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mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:.5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1;tab-stops:4.5pt'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1;tab-stops:4.5pt'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Proposals (209-211) to </span></b></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/%7ERemsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span><b><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Proposals for the taxonomic treatment of Red-legged Tinamou <i>Crypturellus erythropus</i></span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>209. Split&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus columbianus</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>210. Split&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus idoneus</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>211. Split&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus saltuarius</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i></span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>This set of proposals is made with a view to providing an SACC view for conservation decision-makers and others on a taxonomically complicated and controversial group. The three taxa&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus (erythropus) columbianus</i>, <i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>, particularly the first and third, have often been regarded as separate species. Two of them,&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>, are currently classified as threatened species in many assessments. BirdLife International recently sought views from <span class=GramE>myself and others</span> on whether to adopt the current SACC treatment for this group (which would result in these species being lumped) because the current SACC baseline treatment differs from that which they currently follow and because two of the taxa are threatened. As the matter has not been considered by the SACC, I suggested that it would be prudent to raise a series of SACC proposals dealing with these issues in advance of BirdLife changing its treatment. BirdLife will delay taking a decision on this issue pending outcome of this series of SACC proposals and will likely adopt the SACC consensus. I have also included here a proposal for&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i> <span class=GramE>here which</span>, although not treated as separate by BirdLife International, has been treated as a separate species by some authors.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Recent taxonomic treatments</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The taxonomy of the red-legged medium-sized&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;has been controversial for decades. Per the current SACC baseline comment, &quot;species limits in this complex are poorly understood and weakly justified, and a thorough study, especially of voice, is badly needed&quot; and &quot;species-level taxonomy and allocation of subspecies to species has been exceptionally labile, perhaps more so than any other species complex in the New World&quot;.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Red-legged Tinamou&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;is a widespread species of the lowlands of South America, found in forest and in some disturbed habitats. The races&nbsp;<i>C. e. cursitans</i>,&nbsp;<i>C. e. margaritae</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. e. spencei</i>, all of lowlands east or north of the Andes, have consistently been treated as being conspecific with the nominate form. However, three other taxa currently regarded as part of&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;in the SACC baseline have often been regarded as separate species by many authors:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>1. Colombian Tinamou&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>, of the <span class=SpellE>NechÌ</span> lowlands of Colombia. Treated as separate by: e.g. Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1942; Meyer de Schauensee, 1964 (within&nbsp;<i>C. noctivagus</i>&nbsp;but not&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>) &amp; 1970; Stotz&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 1998; BirdLife International 2000; Salaman&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2001; Renjifo <i>et al</i>., 2002; Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003; BirdLife International 2004).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>2. Santa Marta Tinamou <i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;of the foothills of the Santa Marta mountains of Colombia and northern Perij· mountains of Colombia and Venezuela. Treated as separate by: e.g. Meyer de Schauensee 1970; Salaman&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2001; Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>3. Magdalena Tinamou&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;of the Magdalena valley in Colombia (historically, western Perij· mountain foothills and possibly, lowlands of SerranÌa de San Lucas and other sites in Colombia's Magdalena valley). Treated as separate by: e.g. Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1942; Meyer de Schauensee, 1964 &amp; 1970; Stotz&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 1998; BirdLife International 2000, Salaman&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2001; Renjifo&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2002; Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003; BirdLife International 2004.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Other authors (e.g. Hilty &amp; Brown, 1986; Dunning, 1987; Schwarz &amp; Lentino, 1984; Sibley &amp; Monroe 1990; Cabot, 1992; Davies 2002; Bertelli et al., 2002; Hilty, 2003; Bertelli &amp; Porzecanski 2004), tentatively lump all or some of these forms, though again almost always with comment.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Although sufficient taxonomic chaos could be considered to exist among these three taxa, the entire red-legged medium-sized&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;group is a very difficult one and has been subject to multiple different treatments. <span class=SpellE>Plagiarising</span> the SACC baseline comment for this group (with some small editions): within subspecies included in the SACC baseline within&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>, Meyer de Schauensee (1966) suggested that&nbsp;<i>C. e. cursitans</i>&nbsp;was actually a subspecies of&nbsp;<i>C. duidae</i>. Blake (1977) suggested that&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;was possibly a distinct species (as treated by Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1942) or &quot;perhaps a very distinct Colombian isolate of ...&nbsp;<i>C. boucardi</i>.&quot; Meyer de Schauensee (1964 and 1970) considered <i>C.</i> <i>(e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;as a distinct species, and Blake (1977) suggested that <i>saltuarius</i>&nbsp;might be a subspecies of <i>C. kerriae</i> (but that <i>kerriae</i> might also be a subspecies of Middle American&nbsp;<i>C. boucardi</i>). The subspecies <i>idoneus</i> and <i>spencei</i> were treated as subspecies of Middle American <i>C. cinnamomeus</i>&nbsp;in early Peters. Thus, Sibley &amp; Monroe (1990) noted that the taxa&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>,&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>, and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>, treated here as subspecies of&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>, may deserve species rank or may belong in other species, an approach adopted by Stotz&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. (1998) among others. The taxon <i>C. atrocapillus garleppi</i>, here treated as a subspecies of <i>C. atrocapillus</i> (following Blake 1977, 1979) was formerly considered a subspecies of&nbsp;<i>C. noctivagus</i>&nbsp;(e.g., Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1942, Peters) and perhaps merits species rank (Cabot 1992). Sibley &amp; Monroe (1990) considered <i>C. kerriae</i> and <i>C. erythropus</i>, along with Middle American <i>C. boucardi</i>, to form one superspecies, and&nbsp;<i>C. duidae</i>, <i>C. noctivagus</i>, and&nbsp;<i>C. atrocapillus</i>&nbsp;to form a separate superspecies. Bertelli&nbsp;<i>et al</i>.'s (2002) analysis of phenotypic characters indicated that&nbsp;<i>C. boucardi</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. kerriae</i>&nbsp;are sister species, but otherwise found little support for the monophyly of this complex.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>No strong opinions have been voiced in any of the above publications as to the treatment of this group, other than as to the fact that more research is needed and that the problem is a complex and difficult one. Those that lump the taxa typically comment that the four taxa in question may well be separate species; those that split them typically comment that they may well be well-marked races of the same species. There is essentially no force of precedent for the taxonomic treatment (split vs. lump) for these taxa (save for the lumping of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;in&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>).&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Morphological data</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The four taxa in question vary somewhat in plumage, principally head and underparts coloration, with&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;showing additional differences. Most&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;subspecies show a dusky or greyish crown, barred underparts and upperparts, a dark crown with lighter throat and a yellowish breast and belly. All have reddish legs. All are of a similar size, being considerably larger than Little Tinamou <i>C. soui</i>&nbsp;taxa with which this group is sympatric across much of its range. For reference, <i>C. e. erythropus</i> is illustrated in Hilty (2003)'s&nbsp;<i>Birds of Venezuela</i>. A plate of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) margaritae</i>, which is probably the most morphologically distinctive of the core <i>C. erythropus</i> taxa, is available on the following link: http://www.geocities.com/faunavenezuela/macagua.htm&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>C. (e.) columbianus</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;is probably the most morphologically distinctive of the taxa subject to this set of proposals. It has a rather different (darker) back coloration from the other forms and much reduced barring on the upperparts and underparts (Meyer de Schauensee 1964; Hilty &amp; Brown, 1986; BirdLife International 2000, 2004). It has indeed been considered perhaps to be more closely related to ChocÛ Tinamou <i>C. kerriae</i>&nbsp;(Blake, 1977), <i>C. noctivagus</i> (Meyer de Schauensee, 1964) or&nbsp;<i>C. boucardi</i>&nbsp;(e.g. Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1942) than to <i>C. erythropus</i> due to the lack of similarity between this form and&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>C. (e.) idoneus</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;has a greyish brown crown but otherwise differs very little in plumage from&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) spencei</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) cursitans</i>. Indeed, among the Venezuelan forms, variation within some subspecies has been considered to be often as great as <span class=SpellE>intrasubspecific</span> variation (Hilty, 2003). Among the three taxa, this has most often been lumped with <i>C. erythropus</i> (Meyer de Schauensee 1964; Hilty &amp; Brown, 1986; Schwarz &amp; Lentino, 1984, Hilty, 2003) including by some authors who split the other two (e.g. Meyer de Schauensee, 1964; BirdLife International 2000; BirdLife International 2004).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The only&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i> skin shows has a lighter belly than other forms, more greyish wash on the breast and darker crown (Wetmore, 1950; Meyer de Schau3nsee 1964; Hilty &amp; Brown, 1986; Cabot, 1992; BirdLife International 2000 &amp; 2004). A plate of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;is available online at the following link: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&amp;sid=32&amp;m=0</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Vocal data</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The voices of&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;in Venezuela have been subject to some study (Schwartz &amp; Lentino, 1984). The calls are <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistles, described variously as &quot;<span class=SpellE>whooo</span> <span class=SpellE>hooo</span>-a&quot;, &quot;soy sola&quot;, &quot;<span class=SpellE>whuu</span>, <span class=SpellE>whuu-whu</span>?&quot; (e.g. Schwartz &amp; Lentino, 1984; Hilty, 2003). The voice of what is apparently&nbsp;<i>C. saltuarius</i>&nbsp;is also reported by local people to be a <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistle &quot;soy sola&quot; (Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003). The voices of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;is also a <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> &quot;<span class=SpellE>whooo</span> <span class=SpellE>hooo</span>-a&quot; or &quot;<span class=SpellE>si</span>-u-<span class=SpellE>ri</span>&quot;, similar to those of the other forms (Schwarz &amp; Lentino 1984; Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003). Other medium sized red-legged&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;taxa currently treated as separate species also give calls consisting of <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistles (e.g. Central American&nbsp;<i>C. cinnamomeus</i>&nbsp;and <i>C. boucardi</i>, per Howell &amp; Webb, 1995). The little data that exists therefore suggests that at least&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;have broadly similar vocalisations to&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa. Given the widespread use of <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistles within this complex, one would be surprised were&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;not also to have a similarly structured call. Clearly, transcriptions of <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistles are somewhat removed from detailed sonogram analysis. Further, as other red-legged medium sized&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;currently regarded as separate species on the SACC baseline share <span class=SpellE>trisyllabic</span> whistles, basing taxonomic decisions purely on (poorly understood) vocal characters could be criticised as being inconsistent. However, it is clear that no vocal data yet exists that would support strongly any split.</span><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Molecular and morphological phylogenies</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>Bertelli <i>et al</i>. (1992)'s</span></span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'> and Bertelli &amp; Porzecanski (2004)'s recently published phylogenies (the latter using morphological and molecular data) include only&nbsp;<i>C. e. erythropus</i>&nbsp;and no&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;data. However, unpublished analyses of morphological data using Bertelli&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. (1992)'s characters do not suggest paraphyly of a greater&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus&nbsp;</i>(S. Bertelli&nbsp;<i>in litt</i>.).</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Is&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;a &quot;dubious taxon&quot;?</span></u><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>C. (e.) saltuarius</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;is known from just one specimen, an immature bird. Its voice and adult plumage are not known.&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa show considerable individual variation (Hilty, 2003) some of which may be age-related (pers. comm.). The single&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;skin is therefore hardly substantial evidence for the existence of a taxon, be it a species or subspecies. The difference in morphology of a single skin is hardly strong evidence of reproductive isolation of the form. Recent work at the type locality revealed high levels of deforestation and very few recent reports of the taxon among local people (Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003).&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus spencei</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;are present on the eastern slope of the Perij· mountain range where&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;is said to have existed. The Andean ridgeline in this region is at its lowest (c. 1500m) and narrowest north of the Equator in this region. The fact that only one immature skin exists, this from a poorly known region but where other similar taxa exist close by, may mean that &quot;dubious taxon&quot; status would be a better treatment for <i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>. However, various studies have consistently asserted the distinctiveness of the type specimen from these other forms (e.g. Wetmore 1950; Meyer de Schauensee 1964 &amp; 1970; Blake 1977).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Some evidence for the existence of a medium-sized red-legged <i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;in the Magdalena Valley was recently presented by Mantilla &amp; DÌaz (1992), citing written accounts of Fray Diego GarcÌa on &quot;<span class=SpellE>ExpediciÛn</span> <span class=SpellE>Botanica</span>&quot; in the 1600s which would match an adult&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>. Further, recent lay reports of medium-sized red-legged tinamous exist from the foothills of SerranÌa de San Lucas (Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003), provide additional evidence that there is or was a &quot;<span class=SpellE>magdalena</span> <span class=SpellE>tinamou</span>&quot; of some description in the&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;group. However, discussion of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) erythropus</i>&nbsp;still lies somewhere on the boundary between ornithology and cryptozoology. It is even feasible that the <span class=SpellE>ExpediciÛn</span> <span class=SpellE>Botanica</span> records and San Lucas reports could refer instead to&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;(Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003), particularly given the propensity for <span class=SpellE>NechÌ</span>/ChocÛ birds to extend in range into the humid part of the Magdalena valley (e.g. Stiles&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. 1999). The San Lucas region of Colombia is presently a highly dangerous region in which to conduct fieldwork - the participants on the only recent expedition to the region were detained for two weeks and could only survey secondary habitats in which no red-legged&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;were found (Salaman&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2002). If the split of this taxon is sanctioned, I will raise a separate proposal dealing with the issue of whether to treat&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;as a &quot;dubious taxon&quot; so that this issue can be taken off the table in the discussions as to whether it and others should be treated as separate from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>. However, I would suggest that the case for&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;not being a &quot;dubious taxon&quot; is arguably less bad than the case for, e.g.&nbsp;<i>Heliangelus zusii</i>, which remains on the main list following a proposal for its removal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>C. (e.) saltuarius</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;is treated as a species by BirdLife International (2000, 2004) (following Stotz&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. 1996), who classify it as Critically Endangered with a population of probably less than 50 individuals. It has previously been regarded as possibly extinct (Collar&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 1992). <i>C. (e.) columbianus </i>is regarded as Endangered, restricted to the largely deforested <span class=SpellE>NechÌ</span> region. No recent records of this taxon exist (BirdLife International 2004). The global importance of the type locality for&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;has been stressed in multiple conservation priority setting initiatives (Stattersfield et al., 1997; BirdLife International 2000 &amp; 2004; Renjifo&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2002; Alvarez, 2002). A greater (or lesser)&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;would be non-threatened (Least Concern).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Conclusions</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>These proposals are difficult ones due to the lack of hard data. An interim decision on this issue (rather than a &quot;let's wait and see&quot; approach) is necessary for conservation priority setters due to the political instability in regions from where&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;are found which shows no sign of abating in the near future and which deters fieldwork (see e.g. Alvarez, 2002; Salaman&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2001; Donegan&nbsp;<i>et al</i>., 2003).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Morphology of some of these forms (particularly <i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>) is rather distinct from that of the nominate&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;group. However, the very little and tentative vocal data points to conspecific treatment perhaps being the more conservative approach.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Little Tinamou&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus soui</i>&nbsp;includes a number of morphologically distinctive forms with a similar voice and is currently treated as one species. The plumage differences here for&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;in particular are greater than those among many&nbsp;<i>C. soui</i>&nbsp;races, at least to the human eye. Whatever the evidence one way or the other, a further question is whether the SACC baseline truly reflects the 'status quo' in modern ornithology, given the large number of recent publications that treat particularly&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>&nbsp;as separate species (if we restrict the widely followed findings of Schwartz &amp; Lentino to&nbsp;<i>C. idoneus</i>). If a split treatment is regarded as the status quo, the tables are somewhat reversed and the question rather becomes whether evidence exists to effect a lump.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Acknowledgements</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: Thanks to Stuart Butchart, Rob Clay and Sara Bertelli for comments on this proposal. The suggestions here are those of the author and not necessarily those of BirdLife International or any of the other persons mentioned.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Proposal 209</span></u></b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: <b>Split&nbsp;<i>C. columbianus</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i></b>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>C. (e.) columbianus</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;is morphologically more different from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;than either&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>&nbsp;and has been considered more closely related to each of&nbsp;<i>C. kerriae</i>,&nbsp;<i>C. boucardi</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>C. noctivagus</i>&nbsp;than&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;in the past.&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>, of all these three, probably has the best case for treatment as a separate species. The plumage differences between this taxon and others in the group, particularly&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) columbianus</i>' lack of underpart and upperpart barring and its darker plumage, are significant, broadly similar to that between other red-legged&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;taxa treated as separate species, for example in Central America. Though the evidence and justification presented here are admittedly poorly supported and the relations between these forms are poorly understood, I would personally be more inclined towards a &quot;YES&quot; vote to split this taxon than the converse.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Proposal 210</span></u></b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>:&nbsp;<b>Split&nbsp;<i>C. idoneus</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i></b>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Vocal and morphological data point to&nbsp;<i>C. idoneus</i>&nbsp;not being distantly related from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa. This split has much less force of precedent than the other two and recent studies suggest conspecific treatment is preferable. This is therefore probably the easiest proposal of the three. I would recommend a &quot;NO&quot; vote for this proposal, i.e. not to sanction the split.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Proposal 211</span></u></b><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: Split&nbsp;<i>C. saltuarius</i>&nbsp;from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i></span></b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The little that we know of&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>&nbsp;suggests that it differs in more than just crown colour (cf.&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) idoneus</i>) from&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;populations. However, such differences remain relatively small in the context of a very variable group. Indeed,&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) margaritae</i>&nbsp;presents comparable levels of dissimilarity to the other taxa as&nbsp;<i>C. (e.) saltuarius</i>, but is almost always treated as conspecific with&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>. The plumage of just one immature skin is hardly a great deal of evidence on which to base a split evidenced on morphological considerations and tentative vocal data points to this form having a similar call to&nbsp;<i>C. erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa. I would probably be inclined more towards a &quot;NO&quot; vote for the recognition of this controversial taxon as a species than the converse, though would not wish to discourage further research into the taxonomy and status of this taxon.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>References (not including major reference works on SACC reference list)</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>¡lvarez, M. D. (2002) Illicit crops and bird conservation priorities in Colombia.&nbsp;<i>Conservation Biology</i>&nbsp;16(4): 1086-1096.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Bertelli S. &amp; Porzecanski A.L. 2004. Tinamou (Tinamidae) systematics: a preliminary combined analysis of morphology and molecules. Ornitologia Neotropical (Suppl.) 2004. (available at http://www.arches.uga.edu/~perdiz/pdf/bertelli_&amp;_porzecanski_2004.pdf)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Bertelli S., Giannini, N.P. &amp; Goloboff, P.A. 2002. A phylogeny of the tinamous (Aves: Palaeognathiformes) based on integumentary characters. Syst. Biol. 51:959-979.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Donegan TM, Huertas BC &amp; BriceÒo, ER. 2003. Status of the Magdalena Tinamou&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus saltuarius</i>&nbsp;in the type locality and surrounding lower Magdalena Valley. Cotinga 19 (2003): 34-39.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Mantilla R., L. C. &amp; DÌaz, P. S. (1992) Fray Diego GarcÌa, su vida y su <span class=SpellE>obra</span> <span class=SpellE>cientÌfica</span> en la <span class=SpellE>ExpediciÛn</span> <span class=SpellE>Bot·nica</span>. <i>Rev. Acad. Colombiana <span class=SpellE>Cienc</span>. Nat. <span class=SpellE>FÌsicas</span> y Nat</i>. 7: 242-243.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Renjifo, L. M., Franco Maya, A. M., Amaya-<span class=SpellE>Espinel</span>, J. D., <span class=SpellE>Kattan</span>, G. H. &amp; LÛpez-Lanus, B. (eds.) (2002)&nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Libro</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>rojo</span> de aves de Colombia. <span class=SpellE>Serie</span> <span class=SpellE>Libros</span> <span class=SpellE>Rojos</span> de <span class=SpellE>Especies</span> <span class=SpellE>Amenazadas</span> de Colombia</i>. Bogot·: Instituto de <span class=SpellE>InvestigaciÛn</span> de <span class=SpellE>Recursos</span> <span class=SpellE>BiolÛgicos</span> Alexander von Humboldt &amp; <span class=SpellE>Ministerio</span> de <span class=SpellE>Medio</span> <span class=SpellE>Ambiente</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Salaman, P. G. W., <span class=SpellE>Cuadros</span>, T., Jaramillo, J. G. &amp; Weber, W. H. 2001.&nbsp;<i>Checklist of the birds of Colombia</i>. MedellÌn: Sociedad <span class=SpellE>AntioqueÒa</span> de OrnitologÌa.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Salaman P.G.W., Donegan T.M. &amp; Cuervo A.M. 2002. New distributional bird records from SerranÌa de San Lucas and adjacent Central Cordillera of Colombia.&nbsp;<i>Bull BOC</i>&nbsp;122(4): 285-304.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Schwartz P &amp; Lentino M. 1984. <span class=SpellE>Relaciones</span> de los <span class=SpellE>tinamidos</span> <span class=SpellE>Venezolanos</span> del grupo&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus noctivagus</i>&nbsp;<span class=SpellE>indicados</span> por su <span class=SpellE>voz</span> (Aves: Tinamidae).&nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Serie</i></span><i> <span class=SpellE>Informes</span> <span class=SpellE>CientÌficos</span></i>&nbsp;<i>DGSIIA/</i>IC/23, <span class=SpellE>Ministerio</span> del <span class=SpellE>Ambiente</span> y de <span class=SpellE>Recursos</span> Naturales <span class=SpellE>Renovables</span>, Caracas, Venezuela.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Stiles, F G, Rosselli, L &amp; BohÛrquez, C I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia.&nbsp;<i>Bull Brit. <span class=SpellE>Onith</span>. Club</i>&nbsp;119: 113-128.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Wetmore A. 1950.&nbsp;<i>Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash</i>. 63 at p.171.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Thomas Donegan, March 2006<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>==============================================================================</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;On this group of proposals I shall vote NO. I feel that the forms&nbsp;<i>columbianus, idoneus&nbsp;</i>and&nbsp;<i>saltuarius</i>&nbsp;are best left<b><i>&nbsp;</i></b>as forms of <i>erythropus</i>&nbsp;until solid new data (ideally, genetic and vocal) clearly favors their being split. Although I have met none of these forms in life, I did examine series of skins of the first two and a set of photos of the type of the latter while in the US several years ago. My conclusions from this study were that all of the forms share a similar overall pattern and similar sexual dimorphism (the lone specimen of&nbsp;<i>saltuarius&nbsp;</i>being an immature male), differing mainly in intensity of coloration (which seems to follow Gloger`s rule:&nbsp;<i>columbianus</i>, from a wet area, is darker and more richly colored, with less contrasting black barring, than the pale, greyish&nbsp;<i>idoneus</i>&nbsp;with more contrasting black barring, from the dry-forested lowlands around the Santa Marta range of N Colombia). (<i>Momotus&nbsp;</i>motmots show a similar pattern of variation in N Colombia). Blake (1977) mentioned that Carriker's data on the Mallophaga of these birds also indicates close relationship. A further consideration is that the race&nbsp;<i>spencei</i>, of the wet Paria peninsula of Venezuela, is also darker than adjacent <i>erythropus</i> and in fact, bears a considerable resemblance to&nbsp;<i>columbianus</i>. If one lumps&nbsp;<i>spencei</i>&nbsp;into <i>erythropus</i>, I can see little justification for keeping <i>columbianus</i> separate. (Hilty (2003) states that individual variation in the Venezuelan races is a great as the differences between them; while at least<i>&nbsp;idoneus</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>columbianus&nbsp;</i>are quite distinct, the one specimen of&nbsp;<i>saltuarius</i>&nbsp;is closer to <i>idoneus</i>&nbsp;but somewhat darker (again in accordance with Gloger`s rule); only more specimens of this form will confirm its distinctness. Donegan is correct in noting that a description of what is presumably the adult male was made by Fray Diego GarcÌa in 1793, but the difference in vocabulary, anatomical and color terms make comparisons difficult (for example, the generic term for brown in those days was &quot;tabaco&quot; - but did it refer to simply the dried leaves, cured leaves or smoked leaves?). Be this as it may, <i>saltuarius</i>&nbsp;is clearly a representative of the <i>erythropus</i> group. The differences in intensity and contrast of the dark barring is also not wholly convincing as basis for a split: for example, the change in&nbsp;<i>C. undulatus</i>&nbsp;from a strongly barred, contrasty bird in E Peru to a very weakly patterned one in E Colombia is at least as striking. Color differences as great or greater occur among the races of&nbsp;<i>C. soui</i>. In sum, the evidence from color and pattern of specimens does not seem to me sufficient to justify splitting these forms. Good recordings of&nbsp;<i>columbianus, idoneus&nbsp;</i>and&nbsp;<i>saltuarius</i>&nbsp;either do not exist or have never been analyzed.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Donegan`s final argument is that the three forms in question are all endangered to a greater or lesser degree, and according them species rank will facilitate obtaining funding for studying them. I sympathize with this argument, but disagree that conservation considerations should drive taxonomic decisions: this is putting the cart before the horse. One solution that we have been trying to implement in Colombia (as in the designation of IBAs) is to consider certain forms as &quot;genetically significant populations&quot; - specifically, distinctive subspecies which on present evidence are not species, but from their degrees of phenotypic distinctiveness probably include a significant degree of genetic variation with respect to the rest of the species - and these three tinamous are so considered. The challenge, of course, is convincing funding agencies that such populations are worth studying and saving.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Additional comments from Thomas Donegan</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>: &quot;Gary and I seem in agreement on two of the three proposals (lump<i>&nbsp;C. e. saltuarius</i> and<i> C. e. idoneus</i>&nbsp;with<i>&nbsp;C. erythropus</i>). I find the comparison with<i>&nbsp;C. e. spencei </i>convincing that the lump (and not the split) version of the status quo may also be better for<i>&nbsp;C. e. columbianus.&nbsp;</i>This does raise questions as to whether some other taxa in this group currently treated as separate species may not also be Gloger's rule variations on a theme, but this is not the subject of these proposals.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>&quot;In relation to Gary's other comments, could I please emphasise that the proposal does not suggest that a conservation cart should ever be put before a taxonomic horse. For clarity (if this was lacking?), comments on conservation status in the proposal are (i) to provide evidence of the status quo in ornithological publications (of which ornithological conservation publications form part) and (ii) to provide some context for the SACC as to the wider ramifications of the proposal and the reasons behind raising it. Although much criticised (including by me, in print), the wide use of only (BSC) species data in conservation assessments cannot be denied.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Until there is a detailed analysis of vocalizations and genetic data I see no reason why any of the proposed splits in 209-211 should be made.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Silva</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. No change without any good data.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores (209)</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Aunque la <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> <span class=SpellE>hecha</span> por Donegan me <span class=SpellE>pareciÛ</span> <span class=SpellE>bien</span> <span class=SpellE>fundamentada</span> y <span class=SpellE>estuve</span> a <span class=SpellE>punto</span> de <span class=SpellE>votar</span> por SI, el <span class=SpellE>comentario</span> de Stiles me <span class=SpellE>hizo</span> <span class=SpellE>cambiar</span> de idea. Este es un <span class=SpellE>caso</span> que <span class=SpellE>casi</span> <span class=SpellE>corresponderÌa</span> <span class=SpellE>emitir</span> un &quot;blank vote&quot;, <span class=SpellE>pero</span> <span class=SpellE>dejemos</span> <span class=SpellE>eso</span> para la <span class=SpellE>elecciÛn</span> de <span class=SpellE>polÌticos</span>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores (210)</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. <span class=SpellE>Pienso</span> que Donegan ha <span class=SpellE>fundamentado</span> <span class=SpellE>bien</span> que <span class=SpellE>esta</span> <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> no es <span class=SpellE>factible</span>, y <span class=SpellE>m·s</span> <span class=SpellE>si</span> <span class=SpellE>uno</span> <span class=SpellE>vota</span> por NO en la <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> anterior.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores (211)</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Con los <span class=SpellE>mismos</span> <span class=SpellE>comentarios</span> que para la <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> anterior, con el <span class=SpellE>agregado</span> de que <span class=SpellE>existiendo</span> solamente un <span class=SpellE>ejemplar</span> no <span class=SpellE>parece</span> <span class=SpellE>apropiado</span> <span class=SpellE>hacer</span> <span class=SpellE>demasiadas</span> <span class=SpellE>conjeturas</span> y <span class=SpellE>m·s</span> en <span class=SpellE>este</span> grupo <span class=SpellE>donde</span> <span class=SpellE>las</span> <span class=SpellE>especies</span> son tan <span class=SpellE>parecidas</span> y variables.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Gary nicely summarizes several reasons for not making a change here, and, as reiterated by virtually everyone, the absence of any formal analysis or new data leaves us with no compelling reason for making the change.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO - This is a complicated issue but I think that vocal (or molecular) data is needed to steer this situation to a firmer decision than we can at this point. The issue of Gloger's rule is very important given that these are ground dwelling, and ground nesting creatures. It is precisely in these species where color matching to substrate is expected, and the cryptic coloration that tinamous tend to have clarifies that this is no insignificant point.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Diante dos dados <span class=SpellE>expostos</span> e a <span class=SpellE>espera</span> de <span class=SpellE>novos</span> dados, voto com a <span class=SpellE>maioria</span>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Additional comments from Thomas Donegan</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>Miguel Lentino recently kindly provided me with a copy of the difficult-to-obtain article that he and Paul Schwarz authored re&nbsp;<i>Crypturellus</i>&nbsp;vocalisations. A summary of this was provided in <span class=SpellE>Hilty's</span> Venezuela book (relied upon in the above proposal).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>&quot;The article evidences some small vocal differences between&nbsp;<i>idoneus</i>&nbsp;and the other&nbsp;<i>erythropus</i>&nbsp;taxa, which the authors conclude are better treated as not sufficient to evidence species rank. A discussion of morphological variation in the other taxa relevant to this set of proposals is also included in the Schwarz &amp; Lentino article, with not dissimilar conclusions from the proposals above read together with Gary Stiles' comments.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>&quot;Jeff Thompson has kindly put a scan of the article on the Tinamou Research Group website: http://gallus.forestry.uga.edu/trg/pdf/SchwarzLentino1984.pdf.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>