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</o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#EAF1DD" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1;tab-stops:4.5pt'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1;tab-stops:4.5pt'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Proposals (213) to </span></b></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/%7ERemsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span><b><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Change linear sequence of species in&nbsp;<i>Gypopsitta</i>/<i>Pionopsitta</i></span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>: Our current linear sequence of species in <i>Gypopsitta</i>/<i>Pionopsitta</i> (see Proposal 212) is:</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>aurantiocephala<br> vulturina<br> haematotis<br> pulchra<br> barrabandi<br> pyrilia<br> caica</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>New information</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: Ribas et al. (2005) found, using mtDNA sequence data, the flowing sister-species relationships, which are largely consistent with predictions from biogeography:</span><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>(1)&nbsp;<i>aurantiocephala + vulturina&nbsp;</i>(with&nbsp;<i>caica</i>&nbsp;the sister to this pair)</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>(2)&nbsp;<i>barrabandi</i>&nbsp;+&nbsp;<i>pyrilia</i></span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>(3)&nbsp;<i>haematotis</i>&nbsp;+&nbsp;<i>pulchra</i></span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Support for those relationships was reasonably strong in both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>However, when plumage characters were added and combined with the genetic data, the topology shifts slightly in that&nbsp;<i>caica</i>&nbsp;becomes the sister to a group formed by two Amazonian pairs: (<i>aurantiocephala + vulturina</i>) + (<i>barrabandi</i>&nbsp;+&nbsp;<i>pyrilia</i>); however, support for the basal position of&nbsp;<i>caica</i>&nbsp;is weak. Ribas et al. provided rationale for why they had more confidence in the topology generated by the molecular data.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>We can tinker with our linear sequence slightly to reflect the phylogenetic hypothesis of Ribas et al. (2005) as follows, starting by convention with northernmost species first,:</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>haematotis<br> pulchra<br> pyrilia<br> barrabandi<br> caica<br> aurantiocephala<br> vulturina</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Various other permutations are possible with respect to placement of <i>caica</i>, but this reflects the authors' best estimate of relationships among the species.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Recommendation</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>: YES. Our current sequence does not reflect phylogenetic hypotheses. Although linear sequences are a poor way to portray relationships, for consistency we should make those sequences as consistent as possible with available data.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Literature Cited (see SACC Biblio for the rest):</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>CRACRAFT, J., AND R. O. PRUM. 1988. Patterns and processes of diversification: speciation and historical congruence in some Neotropical birds. Evolution 42: 603-620.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>RIBAS, C. C., R. GABAN-LIMA, C. Y. MIYAKI, AND J. CRACRAFT. 2005. Historical biogeography and diversification within the Neotropical parrot genus&nbsp;<i>Pionopsitta</i>&nbsp;(Aves: Psittacidae). Journal Biogeography 32:1409-1427.</span><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>V. Remsen, March 2006</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Note added by Remsen 20 June 06</span></u><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>: Tavares et al.'s (2006; Syst. Biol. 55: 454-470; see SACC Biblio) phylogeny independently indicates that <i>Gypopsitta</i>&nbsp;spp. and&nbsp;<i>Pionopsitta pileata</i>&nbsp;do not form a monophyletic group.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>===========================================================================</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. Insofar as possible, this arrangement seems the best fit that a linear sequence can offer given the more complex relationships indicated by the phylogeny.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. A <span class=SpellE>esta</span> <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> la <span class=SpellE>encuentro</span> <span class=SpellE>tambiÈn</span> <span class=SpellE>coherente</span>, <span class=SpellE>ya</span> que <span class=SpellE>refleja</span> lo que Ribas et al. (2005) <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>han</span></span> <span class=SpellE>analizado</span> <span class=SpellE>mediante</span> dos <span class=SpellE>diferentes</span> <span class=SpellE>formas</span>: (i) <span class=SpellE>secuencias</span> de genes <span class=SpellE>mitocondriales</span> cyt&nbsp;<i>b&nbsp;</i>y ND2 y (ii) 26 <span class=SpellE>caracteres</span> de <span class=SpellE>plumaje</span>. Lo <span class=SpellE>˙nico</span> que no me <span class=SpellE>parece</span> <span class=SpellE>bien</span> es que por <span class=SpellE>convenciÛn</span> se <span class=SpellE>pongan</span> <span class=SpellE>primero</span> <span class=SpellE>las</span> <span class=SpellE>especies</span> de <span class=SpellE>m·s</span> del <span class=SpellE>norte</span>, <span class=SpellE>porque</span> <span class=SpellE>esto</span> <span class=SpellE>puede</span> <span class=SpellE>crear</span> <span class=SpellE>problemas</span> de <span class=SpellE>relaciÛn</span> con el <span class=SpellE>gÈnero</span> anterior y con el <span class=SpellE>siguiente</span>. En <span class=SpellE>este</span> <span class=SpellE>caso</span>, la <span class=SpellE>especies</span> <span class=SpellE>m·s</span> <span class=SpellE>emparentada</span> con&nbsp;<i>Pionites leucogaster </i><span class=SpellE>serÌa</span> <i>G. haematotis</i> y con <i>Hapalopsittaca amazonina </i>y <i>Pionopsitta pileata</i>, <i>G. vulturina,&nbsp;</i><span class=SpellE>siendo</span> que la <span class=SpellE>relaciÛn</span> es <span class=SpellE>aparentemente</span> al <span class=SpellE>revÈs</span>.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES - Looks like the logical step based on the published information.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;Yes. Em conson‚ncia com o voto na proposta precedente.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>