercus kingi X Lesbia victoriae). Graves (1997) showed that this is probably a hybrid (Lesbia victoriae X Ramphomicron microrhynchum).

Lesbia eucharis (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1848). "Bourcier's Trainbearer": known from two males from Colombia; treated as a species by Cory (1918), as a subspecies of L. victoriae by Peters (1948), and as a Peruvian subspecies of L. nuna by Zimmer (1951) and Schuchmann (1999); now considered a hybrid of Colombian origin, L. nuna X L. victoriae (Weller & Schuchmann 2004).

Zodalia glyceria (Gould, 1858). "Purple-tailed Comet": known from Popayán, Colombia; treated as a valid species (and genus) by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); previously considered a hybrid (Lesbia victoriae X Ramphomicron microrhynchum) by Meyer de Schauensee (19660 and Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990); Graves (1999b) demonstrated that it was a hybrid, but Lesbia victoriae X Chalcostigma herrani.

Zodalia thaumasta Oberholser, 1902. "Chillo Valley Comet": known from one specimen from Illalo, Ecuador; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Chapman (1926); currently treated as a synonym of Chalcostigma purpureicauda (see below), i.e., probably a hybrid (Aglaiocercus kingi X Lesbia victoriae) (Berlioz REF, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Chalcostigma purpureicauda Hartert, 1898. "Purple-tailed Thornbill": known only from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); treated as a valid species in the genus Metallura by Peters (1945); probably a hybrid (Aglaiocercus kingi X Lesbia victoriae) (Berlioz REF, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Neolesbia nehrkorni (Berlepsch, 1887). "Nehrkorn's Sylph": known from two "Bogotá" specimens; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); probably a hybrid (Aglaiocercus kingi X Ramphomicron microrhynchum, or A. kingi X Thalurania sp.) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990, <> Hinkelmann et al. 1991, Schuchmann 1999).

Metallura rubriginosa (Cory, 1913). "Balsas Metaltail": known only from the type specimen from northern Peru; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); treated without comment as a synonym of Metallura theresiae by Peters (1945).

Eriocnemis ventralis Salvin, 1891. "Amethyst-vented Puffleg": known from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); Peters (1945) considered it an aberrant specimen of Eriocnemis vestita vestita, and Schuchmann et al. (2000) considered a probably hybrid between E. vestita and E. cupreoventris.

Eriocnemis berlepschi Hartert, 1897. "Berlepsch's Puffleg": known from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); Peters (1945) considered it a synonym of E. v. vestita.

Eriocnemis soederstroemi <soderstromi?> Butler, 1926. "Soderstrom's Puffleg": known from one specimen from western Ecuador; Meyer de Schauensee (1966) treated it as a species but suspected that it was possibly an aberrant E. godini, but the validity of that species has also been questioned. Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) suggested that it might be a hybrid. Graves (1996) showed that it was a hybrid (E. nigrivestis X E. luciani).

Eriocnemis chrysorama Elliot, 1874. "Blue-vented Puffleg": known from the type specimen from "Colombia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); Peters (1945) considered it a melanistic specimen of Eriocnemis cupreoventris.

Eriocnemis isaacsonii (Parzudaki, 1845). "Isaacson's Puffleg": known from three "Bogotá" specimens; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); possibly a hybrid (Eriocnemis sp. X Heliangelus sp.) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1990, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Coeligena assimilis (Elliot, 1879). "Allied Inca": known from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); tentatively considered a synonym of Coeligena prunellei by Peters (1945) because Berlioz (REF) considered this to represent individual variation in C. prunellei. Schuchmann (1999) echoed Peters (1945) in wondering whether it might not be a valid subspecies of C. prunellei.

Coeligena purpurea Gould, 1854. "Purple Inca": known from two specimens from the Popayán area of Colombia; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); Peters (1945) considered it to be a hybrid (Coeligena prunellei X C. coeligena), and this was followed by Meyer de Schauensee (1966). Schuchmann et al. 1999) also suggested that it might be an aberrant C. wilsoni, but Graves (2001) confirmed that it was Coeligena prunellei X C. coeligena.

Coeligena traviesii (Mulsant and Verreaux, 1867). "Lilac-fronted Starfrontlet": known from several "Bogotá" specimens that show substantial individual variation; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and tentatively by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); probably a hybrid (C. torquata X C. lutetiae) (Peters 1945, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Coeligena lawrencei (Boucard, 1893). "Lawrence's Starfrontlet": described from a single “Bogotá” specimen; probably a hybrid (C. torquata X Lafresnaya lafresnayi) (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Chaetocercus decorata (Gould, 1860). "Gould's Woodstar": known from the type specimen from "Bogotá" ; treated as a questionable species by Peters (1945); considered a probable a hybrid, C. mulsant X C. heliodor (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999), and this was confirmed by Graves (1997c).

Chaetocercus harterti (Simon, 1901). "Hartert's Woodstar": known only from the type specimen from the Central Andes of Colombia; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); probably a hybrid (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Calliphlox orthura (Lesson, 1831). "Lesson’s Woodstar": known from "Cayenne"; possibly immature male of C. amethystina (Schuchmann et al. 1999).

Chlorostilbon micans (Salvin, 1892). "Brilliant Emerald": known from the type specimen with no locality; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); probably an aberrant C. alice (Peters 1945, Schuchmann 1999).

Chlorostilbon inexpectatus (Berlepsch, 1879). "Berlepsch's Emerald": known from one specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and as a questionable species by Peters (1945); probably an aberrant C. poortmani (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Schuchmann 1999).

Chlorostilbon auratus (Cabanis & Heine, 1860). "Cabanis's Emerald": known from the type specimen from "Peru"; treated as a questionable species by Peters (1945) and Zimmer (1950d); Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) and Schuchmann (1999) considered it likely to be an aberrant C. poortmani, but that would mean that the locality is wrong.

Smaragdochrysis iridescens (Gould, 1861). "Iridescent Emerald": known only from the type specimen from Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; treated as a valid species and monotypic genus by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937), but now regarded as a hybrid (Chlorostilbon aureoventris X Calliphlox amethystina) (Butler 1931, Peters 1945, Graves 1999).

Ptochoptera iolaima (Reichenbach, 1854). "Natterer's Emerald": known from the type specimen from Ypanema, São Paulo, Brazil; treated as a valid species and monotypic genus by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937) [in both of these species name spelled as "iolaema"] and Peters (1945); Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) suspected that it was an "artifact", and Berlioz (1938) considered it to be a probable hybrid (Calliphlox amethystina and some other species); Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered it a probable hybrid; Schuchmann (1999) considered it to be a probable hybrid (C. alice X C. poortmani), but that would mean that the locality is wrong.

Chlorestes subcaerulea Elliot, 1874. "Elliot's Sapphire": known only from the type specimen from "Bahia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); probably an aberrant C. notata (Schuchmann 1999).

Eucephala hypocyanea Gould, 1860. "Blue-breasted Sapphire": known only from the type specimen from "Brazil"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); probably an aberrant Chlorostilbon notata or a hybrid (C. notata X Hylocharis cyanus) (Griscom & Greenway 1941, Peters 1945, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Schuchmann 1999).

Eucephala scapulata Gould, 1861. "Black-bellied Woodnymph": known only from the type specimen from French Guiana; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); Berlioz (1932)<?>, Peters (1945), and Schuchmann (1999) suspected that it was a hybrid (Thalurania furcata X Chlorestes notata).

Eucephala caeruleolavata Gould, 186o. "Reeve's Woodnymph": known only from the type specimen from southeastern Brazil; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); Peters (1945) treated as a hybrid of undetermined parentage.

Eucephala chlorocephala (Bourcier, 1854). "Green-headed Woodnymph": known only from the type specimen from southeastern Brazil; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); Peters (1945) treated as a hybrid of undetermined parentage. Meyer de Schauensee (1966) thought that it might be a synonym of Augasma smaragdinea (see below).

Thalurania lerchi Mulsant & Verreaux, 1872. "Lerch's Woodnymph": known only from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and as a questionable species by Peters (1945); Berlioz (1937, 1965), Meyer de Schauensee (1970), and Schuchmann (1999) suspected that it was a hybrid (Thalurania furcata X Chrysuronia oenone).

Thalurania tschudii, Gould, 1860. "Tschudi's Woodnymph": treated as a species by Cory (1918), but Peters (1945) considered it a synonym of T. furcata jelskii.  See Warren (1966) and Mlíkovský (2009) for additional details on the nomenclature and history of this taxon; they consider it the correct name for T. f. jelskii (e.g., Dickinson 2003).

Augasma smaragdinea Gould, 1860. "Gould's Woodnymph": known from six specimens from Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937), and as a doubtful species by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); usually assumed to be a hybrid combination of some sort (Simon & Hellmayr 1908, Pinto 1938<?>, Peters 1945, <?> Berlioz 1965), but status uncertain (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Augasma chlorophana Simon, 1897. "Simon's Woodnymph": known only from the type specimen from "Bahia"; treated as a valid species by Ridgway (1911) and Pinto (1937), but Peters (1945) treated as a hybrid of undetermined parentage.  Simon & Hellmayr (1908) thought that it might be the female of Augasma smaragdinea.

Augasma cyaneoberyllina Berlioz, 1965. "Berlioz's Woodnymph": known from two specimens from "Bahía"; usually assumed to be a hybrid combination of some sort, but status uncertain (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Leucochloris malvina (Reichenbach, 1855). "Reichenbach's Whitethroat": known only from the type specimen from "Brazil"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); possibly a hybrid (L. albicollis X Chlorostilbon aureoventris) (Berlioz 1938, Schuchmann 1999).

Leucippus pallidus Taczanowskii, 1874. "Peruvian Hummingbird": known from central Peru; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); considered a synonym of nominate Amazilia chionogaster by Peters (1945).

Amazilia cyaneotincta (Gounelle, 1909). "Blue-spotted Hummingbird": known from two "Bogotá" specimens (Meyer de Schauensee 1970); treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1945); probably an aberrant Amazilia fimbriata or A. amabilis (Schuchmann 1999).

Amazilia lucida Elliot, 1877. "Elliot's Hummingbird": known from one specimen from "Colombia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); considered of uncertain status (Peters 1945, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Amazilia veneta (Simon, 1921). "Dusky Emerald": known from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a questionable species by Peters (1945); perhaps melanistic female of A. franciae (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Schuchmann 1999).

Amazilia distans Wetmore & Phelps, 1966. "Tachira Emerald": formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970); Graves (1998) showed that it is a hybrid (Hylocharis cyanus X Amazilia fimbriata). <incorp. Weller & Schuchmann 1997>

Hylocharis pyropygia Salvin & Godman, 1881. "Flame-rumped Sapphire": known from five specimens from "Bahía"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); probably a hybrid (H. cyanus X Chlorostilbon aureoventris pucherani) (Berlioz 1938, Schuchmann et al. 1999), but possibly a valid species (Berlioz 1951, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Trogon variegatus Spix, 1824. "Purple-breasted Trogon": known from throughout much of range of T. curucui; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919); Peters (1945) considered it <a color variant?> and a synonym of nominate curucui.

Pharomachrus xanthogaster Turati & Salvadori, 1874. "Yellow-bellied Quetzal": known only from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919), but he suspected that it was a color variant of P. auriceps; Peters (1945) considered it a synonym of auriceps.

Capito aurantiiventris Ridgway, 1912. "Orange-vented Barbet": known from "Upper Amazon Valley"; formerly (e.g., Cory 1919) treated as a species; it was subsequently (e.g., Peters 1948) treated as a synonym of C. auratus amazonicus.

Capito peruvianus (Cuvier, 1817). "Peruvian Barbet": known from eastern Peru and Ecuador; formerly (e.g., Cory 1919) treated as a species; subsequently <>. treated as a synonym of C. auratus auratus (<> Chapman 1928). (not in Peters 1948, Short-Horne)

Ramphastos aurantiirostris Hartert, 1916. "Orange-billed Toucan": formerly (e.g., Peters 1948, Phelps & Phelps 1958a, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970) treated as a species, it is only a color variant of nominate R. tucanus (Pinto 1938, Haffer 1974).

Ramphastos osculans Gould, 1835/1836. "Osculated Toucan": known from northern Brazil, Venezuela, and Guyana; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); it is a population of intergrades between R. culminatus and R. vitellinus (Hellmayr 1933, Haffer 1974).

Pteroglossus didymus Sclater, 1890. "Sclater's Aracari": known from eastern Peru; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919); now considered a synonym of Pteroglossus inscriptus humboldti (Traylor 1958, Friedmann 1958, Borrero 1959, Haffer 1974, Short & Horne 2002b).

Pteroglossus olallae Gyldenstolpe, 1941. "Maroon-banded Aracari": known only from the type specimen from the Rio Jurua, Brazil; treated as a species by Peters (1948) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); the latter also stated that it might be a hybrid (P. bitorquatus X P. mariae), as proposed by Zimmer (1943), who proposed that it represented Pteroglossus bitorquatus sturmii x P. flavirostris  mariae. Meyer de Schauensee (1970) stated that it was probably a hybrid (P. torquatus X P. [flavirostris] mariae), but that combination is not geographically possible. Haffer (1974) considered it either an aberrant P. (azara) mariae or a member of a hybrid population. Short & Horne (2001) considered it a hybrid between P. azara mariae and P. inscriptus humboldti .

Pteroglossus formosus Cabanis, 1862. "Beautiful Aracari": described from "Venezuela" but unlikely to have come from there (see Haffer 1974); treated as a valid species by Cory (1919); considered by Short & Horne (2002b) to be a synonym of nominate Pteroglossus aracari.

Picumnus asterias Sundevall, 1866. "Blackish Piculet": known from one specimen from "Brazil"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919), Pinto (1937), and Peters (1948), and as tentatively valid by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); possibly a variant of P. pygmaeus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970) or P. albosquamatus guttifer (Short 1982, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Picumnus arileucus Oberholser, 1931. "Oberholser's Piculet": described from Mato Grosso, Brazil; treated as a valid species by Pinto (1937); now considered a synonym of P. albosquamatus corumbanus (Peters 1948).

Picumnus stellae Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902. "Stella's Piculet": known from the Río Orinoco, Venezuela; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919); now considered a synonym of P. pumilus (Peters 1948).

Picumnus iheringi Berlepsch, 1884. "Ihering's Piculet": known from southeastern Brazil; treated as a valid species by Pinto (1937); now considered a synonym of P. nebulosus (Gyldenstolpe 1945, Peters 1948).

Celeus roosevelti Cherrie, 1916. “Roosevelt’s Woodpecker": described from southwestern Brazil; treated as a valid species by Cory (1919); treated as a subspecies of C. flavescens by Peters (1948); Short (1972b) concluded that the type specimen represents a probable hybrid or backcross between C. elegans jumana and C. lugubris.

Dryocopus shiptoni (Dabenne, 1915). "White-shouldered Woodpecker": known from Tucumán, Argentina; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); now considered a variant of D. schulzi (Peters 1948, Pergolani de Costa 1962, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Short 1982).

Dryocopus major (Dabenne, 1916). "Chaco Woodpecker": described from “the Argentinian chaco”; now considered an aberrant D. schulzi (REF, Sibley & Monroe (1990) or of uncertain status (Walters 1980).  Olrog (1963) considered it possibly a valid species.

Falco kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, 1929. "Pallid Falcon": known from southern Argentina and Chile; long considered a distinct species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977, Stresemann & Amadon 1979); Ellis & Grant (1983) determined that it is a color phase of F. peregrinus. [inc. Stresemann & Amadon 1963, Ibis, <400>?]

Cyanoliseus byroni (Gray, 1831). "Chilean Parakeet": described from Chile; treated as a species by Cory (1918) and as a subspecies of C. patagonus by Peters (1937); now considered a synonym of Enicognathus leptorhynchus (REF, Collar 1997).

Cyanoliseus whitleyi (Kinnear, 1926). "Whitley's Parakeet": described from an aviary specimen of unknown origin; treated as a species by Peters (1937) but with the statement that it was probably a hybrid; <check> Meyer de Schauensee 1966, <>Forshaw).

Pyrrhura borelli Salvadori, 1899. "Borrell's Parakeet": known from northern Paraguay and Mato Grosso, Brazil; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Pinto (1937); considered a synonym of Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe by Peters (1937).<REFS?>

Pyrrhura hypoxantha Salvadori, 1899. "Yellow-sided Parakeet": known from southwestern Brazil; treated as a valid species by authors from Cory (1918) through Meyer de Schauensee (1970); it is now considered to represent xanthistic individuals of P. molinae (Arndt 1991, Collar 1997). T. Arndt (in litt.) has pointed out that Pyrrhura molinae sordida Todd, 1947, is a junior synonym of Pyrrhura molinae hypoxantha Salvadori, 1899; overlooked by all recent authors is that the known skins of Pyrrhura hypoxantha have been collected in an area (Corumbá and Urumcúm, Mato Grosso do Sul, Forshaw 1989) currently occupied by sordida (extreme e. Bolivia and sw. Brazil, Collar 1997).

Bolborhynchus andicolus (Finsch, 1884). "Peruvian Parakeet": described from the Andes of Peru; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1937); later found to be a synonym of B. orbygnesius (REF, Collar 1997).

Touit emmae (Salvadori, 1891). "Emma's Parrotlet": known from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918) and Peters (1937); this was based on the female plumage of T. stictopterus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Collar 1997).

Pionus cobaltinus (Messena and Souance, 1854). "Cobalt Parrot": described from "Colombia"; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); now considered a synonym of Pionus menstruus (Peters 1937).

Pionus bridgesi Boucard, 1891). "Bridge's Parrot": known from Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina; treated as a valid species by Cory (1918); now known to be a synonym of Pionus maximiliani siy (Peters 1937).

Synallaxis poliophrys Cabanis, 1866. "Gray-browed Spinetail": known only from “Cayenne”.  Formerly treated as a species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970); Vaurie (1971b) determined that it is a synonym of S. frontalis.

Cranioleuca furcata (Taczanowski, 1882). "Fork-tailed Spinetail": described from the Andes of depto. Amazonas, Peru; formerly treated as a species (e.g., Vaurie 1980).  Graves (1986b) showed that this taxon is a juvenal/immature plumage of C. curtata (despite earlier claims to the contrary (Vaurie 1971c, 1980).

Cranioleuca solimonensis Pinto, 1938. "Solimoes Spinetail": described from a single specimen from Amazonian Brazil; now considered a synonym of Cranioleuca vulpina alopecias (Peters 1951).

Megaxenops ferrugineus Berlioz, 1966. "Berlioz's Xenops": described from Madre de Dios, Peru; it is a synonym of Simoxenops ucayalae (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Vaurie 1980).

Syndactyla mirandae Snethlage, 1928. "Goias Foliage-gleaner": described from Goias, Brazil; treated as a valid species by Peters (1951); it is a synonym of Philydor dimidiatus (Novaes 1953, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Vaurie 1980).

Philydor hylobius Wetmore & Phelps, 1956. "Neblina Foliage-gleaner": described from Cerro Neblina, Venezuela; formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970) treated as a valid species, and even treated as a subspecies of Philydor atricapillus by Vaurie (1980), has been shown to be based on the juvenal plumage of Automolus roraimae (Dickerman et al. 1986).

Dendrocincla macrorhyncha Salvadori & Festa, 1899. "Large-billed Woodcreeper": known from two specimens from the Andes of Ecuador; treated as a questionable species by Peters (1951); now considered to represent aberrant individuals of D. tyrannina (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Fjeldså & Krabbe 1986, Marantz et al. 2003).

Myrmotherula kermiti Cherrie, 1916. "Kermit's Antwren": although considered a synonym of M. sclateri by Cory & Hellmayr (1924), Zimmer (1932) considered it likely that it was a valid species; Parker and Remsen (1987), however, noted that the characters of kermiti are within the range of variation of female M. sclateri.

Percnostola macrolopha Berlioz, 1966. "White-lined Antbird": formerly considered a distinct species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970); Parker (1982) showed that it is a synonym (adult male plumage) of P. lophotes.

Sipia rosenbergi (Hartert, 1898). "Esmeraldas Antbird": formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1924 Peters 1951, Meyer de Schauensee 1970); Robbins and Ridgely (1991) showed that this taxon is a synonym of M. laemosticta nigricauda.

Myrmeciza dubia (Snethlage, 1925). "Para Antbird": described from one specimen from, Pará, Brazil; considered a valid species by Pinto (1937), but other authors have followed Peters (1951) in considering it a synonym of Sclateria naevia.

Myrmeciza stictothorax (Todd, 1927). "Spot-breasted Antbird": known from two specimens from, Pará, Brazil; formerly considered a separate species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990), or a subspecies of M. atrothorax (Pinto 1937, 1944), but see Schulenberg & Stotz (1991) for reasons for considering it a synonym of M. a. melanura.

Akletos peruvianus Dunajewski, 1948. "Dunajewski’s Antbird": described from eastern Peru; considered a synonym (female plumage) of Myrmeciza melanoceps (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Phlegopsis barringeri Meyer de Schauensee, 1951. "Argus Bare-eye": known only from the type specimen from southeastern Colombia; formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970); Graves (1992) showed that it is a hybrid (P. erythroptera X P. nigromaculata), as suspected by Willis (1979).

Tyranniscus australis Olrog & Contino, 1966. "Olrog's Tyrannulet": described from one specimen from Jujuy, Argentina; formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970); Traylor (1982) showed that it is a synonym of Phyllomyias sclateri.

Elaenia aenigma Stresemann, 1937. "Stresemann's Elaenia": known from eastern Ecuador; described as a valid species, but the type specimen was reidentified as E. parvirostris (Zimmer 1941b), and it has subsequently been treated as a synonym of that species (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b).

Ornithion fasciatus (Carriker, 1934). "Huallaga Tyrannulet": described as a valid species from Río Huallaga, but now considered a synonym of Ornithion inerme (Zimmer 1941c, Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Serpophaga berliozi Dorst, 1957. "Dorst's Tyrannulet": described from Amazonas, Peru; described as a valid species, but now considered a synonym of Myiopagis g. gaimardii (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Mayr 1971, Traylor 1979a).

Serpophaga araguayae Snethlage, 1928. "Bananal Tyrannulet": known from the type specimen from Goiás, Brazil; formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970); Silva (1990) showed that it is actually a synonym of Myiopagis c. caniceps.

Serpophaga griseiceps Berlioz, 1959. "Gray-crowned Tyrannulet": known from four specimens from Bolivia; formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Zimmer 1955, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970); Traylor (1979) treated S. griseiceps as a synonym of S. munda; rationale, however, was not published. Straneck (1993) resurrected S. griseiceps as a valid species, but see Herzog & Barnett (2004), who concluded that "griseiceps" most likely represents the juvenal plumage of S. munda. Serpophaga "griseiceps" has recently been reported from Brazil (Bencke et al. 2002), but this also must refer to the possible undescribed, cryptic species called "griseiceps" by Straneck (see Herzog & Barnett 2004).

Phylloscartes pammictus (Oberholser, 1902). "Oberholser's Tyrannulet": known only from the type specimen from "Rio de Janeiro"; formerly considered a valid species (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944); now considered a synonym of Phylloscartes v. ventralis (Traylor 1979b).

Mionectes turi (Sztolcman, 1926). "Cayenne Flycatcher": described from "Cayenne" as a valid species; now considered a synonym of Mionectes oleaginea wallacei (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979, Mlíkovsky 2009).

Poecilotriccus nattereri (Hellmayr, 1903). "Natterer's Tody-Tyrant": described from interior southeastern Brazil; treated as a distinct species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Pinto (1944); now considered a synonym of Poecilotriccus latirostris ochropterus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b).

Hemitriccus rothschildi (Berlepsch, 1907). "Rothschild's Tody-Tyrant": known from French Guiana; treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927); now regarded as a synonym of Hemitriccus z. zosterops (Zimmer 1940, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979b).

Todirostrum hypospodium Berlepsch, 1907. "Berlepsch's Tody-Flycatcher": known only from the type specimen from "Bogotá"; treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and reluctantly so by Meyer de Schauensee (1966). Meyer de Schauensee (1970) considered it a presumed "variant" of Poecilotriccus sylvia; Fitzpatrick (1976) and Traylor (1979b) treated it as a synonym of P. sylvia superciliaris.

Knipolegus subflammulatus Berlioz, 1959. "Berlioz's Tyrant": described from four males from depto. Cochabamba. Bolivia; reluctantly considered a valid species by Meyer de Schauensee (1966); now known to be the immature male plumage of K. signatus cabanisi (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Mayr 1971, Traylor 1982).

Muscisaxicola tenuirostris Carriker, 1932. "Thin-billed Ground-Tyrant": described from Junín, Peru; now considered a synonym of Muscisaxicola juninensis (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Muscisaxicola titicacae Carriker, 1932. "Titicaca Ground-Tyrant": described from Lake Titicaca, Peru; now considered a synonym of Muscisaxicola fluviatilis (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). <why not maculirostris??>

Empidonomus minor Sztolcman, 1925). "Lesser Black-and-yellow-crested Flycatcher": described from "Cayenne"; considered a synonym of Legatus leucophaius (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979, Mlíkovsky 2009).

Empidonomus jelskii Sztolcman, 1926). "Sztolcman’s Flycatcher": described from French Guiana; considered a synonym of Empidonomus varius (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979, Mlíkovsky 2009).

Tyrannus apolites (Cabanis & Heine, 1859). "Heine's Kingbird": known only from the type specimen from "Rio de Janeiro"; treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927) and Pinto (1944); presumed to be a hybrid (T. melancholicus X Empidonomus varius) (Meise 1949, Meyer de Schauensee 1970).

Myiarchus toddi Chapman, 1923. "Todd's Flycatcher": known only from the type specimen from northern Peru; treated as a valid species by Cory & Hellmayr (1927); subsequently considered a subspecies of Myiarchus phaeocephalus (Zimmer 1938); now considered an aberrant M. phaeocephalus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Traylor 1979c, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Tityra leucura Pelzeln, 1868. "White-tailed Tityra": known only from the type specimen from the upper Rio Madeira, Brazil; although tentatively treated as a species by Hellmayr (1929), Meyer de Schauensee (1966), and Snow (1979a), it is widely regarded as a variant of some sort of T. inquisitor (Hellmayr 1929, Sibley & Monroe 1990), including in a footnote by J. T. Zimmer in Snow (1979a). Whittaker (2008), however, has presented evidence that it represents a valid species restricted to southwestern Amazonian Brazil. Proposal badly needed.

Manacus coronatus (Boucard, 1879). "Boucard's Manakin": known only from the type specimen from "Upper Amazon"; reluctantly considered a distinct species by Hellmayr (1929); Parkes (1961) considered it to be a hybrid (Manacus manacus X Pipra erythrocephala), as predicted by Hellmayr (1929).

Pipra anomala Todd, 1925. "Anomalous Manakin": known only from the type specimen from Pará; formerly considered a distinct species (e.g., Hellmayr 1929, Pinto 1944); Parkes (1961) considered it to be a hybrid (Heterocercus linteatus X Pipra aureola).

Pipra heterocerca Sclater, 1860. "Sharp-tailed Manakin": known only from the type specimen, subsequently destroyed (Haffer 2002), from an uncertain locality; Hellmayr (1929) tentatively considered it a distinct species; Parkes (1961) considered it to be a hybrid (Pipra filicauda X Pipra aureola or P. fasciicauda fasciata), and Haffer (1970, 1974, 2002) considered it a hybrid, Pipra filicauda X Pipra aureola.

Pipra (= Lepidothrix) obscura Sick, 1959. "Sick's Manakin": described from female specimens from Pará, Brazil; formerly considered a distinct species (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970); this is the female plumage of Pipra (= Lepidothrix) vilasboasi (Haffer 1970, Snow 1979, Sick 1993, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Heterocercus luteocephala (Lesson, 1830). "Golden-crested Manakin": known only from the type specimen, now lost, from an unknown locality; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1929); status uncertain, presumably a hybrid (Parkes 1961).

Hylophilus puella Mees, 1974. "Mees's Greenlet": known from <>; based on the female plumage of Terenura callinota (Meyer de Schauensee 1982).

Odontorchilus olallae Pinto, 1937. "Olalla's Wren": described from Rio Juruá, Brazil; now know to be a synonym of Thryothorus griseus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Malacothraupis gustavi Berlepsch, 1901. "Gustav's Tanager": known from southern Peru and northern Bolivia; treated reluctantly as a valid species by Hellmayr (1936); now known to be a synonym (male plumage) of Creurgops dentatus (Bond & Meyer de Schauensee 1941, Zimmer 1947b), as suspected by Hellmayr (1936).

Tachyphonus nattereri Pelzeln, 1870. "Natterer's Tanager": described from two specimens from southwestern Brazil; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1936), Pinto (1944), and Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970); now usually considered a subspecies of, or an aberrant individual of, T. cristatus (Zimmer 1945, Storer 1970a, Ridgely & Tudor 1989).

Tachyphonus valeryi (J. & E. Verreaux, 1855). "Black-shouldered Tanager": described from two mounted specimens from northeastern Peru; considered a valid species by Hellmayr (1936); now known to be a synonym of the icterid Lampropsar t. tanagrinus (Zimmer 1945, Bond 1951a, Storer 1955).

Tangara gouldi (Sclater, 1886). "Gould's Tanager": known only from the type specimen from southeastern Brazil; considered a species by Hellmayr (1936) and Pinto (1944); considered a hybrid (T. cyanoventris X T. desmaresti) (Bond 1947, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Storer 1970a).

Tangara arnaulti Berlioz, 1927. "Arnault's Tanager": known from one aviary specimen; reluctantly considered a valid species by Hellmayr (1936) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); presumably a hybrid (T. preciosa X T. cayana) (Hellmayr 1936, Bond 1951a, Partridge 1964, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Storer 1970a, Ingels 1971).

Ramphocelus ciropalbicaudatus Frisch, 2007 (Nature Society News, Griggsville 42[5]:13). "Frisch's Tanager": J. D. Frisch used this name for a "new species" of Ramphocelus tanager that he photographed in São Paulo, Brazil. The description not qualify as a valid description under the rules of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature; furthermore, the individual bird is most likely a partially leucistic R. carbo. See CBRO web page: (http://www.cbro.org.br/CBRO/justif.htm#Rhamphocelus%20ciropalbicaudatus%20F).

Chlorophanes purpurascens Sclater & Salvin, 1873. "Purplish Honeycreeper": known only from the type specimen from "Caracas"; considered a valid species by Hellmayr (1935); presumably a hybrid (Chlorophanes spiza X Cyanerpes cyaneus; Storer 1957); Phelps & Phelps (1948) considered it a hybrid Chlorophanes spiza X Dacnis cayana.

Sporophila lorenzi Hellmayr, 1904). "Lorenz's Seedeater": known from one specimen of uncertain origin; treated reluctantly as valid species by Hellmayr (1938), who suspected that it might be an artifact.  Meyer de Schauensee (1962) thought that it might be a specimen of S. palustris with the wings of some other species.  Treated as a probable artifact by Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and Paynter (1970a).

Sporophila melanops (Pelzeln, 1870). "Hooded Seedeater": known from the type specimen from Goias, Brazil; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1938) and Pinto (1944), but usually treated as species of uncertain status (Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990); more likely a variant of S. nigricollis or a hybrid than a valid species (Ridgely & Tudor 1989).  Meyer de Schauensee (1952) examined a specimen from Goias that he considered possibly this species and different from S. nigricollis.  Treated as a valid species by Dickinson et al. (2003). Proposal badly needed.

Sporophila zelichi Narosky, 1977.  "Narosky’s Seedeater": although described as a new species, whether it is a valid species is controversial. Ridgely & Tudor (1989) and Sibley & Monroe (1990) maintained it as a species but noted that it was perhaps a localized color morph of S. cinnamomea or a hybrid population (S. cinnamomea X S. palustris), as suggested by Vuilleumier & Mayr (1987). Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001) also continued to recognize it as a species. The observations of Azpiroz (2003) suggest that zelichi could be a valid species confined to marsh vegetation. Areta (2008) presented evidence that there is no data to support species rank for zelichi. SACC proposal passed to remove from main list.

Sicalis striata Pereyra, 1937. "Pereyra's Yellow-Finch": known from two specimens from Prov. Buenos Aires; treated as a species by (REF); now considered to be based on an immature S. flaveola pelzelni (Paynter 1970a, Sibley & Monroe 1990).

Camarhynchus conjunctus Swarth, 1929. "Swarth's Ground-Finch": known from two specimens from Charles; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1938); considered a probable hybrid (Camarhynchus parvulus X Certhidea olivaceus) (Lack 1947, Paynter 1970a).

Camarhynchus aureus Swarth, 1929. "Yellow-bellied Ground-Finch": known from one specimen from Chatham; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1938); considered a probable hybrid (Camarhynchus parvulus X Certhidea olivaceus) (Lack 1947, Paynter 1970a).

Camarhynchus giffordi Swarth, 1929. "Gifford's Ground-Finch": known from one specimen from Indefatigable; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1938); considered an aberrant C. pallidus or hybrid (Camarhynchus pallidus X Certhidea olivaceus) (Lack 1947, Paynter 1970a).

Paroaria humberti (Angelini, 1901) "Humbert's Cardinal": described from a captive individual; treated as a valid species by Hellmayr (1938), who noted that it could be simply a melanistic P. dominicana; it has been treated as such by subsequent authors (e.g., Paynter 1970c).

Basileuterus zimmeri Phelps & Gilliard, 1941. "Tachira Warbler": described from Táchira, Venezuela; now known to be a synonym of Hemispingus superciliaris chrysophrys (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).

Icterus xantholaemus Gil Lletget, 1918. "Yellow-throated Oriole": known only from the type specimen, long though to have come from Ecuador (e.g., Hellmayr 1937, Meyer de Schauensee 1966) and to represent either an immature I. mesomelas or a hybrid between two species of Icterus (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Sibley & Monroe 1990); reluctantly treated as a valid species by Blake (1968b). Barreiro & Pérez del Val (2001) showed that it is a synonym of Xanthopsar flavus.

Euphonia vittata Sclater, 1861. "Black-throated Euphonia": known from one specimen from "Rio de Janeiro"; reluctantly treated as a species by Hellmayr (1936; as E. catastica, as also in Pinto 1944) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966); probably a hybrid (E. pectoralis X E. xanthogaster) (Hellmayr 1936, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Haffer 1970, Storer 1970a).

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