ˇ˛<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:mv="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Treat&nbsp;Anas andium&nbsp;as a separate species from&nbsp;Anas flavirostris"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=macintosh"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <link rel=File-List href="SACCprop356_files/filelist.xml"> <title>Treat&nbsp;Anas andium&nbsp;as a separate species from&nbsp;Anas flavirostris</title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>James Remsen</o:Author> <o:LastAuthor>James Remsen</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>6</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2015-10-02T16:59:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-10-02T16:59:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>2</o:Pages> <o:Words>1435</o:Words> <o:Characters>7581</o:Characters> <o:Company>LSU Museum Natural Science</o:Company> <o:Lines>154</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>23</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>8993</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>14.0</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--> <link rel=themeData href="SACCprop356_files/themedata.xml"> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:Zoom>116</w:Zoom> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>JA</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:EnableOpenTypeKerning/> <w:DontFlipMirrorIndents/> <w:OverrideTableStyleHps/> <w:UseFELayout/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapIndent m:val="1440"/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="undOvr"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="true" DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99" LatentStyleCount="276"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="0" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="9" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" Name="toc 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="35" QFormat="true" Name="caption"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="10" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="11" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="22" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="59" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Table Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Placeholder Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Revision"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="29" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="30" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Quote"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="60" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="61" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="62" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="63" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="64" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="65" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="66" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="67" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="68" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="69" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="70" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="71" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="72" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="73" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="19" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="31" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="32" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="33" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="37" Name="Bibliography"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="39" QFormat="true" Name="TOC Heading"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Arial; panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073711037 9 0 511 0;} @font-face {font-family:Times; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} @font-face {font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} @font-face {font-family:Cambria; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1073743103 0 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Lucida Grande"; panose-1:2 11 6 0 4 5 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520090897 1342218751 0 0 447 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {mso-style-priority:99; color:blue; mso-themecolor:hyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; color:purple; mso-themecolor:followedhyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} p.MsoDocumentMap, li.MsoDocumentMap, div.MsoDocumentMap {mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"Document Map Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;} p {mso-style-priority:99; mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0in; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.apple-converted-space {mso-style-name:apple-converted-space; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.DocumentMapChar {mso-style-name:"Document Map Char"; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Document Map"; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande";} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#ffefea,#fdf1ff,#fdf7ff,#ffefdc"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="#ffefdc"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFEFDC" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Proposal (356) to </span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></a><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='tab-stops:76.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Treat <i>Anas andium </i>as a separate species from <i>Anas flavirostris</i></span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Effect on South American Checklist</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>: <span class=GramE>This proposal add</span> a species to the Main List by elevating the&nbsp;<i>andium</i>&nbsp;subspecies group to species rank.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>: Our current Note is as follows:</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>18. The subspecies<i>&nbsp;andium</i>&nbsp;was considered a separate species from&nbsp;<i>Anas flavirostris</i>&nbsp;by Ridgely et al. (2001), as they were treated by&nbsp;Hellmayr &amp; Conover (1948a),&nbsp;based on differences in bill and plumage color; followed by Hilty (2003).&nbsp;</span></b><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:red'>Proposal needed</span></b><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>. Jaramillo (2003) further suggested that the subspecies&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;<span class=GramE>may</span> also deserve recognition as a separate species from&nbsp;<i>A. flavirostris.</i></span></b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:4.5pt'><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>I do not have any first-hand knowledge of the taxa involved, nor am I aware of recent data that address the problem directly, but given the disparity in ranking of&nbsp;<i>andium</i> in recent treatments, I think we have to address this with a proposal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Our current&nbsp;<i>A. flavirostris</i>&nbsp;includes the nominate form, which is widespread in lowland southern South America, and three subspecies found in the Andes from Venezuela and Colombia to n. Chile and n. Argentina. The nominate form and the southernmost Andean subspecies,&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>, share a mostly yellow bill, whereas the two other Andean subspecies,&nbsp;<i>andium</i> and <span class=SpellE><i>altipetens</i></span>, have an all dark bill. The break between yellow-billed and dark-billed birds is evidently at the MaraÒon. Therefore, they are narrowly allopatric with no known contact zone. Therefore, we have the usual problem of how to treat allopatric taxa.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>The primary difference between the two groups is bill color, although there are other plumage differences between the groups and among the subspecies. Schulenberg et al. (2007) illustrate&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>andium</i>, with&nbsp;<i>andium</i>&nbsp;shown with a substantially paler head. Jaramillo (2003) shows both&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;and nominate&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>, with&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;clearly much paler ventrally. <span class=GramE>Hilty (2003) shows northernmost <span class=SpellE><i>altipetens</i></span>, which differs from&nbsp;<i>andium</i>&nbsp;in having a less bronzy speculum, paler dorsal plumage, and less heavily</span> marked head (Hellmayr and Conover 1948, Blake 1977).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Johnsgard (1978, 1979) treated them as conspecific, so that implies (to me) that at least at that time there were no known behavioral/display/vocal differences between the two groups, nor are any differences referenced in HBW (Carboneras 1992f).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Johnson &amp; Sorenson (1999) included samples of nominate <i>flavirostris </i>and<i> oxyptera</i> in their mtDNA analysis and found them to be identical; unfortunately, no <i>andium</i>&nbsp;were available.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Analysis</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>: In the absence of any data on gene flow, we are left to assign species rank based on comparative analysis. Because both treatments have wide acceptance in the literature, I do not think that we have to demand strong data to change from our current classification.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>With little conviction, I recommend a YES vote on the split on the following basis. First, I cannot think of a case of two taxa of ducks known to interbreed freely that have such different bill colors. [Please correct me if wrong.] We currently treat&nbsp;<i>A. puna</i>&nbsp;as a separate species from&nbsp;<i>A. versicolor</i>, and the primary difference between them is bill color (one lacks yellow). Second, the two bill color types come reasonably close to each other without any sign of current or past gene flow. I doubt that the MaraÒon is much of a barrier to a teal. If there were a low frequency of opposite bill colors in the populations closest to one another, then I would take that as evidence of gene flow. A yellow-billed individual has been seen in Ecuador (Ridgely &amp; Greenfield 1001), but its provenance cannot be known. Third, as far as I know, an explicit rationale for their treatment as a single species has not been published (although I have not checked the Delacour literature).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Note</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>: if the proposal passes, Ridgely &amp; Greenfield (2001) used Andean Teal for&nbsp;<i>andium</i>, and I see no reason not to follow that. However, they used Speckled Teal for nominate + <i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;rather than using a separate name to distinguish narrow vs. broad definitions of&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>. Madge and Burn (1988, &quot;Waterfowl&quot;) used Yellow-billed Teal for narrowly defined&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>, and this makes more sense to me, because it prevents confusion.</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Van Remsen, May 2008<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'> <![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'> <![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>=========================================================================<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES although, like Van, without a strong commitment to this. The clear-cut and definite difference in bill color with no suggestion of intermediates despite close geographical approach in N Peru suggests that allospecies status might be most appropriate. I also note that the morphometric data of Blake (1977, Manual of Neotropical Birds) suggests this: there is a tendency towards increasing size from <span class=SpellE><i>altipetens</i></span><i> </i>to&nbsp;<i>andium </i>albeit with much overlap; however,&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;(the form adjacent to&nbsp;<i>andium</i>) is considerably smaller (little or no overlap in wing and bill measurements). This said, it is also worth noting that nominate&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>&nbsp;is also much smaller than&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;and differs in plumage coloration to a comparable degree, although sharing the yellow bill. It is also more of a lowland bird (exclusively?) and (if I read Blake correctly) breeds much further south and is the only migratory form of the group, migrating N from its far southern breeding grounds (does it overlap in winter with&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>?). I know of no detailed studies of voice or behavior in this group. For the moment, it seems reasonable to split&nbsp;<i>andium</i>&nbsp;(Andean Teal) from&nbsp;<i>flavirostris&nbsp;</i>(Yellow-billed Teal), but at some point the status of&nbsp;<i>oxyptera&nbsp;</i>vs.&nbsp;<i>flavirostris&nbsp;</i>should be addressed in detail as well.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES, I'm fine with elevating the two different bill color taxa to species, but I doubt if bill color would have any influence on assorted mating given that sister taxa of other ducks, e.g., <i>cyanoptera</i> x <i>discors</i>, which have dramatic plumage differences interbreed. Having said that, even if they would interbreed shouldn't have much bearing on their taxonomy. What is needed are comparative genetic data between dark and yellow billed forms to help us gauge how much differentiation has occurred in this group.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES, <span class=SpellE>pero</span> con <span class=SpellE>poco</span> <span class=SpellE>convencimiento</span>. Como lo ha <span class=SpellE>manifestado</span> Remsen <span class=SpellE>parece</span> <span class=SpellE>que</span> no hay <span class=SpellE>subespecies</span> de <span class=SpellE>patos</span> con <span class=SpellE>diferente</span> color de <span class=SpellE>pico</span>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES, for reasons nicely summarized by Van. The differences in these birds go beyond the striking bill color differences - plumage is more different than you might think from looking at illustrations. For now, I would say keep&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>&nbsp;together, but with the awareness that those two might prove to be separate at some point. I would also support the English name of &quot;Andean Teal&quot; for the dark-billed populations, and &quot;Yellow-billed Teal&quot; for&nbsp;<i>flavirostris/oxyptera</i>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stotz</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES.&nbsp; I would favor Yellow-billed Teal for&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES - There are bill color, plumage, size differences that set these two taxa apart. I also recall seeing a paper by Kevin McCracken at an AOU meeting (St. Louis perhaps?) that showed a phylogeny where the three members of the&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i> complex actually were rather distinct genetically. As far as I know, this is not published, and I have no recollection of the methodology. The&nbsp;<i>oxyptera</i>&nbsp;versus&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>&nbsp;issue is better left for another proposal and perhaps some publication. The two forms are now more and more found in the same flocks, even in the breeding period (Mendoza, Argentina; highlands of Santiago, Chile; highlands of Salta, Argentina). As breeders the two are nearly sympatric, and no intermediates are known. Like&nbsp;<i>andium</i>, these two forms are actually much more readily separable than some illustrations would lead you to believe.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Schulenberg</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. I'm not wild about the English name &quot;Yellow-billed&quot; Teal, in view of the extensive geographic overlap with of this species with Yellow-billed Pintail. If we wanted to stick with convention, then the main contenders are &quot;Yellow-billed&quot; (which matches the specific epithet; dates back at least to Phillips 1923, also was used by Hellmayr and Conover 1948) or &quot;Chilean&quot; (used by Delacour 195x-196x, also Scott 1961). I can't imagine that the name &quot;Chilean&quot; would be very popular in Argentina, much less Bolivia or Peru. But I still worry about flubs, at least in the field, when using Yellow-billed Pintail and Yellow-billed Teal. Is anyone else worried about this? Should we rack our brains for a better suggestions, or just give in the easy route (&quot;Yellow-billed&quot;)?&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;YES. Em <span class=GramE>vista do</span> <span class=SpellE>aqui</span> <span class=SpellE>apresentado</span>, <span class=SpellE>eu</span> <span class=SpellE>voto</span> &quot;<span class=SpellE>sim</span>&quot;. <span class=SpellE>Cabe</span> <span class=SpellE>lembrar</span> <span class=SpellE>que</span> um <span class=SpellE>dicromatismo</span> sexual <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>na</span></span> <span class=SpellE>coloraÁ„o</span> da <span class=SpellE>bico</span> È <span class=SpellE>conhecido</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Wilson, R. E., S. D. <span class=SpellE>Goldfeder</span>, and K. G. McCracken (2004) Bill sexual dichromatism of Yellow-billed Pintail (<i>Anas georgica</i>) and Speckled Teal (<i>A. flavirostris</i>).</span></span><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;<i>Ornitologia Neotropical</i>&nbsp;15:543-545.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>