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mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#ffefea,#fdf1ff,#fdf7ff,#ffefdc"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="#ffefdc"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFEFDC" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Proposal (348) to </span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></a><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='tab-stops:76.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: ES-TRAD'>Incluir <i>Pterocnemia</i>&nbsp;dentro de&nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Rhea</i></span><i><o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'>Antecedentes</span></u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: ES-TRAD'>: El &quot;<span class=SpellE>Lesser</span> <span class=SpellE>Rhea</span>&quot; fue descripto en 1834 por d¥Orbigny como&nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Rhea</i></span><i> pennata</i>&nbsp;y <span class=SpellE>asi</span> fue denominado por autores posteriores hasta 1871 cuando G. R. Gray crea el gÈnero <i>Pterocnemia</i>, basado principalmente en que la especie presenta la parte superior del tarso emplumado. Aparentemente, ese nombre no fue usado posteriormente hasta 1919 cuando R. Dabbene lo utiliza directamente para <i>Pterocnemia tarapacensis&nbsp;</i>sin aclaraciÛn alguna. Posteriormente, otros autores (<span class=SpellE>Peters</span> 1923, <span class=SpellE>Wetmore</span> 1926, Hudson 1927, Zotta 1935, Olrog 1959, y la mayorÌa de los autores modernos) usan este nombre.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'>Nueva informaciÛn</span></u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: ES-TRAD'>: Sibley y Ahlquist (1990), basados en su estudio de evoluciÛn molecular (DNA-DNA <span class=SpellE>Hybridization</span>), usa nuevamente el nombre <span class=SpellE>Rhea</span> pennata para esta especie. TambiÈn otros autores o instituciones utilizan este nombre, por ejemplo: Animal <span class=SpellE>Diversity</span> Web del <span class=SpellE>University</span> of Michigan <span class=SpellE>Museum</span> of <span class=SpellE>Zoology</span>, Wikipedia, <span class=SpellE>Rossi</span> Fraire, H.J &amp; <span class=SpellE>Martella</span>, M.B en British <span class=SpellE>Poultry</span> <span class=SpellE>Science</span> y ZipcodeZoo.com, etc.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'>Las especies en el campo son muy parecidas morfolÛgicamente y en comportamiento y seg˙n parece, las diferencias entre ambos gÈneros, son sÛlo que&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>&nbsp;tiene la parte superior del tarso emplumado y tiene menor n˙mero de <span class=SpellE>escutelaciones</span> (restringidas a la parte inferior delantera del tarso).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'>Recomendaciones</span></u><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: ES-TRAD'>: teniendo en cuenta de que existe un an·lisis molecular que incluye&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia&nbsp;</i>en&nbsp;<span class=SpellE><i>Rhea</i></span> y que las diferencias morfolÛgicas que separan a ambos gÈneros son poco importantes (pensemos en otros gÈneros de aves como <i>Tityra, Myrmeciza,&nbsp;</i>etc. que las especies presentan ·reas con o sin plumas), yo voto&nbsp;<b>SI&nbsp;</b>a esta propuesta.</span><span lang=ES-TRAD style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-ansi-language:ES-TRAD'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Manuel Nores, May 2008</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>=========================================================================</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Cadena</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO.&nbsp; I don't have a copy of Sibley and Ahlquist here, but since there is only one species of&nbsp;<i>Rhea</i>&nbsp;and one species of <i>Pterocnemia</i>, I do not understand how can their molecular analysis reveal that&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>&nbsp;is included in&nbsp;<i>Rhea</i>&nbsp;as described in the proposal. By definition, if you include two species of a single clade in a phylogeny as did Sibley and Ahlquist you recover two lineages, but since these two are sister to each other there is no reason to change the taxonomy. Manuel's points on the similarity of the two are well-taken, but as I said in the&nbsp;<i>Pipromorpha</i>-<i>Mionectes</i>&nbsp;proposal, unless traditional genera are not monophyletic, I think we should not modify classification at this level (and at higher ranks).&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;A tentative YES. Although more recent sequence data would be desirable, I agree that the evidence for a generic distinction is not very convincing - more feathered tibia might be simply an adaptation to a cooler climate and tarsal scutellation is notoriously plastic in several other groups.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO, but reluctantly. I agree with Manuel that the characters used to place these two species in separate genera are not very impressive, and I am struck by the overall superficial similarity between these two. The decision to use 1 or 2 genera in this case is largely arbitrary. Genetic distance might provide some guidance, but the problem is that as far as I can tell Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) did not sample&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>, and they started from the standpoint that&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>&nbsp;is included in&nbsp;<i>Rhea</i>&nbsp;without further discussion (that I can find). Sibley &amp; Monroe (1990) implemented the merger without comment. Given that most other classifications, including Davies 2002 book on ratites and tinamous (Oxford's &quot;Bird Families of the World&quot; series), retain&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>, I would like to see additional analyses before adopting a merger. So many papers have been written on ratite classification that I suspect comparative data in terms of genetic and morphological distance are already in the literature, but I would like to see this synthesized before changing status quo. That said, I suspect that such a synthesis will show that a merger is warranted.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. <span class=SpellE>Creio</span> <span class=SpellE>que</span> a <span class=SpellE>proposiÁ„o</span> È <span class=SpellE>perfeitamente</span> <span class=SpellE>pertinente</span>. <span class=SpellE>H·</span> <span class=SpellE>pelo</span> <span class=SpellE>menos</span> uma <span class=SpellE>evidÍncia</span> em favor <span class=SpellE>publicada</span> em:</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>Delsuc</span></span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>&nbsp;<i>et al.</i>&nbsp;(2007) Molecular evidence for <span class=SpellE>hybridisation</span> between the two living species of South American ratites: potential conservation implications. <i>Conservation Genetics</i>&nbsp;8(2): 503-507.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Abstract: n a private wildlife research facility and rhea farm of Argentina, artificially incubated eggs of putative hybrid origin between the Greater Rhea (<i>Rhea americana</i>) and the Lesser Rhea (<i>R. pennata</i>) hatched and gave birth to healthy chicks. Molecular genotyping by the analysis of mitochondrial Cytochrome&nbsp;<i>b</i>&nbsp;(Cyt&nbsp;<i>b</i>) and nuclear Chromo-Helicase DNA binding (CHD1) gene sequences confirmed the hybrid origin of these <span class=GramE>chicks which</span> were molecularly sexed as females. The possibility of <span class=SpellE>hybridisation</span> argues for careful management of captive populations of these species, especially if individuals are to be released in the wild for conservation purposes.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>&quot;I assume that the existence of hybrid among Greater Rhea and Darwin Rhea is a good indication of a closer relationship than admitted before.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Additional comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;On the basis of the paper and abstract that Fernando found, I change my vote to YES. Intergeneric hybrids are know, of course, in Trochilidae, Anatidae, and other families, and the instance above came from captive birds. But combine this with the absence of discrete morphological characters to distinguish them and I think burden-of-proof falls on maintaining separate genera. My subjective definition of 'genus', at least for non-passerines includes diagnosability at the skeletal/fossil level.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stotz</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. While I tend to vote for the status quo in the absence of clear evidence to the contrary, I have to say that two monotypic Rhea genera seems like a taxonomic treatment that doesn't provide useful information. These are not very distinctive taxa, and there can't be any question that they are sister taxa. I can't see that there is any value to continuing to maintain two genera of Rheas.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES, for reasons perhaps best summarized by Doug.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES - I think that separating these species into different genera is not all that informative. It feels a bit uncomfortable to merge these in the same genus because I have become so accustomed to &quot;<i>Pterocnemia</i>&quot; but concede that there is little reason for doing so. There may be stronger arguments for separating the two taxa of&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i> as different species though, but with this question it would also be useful to see how separate the various lineages in&nbsp;<i>Pterocnemia</i>/<i>Rhea</i>&nbsp;are.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Schulenberg</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. That's a reluctant vote, since the differences between the two are slight. According to Blake 1977, the diagnosable differences simply are size and whether or not the tarsus is feathered are the tarsal scutellation. I'm not impressed by those differences in morphology, but who knows what a genetic perspective would reveal. Like Van, I have to wonder, are there no genetic data already available bearing on this question? Has anyone looked? Or have all the reams and reams of ratite relationship projects managed to overlook this central question?&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> </div> </body> </html>