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mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#ffefea,#fdf1ff"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="none [662]"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#EAF1DD" lang=EN-US style='tab-interval:.5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Proposal (246) to </span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/%7ERemsen/SACCBaseline.html"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></a><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Eliminate Kalinowski's Tinamou <i>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i> from the list of South American species</span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>:&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;is known from only three specimens. It was described by Berlepsch and Stolzmann (1901) from a site (Licamachay) believed to be near Cuzco, that is to say, in an intermontane valley in south central Peru. In subsequent years, the type, which was in Warsaw, was seen by, or drew comments from, few if any ornithologists. Hellmayr and Conover (1942) suggested (apparently without having seen the type) that&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;was &quot;probably a race of&quot; the widespread Ornate Tinamou <i>Nothoprocta ornata</i>, of which there was no representative in the department of Cuzco.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Decades later, Meyer de Schauensee (1966) reported a second specimen was in the collections of the American Museum of Natural History, collected at a site in the western Andes of northern Peru. Meyer de Schauensee repeated the suggestion that&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;may be a subspecies of ornata, although the new specimen placed the only two sites for&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;at opposite ends of the distribution of&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta ornata branickii</i>. It is not known who identified this specimen as&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>(although it probably was Maria Koepcke), or on what basis. Regardless, the AMNH specimen became the modern &quot;template&quot; for what&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;was (rather than the type, which was difficult to access). More recently, Vasconcelas (2002) reported a third specimen, similar to the AMNH specimen and from the same part of Peru.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>It's not that unusual for a species to be known from only a few specimens, or to have disjunct distributions. But no other Peruvian species has a distribution similar to that reported for&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i>. Furthermore, as mentioned above, the reported distribution of&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;lies in two pockets at the northern end of, and just to the southeastern end of, the distribution of&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta ornata branickii</i>. This distribution is difficult to reconcile with literature suggestions that&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i> might be a distinct subspecies of ornata.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Recent evidence</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: Krabbe and Schulenberg (2005) reported on &quot;A mystery solved: the identity and distribution of Kalinowski's Tinamou&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i>&quot; (pdf available from TSS or from Remsen). Krabbe visited Warsaw and studied the type of&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>. Krabbe and Schulenberg review the slight reported differences between&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>branickii</i>, and variation within <i>branickii</i>, and conclude that <i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;is &quot;merely an extreme individual variant&quot; of&nbsp;<i>branickii</i>&nbsp;(see the comparative photographs in Krabbe and Schulenberg; our use of the adjective &quot;extreme&quot; makes the type of <i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;sound more different from run-of-the-mill <i>branickii</i>&nbsp;than it really is). Therefore, <i>kalinowskii</i>&nbsp;is a junior synonym of&nbsp;<i>branickii</i> (described by Taczanowski in 1874), and not a separate taxon.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Furthermore, Krabbe and Schulenberg were able to retrace the route of Jean Kalinowski, the collector of the type of Kalinowski's Tinamou. The exact location of &quot;Licamachay&quot; remains undetermined, but clearly it was farther west than Cuzco, and likely not disjunct from or parapatric to the distribution of <i>branickii</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Krabbe and Schulenberg also discuss the two specimens, reportedly <i>kalinowskii</i>, from the western Andes. These two specimens differ in some (subtle) ways from topotypical&nbsp;<i>branickii</i> (and from the type of kalinowskii). The limited evidence suggests that these specimens may represent no more than the end point of a cline in variation at the northern edge of the range of&nbsp;<i>branickii</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Recommendation</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>: A &quot;yes&quot; vote on this proposal - which is what I recommend - would be a vote to accept the conclusions of Krabbe and Schulenberg to &quot;demote&quot; <i>kalinowskii</i> from species to junior synonym of&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta ornata branickii</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>References</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>:</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Berlepsch, H. and Stolzmann, J. 1901. Descriptions d'oiseaux nouveaux du PÈrou central recueillis par le voyageur Polonais Jean Kalinowski. Ornis 11: 191-195.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Hellmayr, C. E. and Conover, H. B. 1942. Catalogue of birds of the Americas, Part I, number 1. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 13 (Publ. 514).</span><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Krabbe, N., and T.S. Schulenberg. 2005. A mystery solved: the identity and distribution of Kalinowski's Tinamou <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i>. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 125: 253-260.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1966. The species of birds of South America and their distribution. Narberth, Pennsylvania; Livingston Publishing Company.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Vasconcelos, M. F. 2002. A newly discovered specimen of Kalinowski's Tinamou <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Nothoprocta kalinowskii</i> from the Andean Pacific slope of Peru. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 122: 216-218.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Tom Schulenberg, October 2006<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>======================================================================<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. Clearly, burden-of-proof now falls on anyone claiming that&nbsp;<i>kalinowskii&nbsp;</i>is a species-level taxon.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. Krabbe and Schulenberg have shown that &quot;<i>kalinowskii</i>&quot; should be considered a synonym of&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta ornata branickii</i>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. The arguments of K&amp;S are convincing, and clear up most satisfactorily the status of this doubtful &quot;taxon.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES - Certainly does clarify a mystery.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. Los argumentos de Krabbe and Schulenberg son <span class=SpellE>bastante</span> <span class=SpellE>convincentes</span>, <span class=SpellE>teniendo</span> en <span class=SpellE>cuenta</span> los <span class=SpellE>pocos</span> <span class=SpellE>ejemplares</span> <span class=SpellE>existentes</span>. De <span class=SpellE>todos</span> <span class=SpellE>modos</span>, <span class=SpellE>pienso</span> que el <span class=SpellE>problema</span> no <span class=SpellE>est·</span> <span class=SpellE>totalmente</span> <span class=SpellE>resuelto</span> y <span class=SpellE>merece</span> <span class=SpellE>estudios</span> <span class=SpellE>especÌficos</span> de campo <span class=SpellE>para</span> <span class=SpellE>determinar</span> si <span class=SpellE>realmente</span> la <span class=SpellE>especie</span> <span class=SpellE>existe</span> o no.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. <span class=SpellE>Os</span> argumentos de Krabbe &amp; Schulenberg <span class=SpellE>s„o</span> <span class=SpellE>satisfatÛrios</span> <span class=SpellE>para</span> <span class=SpellE>desconsiderar</span> o <span class=SpellE>atÈ</span> <span class=SpellE>ent„o</span> <span class=SpellE>enigm·tico</span>&nbsp;<i>Nothoprocta kalinowskii </i>como t·xon <span class=SpellE>v·lido</span>.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style='margin:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-outline-level:1'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>