Proposal (#381) to South American Classification Committee

 

Change linear sequence of species in Pteroglossus

 

Effect on SACC: This would move two species in our linear sequence to conform to the phylogenetic hypotheses of recent genetic data.

 

Background: Our current SACC sequence is as follows:

 

Pteroglossus viridis Green Aracari
Pteroglossus inscriptus Lettered Aracari
Pteroglossus bitorquatus Red-necked Aracari
Pteroglossus azara Ivory-billed Aracari
Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked Aracari
Pteroglossus castanotis Chestnut-eared Aracari
Pteroglossus pluricinctus Many-banded Aracari
Pteroglossus torquatus Collared Aracari
Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Curl-crested Aracari
Pteroglossus bailloni Saffron Toucanet

 

This sequence, with the exception of bailloni, formerly placed in monotypic Baillonius, is derived largely from the relationship predicted by Haffer (1974) based on plumage and voice.

 

New information: Pereira & Wajntal (2008) retrieved sequences from GenBank for all taxa for ATPase/6, COI, and cyt-b to generate 2158 bp aligned sequences.  Their Bayesian analysis resolved most nodes, although the % sequence divergence was low among most terminal taxa.

pteroglossus tree

 

They found general concordance with the current linear sequence except for (1) placement of bailloni, which they found to be the sister to a group that contains viridis +(inscriptus + humboldti) with 100% Bayesian support, and (2) beauharnaesii, which they found to be sister to bitorquatus, with 99% Bayesian support.  They also found good support for: (3) azara sister to [beauharnaesii + bitorquatus] (with mariae-flavirostris the equivalent to our azara); and (4) the azara-beauharnaesii-bitorquatus group as sister to aracari + [castanotis + pluricinctus], and (5) that all of the above plus the torquatus group form a group that is sister to the bailloni group.

 

Analysis and Recommendation:  Because both conflicts are based on the same data set, with similar support values, I think it is best to treat this as an all-or-none proposal and make either both or neither change.  I personally do not know bailloni or bitorquatus to evaluate whether this makes sense.  Looking at specimens shows that bailloni shares with members of that group an unbanded, yellowish breast and belly and a greenish to blackish greenish back.  Haffer (1974) placed bitorquatus in the same group with azara/flavirostris/mariae bitorquatus replaces this group abruptly east of the Madeira, and so Haffers decision makes good biogeographic sense, whereas beauharnaesii is sympatric with bitorquatus in SW Amazonia.  However, bitorquatus share a unique plumage feature with beauharnaesii: extensive red on upper back.

 

To alter the sequence to fit the topology of the Pereira-Wajntal tree, we have to (1) move bailloni to first species in sequence, (2) move beauharnaesii adjacent to bitorquatus, and (3) change the sequence as per point 5 above by moving torquatus up.  Then, with the convention of N-most of sister species placed first, we have:

 

Pteroglossus bailloni Saffron Toucanet
Pteroglossus viridis Green Aracari
Pteroglossus inscriptus Lettered Aracari
Pteroglossus torquatus Collared Aracari
Pteroglossus aracari Black-necked Aracari
Pteroglossus castanotis Chestnut-eared Aracari
Pteroglossus pluricinctus Many-banded Aracari
Pteroglossus azara Ivory-billed Aracari
Pteroglossus beauharnaesii Curl-crested Aracari
Pteroglossus bitorquatus Red-necked Aracari

 I recommend a YES on this proposal but am open to anything I have missed.

 

Literature Cited:

PEREIRA, S. L., AND A. WAJNTAL.  2008.  The historical biogeography of Pteroglossus aracaris (Aves, Piciformes, Ramphastidae) based on Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.  Genetics and Molecular Biology 31: 964-973.

 

Van Remsen, November 2008 (with input from Manuel Nores)

 

 

Comments from Stiles: YES. The study mentioned offers the best available data for aracari relationships and the changes to our current sequence are not really that earth-shaking in any case.

 

Comments from Nores: YES. El nuevo ordenamiento luce mejor, ya que est de acuerdo con la secuencia molecular de Pereira y Wajntal.

 

Comments from Jaramillo: YES Looks quite straightforward change to me.

 

Comments from Zimmer: YES.  Im slightly uneasy with the bitorquatus-beauharnaesii end of this, but the bailloni-inscriptus-viridis connection makes sense when one considers vocal and plumage characters.

 

Comments from Pacheco: "YES.  A sequncia sugerida congruente com os dados apresentados no trabalho.