A classification of the bird species of South America
American Ornithologists' Union
(Eventually to be split into at least two parts, one for well-documented published sight records, one for dubious/undocumented records).
This is a list of species reported from South America not supported by published or archived tangible evidence, or exotic species for which the evidence for being established is not conclusive.
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Anser albifrons Greater White-fronted Goose: Photograph from Aruba examined by Voous (1983), but the photograph was not published and evidently not archived.
Anser caerulescens Snow Goose: Sight records from Trinidad (ffrench 1991).
Anas platyrhynchos Mallard: Sight record from Bonaire (Voous 1985). Introduced populations are reported in Colombia and elsewhere in South America, with a photograph published (Salaman et al. 2008). SACC proposal to add to Main List did not pass.
Aix sponsa Wood Duck: Two dead individuals with U.S. bands were reportedly recovered in Colombia (Salaman et al. 2007) but verification of U.S. banding records showed the database to be in error (Salaman et al. 2008).
Anas penelope Eurasian Wigeon: Sight record of a male from northern Venezuela on 4 March 2002 (Williams and Beadle 2003). One photographed on Tobago on 2 Jan. 2016 (Kenefick 2017). Proposal badly needed.
Melanitta nigra Black Scoter: Unpublished sight record from Colombia (REF).
Numida meleagris Helmeted Guineafowl: Introduced on Trindade island, Brazil (REF); established?
Gallus gallus. [Domestic Chicken]. Gottdenker et al. (2005), as reported by Wiedenfeld (2006), indicated that there might be feral, breeding populations on the Galapagos Islands
Streptopelia decaocto Eurasian Collared-Dove: Sight record from Trinidad (M. Kenefick, in litt.).
Streptopelia risoria Ringed Turtle-Dove: A population of S. risoria has been present for some time in the Norte de Santander region of Colombia; photograph available on the web at: Donegan TM, Huertas-H BC, Briceno-L ER, Arias-B JJ & González-O CE (2003) Search for the Magdalena Tinamou: Project Report. Colombian EBA Project Report Series No. 4. Fundación ProAves, Colombia, 2003, 49 pp. www.proaves.org at p. 28. [Follow links to "Proyectos -> EBA í Reportes e informes"]. Whether the population is established is unknown (Donegan & Huertas 2002). Additionally, whether this "species" is a valid taxon is currently under review (T. Donegan, pers. comm.); it is typically treated as a domesticated form of African Collared Dove, S. roseogrisea (Goodwin 1977, Baptista et al. 1997), and is also known as "Barbary Dove" and "Ringed Dove." Although S. risoria is senior, Banks et al. (2006) changed the name of this species to "African Collared Dove" (Streptopelia roseogrisea) on the basis that ICZN Opinion 2027 established a general principle that wild species names should take precedence over domestic species names, even if the domestic name post-dated the wild name. Donegan (2007) has published the rationale for and application for continued use of S. roseogrisea over S. risoria. Proposal needed.
Tachymarptis melba Alpine Swift: Published sight report from French Guiana (Ottema 2004).
Pygoscelis adeliae Adelie Penguin: Four Falklands records involved five or six birds: an unpublished photograph by A. Carey in 1961 (Woods 1975), and sight records in 2004 and 2005, possibly of the same bird (Black et al. 2005, Morrison et al. 2006).
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Fiordland Penguin: Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001) examined a specimen in the British Museum collected at King George Bay, W. Falkland, presented by The Admiralty in the 19th Century, although Woods (1988) considered the record doubtful. Two Leiden Naturalis Museum specimens reputedly collected in the Falklands (Mazar Barnett & Pearman 2001) were misidentified and are both E. chrysocome (R. Woods in prep.). Undated mounted specimen, catalogued as collected in the "Falkland Islands", held at Cambridge Univ. Museum (R. Woods in prep.). Proposal needed to move species to the main list.
Eudyptes schlegeli Royal Penguin: Three pairs reported on W. Falkland "prior to 1987" and in the 1991-1992 austral summer where one pair reportedly bred (Strange 1987, Gregory 1994, and perhaps unpublished photograph; fide Mazar Barnett & Pearman 2001); all considered unconfirmed by Woods & Woods (1997). One individual with unpublished photograph at Pebble Island, Falklands, in Jan. 2005 (Morrison et al. 2006). Specimen of and photograph of molting bird, both with questioned identity, from s. Chile (R. Matus in prep.). Proposal needed to move species to main list pending publication and acceptance of Falklands and Chilean photographic records. Proposal needed to confirm specific status.
Spheniscus demersus Jackass Penguin: An unpublished and unavailable photo from Argentina in Chubut (Rumboll 1990) was relegated to hypothetical status by Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001). Called "African Penguin" in Walker (1995).
Phoebastria nigripes Black-footed Albatross: One undocumented sight report in Ecuadorean waters (Harris 1968). Wiedenfeld (2006) listed three potential records for the Galapagos islands, but none has been documented.
Fulmarus glacialis Northern Fulmar: Photographed off Chile, 11 Feb. 2017 (Marín et al. 2017). Proposal pending to add to main list.
<?> Pterodroma alba Phoenix Petrel: <investigate listing for Juan Fernandez Iss. at Avibase web site>.
Pterodroma magentae Magenta Petrel: Two possible sightings: near Juan Fernandez Islands, 5 Aug 1995, and 150 km west of Chile at 28-29 degrees S. Lat., March 1992 (Howell et al. 1996).
Pachyptila salvini Salvin's Prion: Oyarzo & Cekalovic (1981) reported a specimen from Archipelago de las Wollaston, Cabo de Hornos, but this specimen was subsequently reidentified as P. desolata (Barrios 2015). Called "Medium-billed Prion" in Sibley & Monroe (1990) and elsewhere.
Puffinus nativitatis Christmas Shearwater: Although occasionally listed as occurring in Chile [REF], all records are from Easter Island or Isla Sala Y Gomez, outside the area covered in this list; it breeds on Sala Y Gomez. Spear & Ainley (1999) reported this species from the "Panama Bight", which includes Colombia and Ecuador, but did not provide locality information that would allow whether any records were within South American waters.
<?> Nesofregetta fuliginosa Polynesian Storm-Petrel: <investigate listing for Galapagos at Avibase web site>. A breeding population occurs in Chilean territory on Isla Sala y Gomez (Harrison & Jehl 1988), but this is outside the limits of the area covered by this list.
Oceanodroma homochroa Ashy Storm-Petrel: Two undocumented sight records from Ecuador (Ridgely et al. 2001).
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos American White Pelican: Sight record from Trinidad (Audubon Magazine 1964, p. 289<check>, as cited by Meyer de Schauensee 1966) and two sight records in Colombia, with photographic records to date only from San Andrés (outside SACC area) (Salaman et al. 2001, Estela et al. 2005)
Morus bassanus Northern Gannet: Sight records from Trinidad & Tobago (Kenefick 2010).
Phalacrocorax auritus Double-crested Cormorant: Unpublished photo from Bonaire (Voous 1983).
Buteo jamaicensis Red-tailed Hawk: At least five sight records from Colombia (Strewe 2001, Castaño & Colorado 2002) and one from Venezuela (Hilty 1999). One photographed on Tobago on 24 Feb. 2014 (Kenefick 2015). Proposal badly needed.
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover: Sight record from Trinidad, where bird was examined in hand, banded, and released (ffrench 1973, Kenefick & Hayes 2006); the specimen from Tierra del Fuego (Humphrey et al. 1970) in fact pertains to C. semipalmatus (Katrina Cook, British Museum, pers. comm.).
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew: Photographed in Argentina, 27 Jan. 2010, by David Vander Pluym (. Proposal badly needed.
Arenaria melanocephala Black Turnstone: Sight records from the Galapagos Islands (Harris 1973, 1982).
Calidris ruficollis Red-necked Stint: Sight record from Mejia, depto. Arequipa, Peru (Hughes 1988).
Tringa totanus Common Redshank. Sight record for Fernando do Noronha, 3 December 1996 (Schulz-Neto 2004).
Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank. Sight record for Tobago, 13 February 1983 (Fisher 1998, ffrench & Hayes 1998, Kenefick & Hayes 2006).
Glareola pratincola Collared Pratincole: One photographed at Atol das Rocas, Brazil, 9 March 1990 (Antas 1990, as cited by Sick 1993); photograph now published (Soto & Filippini 2003), but photograph does not rule out G. maldivarum (Des Allen, Krys Kazmierczak, pers. comms.). Photographed in Ceará, Brazil, 21 Apr. 2015 by Ciro Albano (. Proposal badly needed.
Chroicocephalus philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull: Sight record from Bonaire (Voous 1983).
Tyrannus forficatus Scissor-tailed Flycatcher: Published sight report from n. Colombia (Rowland & Master 2011).
Margarornis bellulus Beautiful Treerunner: Reported for Colombia based on “Bogotá” skins (Verhelst-Montenegro 2015); occurs in immediately adjacent Panama. Recent sight records support occurrence on Colombian side of Cerro Tacarcuna (Renjifo et al. 2017).
Vireo griseus White-eyed Vireo: Photographed in Trinidad, 2 Jan. 1998, by Nigel Lallsingh: . Sight record from Tobago (Kenefick 2010). Proposal badly needed.
Vireo gilvus Warbling Vireo: Photographed in Quito, Ecuador, 3 Aug. 1987, by Roger Ahlman: . Proposal badly needed.
Progne sinaloae Sinaloa Martin: Presumably winters somewhere in South America (AOU 1998), but no actual records.
Tachycineta thalassina Violet-green Swallow: Sight record from northern Colombia (Ridgely & Tudor 1989).
Tachycineta cyaneoviridis Bahama Swallow: Sight record from northern Colombia (Strewe 2006).
Stelgidopteryx serripennis Northern Rough-winged Swallow: Sight records from Bonaire (Voous 1983, 1985), Aruba and Curaçao (Hilty 2003), and Colombia (Downing 2005).
Cinclus mexicanus American Dipper: Sight record from Carabobo, Venezuela (Dungel & Sebela 1995).
Tangara fucosa Green-naped Tanager: Sight record from northwestern Colombia (Pearman 1993).
Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow: Specimen from Aruba (Voous 1983, 1985); record needs to be reviewed (perhaps human-assisted).
Loxigilla noctis Lesser Antillean Bullfinch: Specimens collected in Guyana in 18<##> were later regarded as escaped cage-birds (Meyer de Schauensee 1966).
Pheucticus melanocephalus Black-headed Grosbeak: Sight record from Curaçao (Voous 1985).
Leiothlypis ruficapilla Nashville Warbler: Photographed on Aruba, 11 Nov. 2017, by Ross Wauben (. Proposal badly needed.
Dendroica pinus Pine Warbler: Sight record from the Santa Marta Mountains, northern Colombia (Strewe & Navarro 2004).
Limnothlypis swainsonii Swainson's Warbler: Sight record from coastal Venezuela in Zulia (Casler & Esté 1996).
Oporornis tolmiei MacGillivray's Warbler: Old records from northern Colombia (REF) are now considered doubtful (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). Salaman et al. (2007, 2008) did not list this species as occurring in Colombia because no specimens attributable to this species were found by Project Biomap.
Agelaius phoeniceus Red-winged Blackbird: Sight record from Trinidad (ffrench 1991).
We thank Marshall Iliff for bringing unpublished eBird records to our attention.
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