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.5pt; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid windowtext; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="2050"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fdffc3,#faf9bd,#fafacf"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="none [662]"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#EAF1DD" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Proposal (478) to <a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm">South American Classification Committee</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Species limits in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>(A) Split<i> Ortalis araucuan </i>from<i> O. guttata<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>(B) Split <i>Ortalis squamata </i>from <i>O. guttata<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>Effect of Proposal: <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>With the passing of Proposal <a href="SACCprop439.htm">439</a>, Colombian Chachalaca <i>Ortalis columbiana </i>was split from Speckled Chachalaca <i>O. guttata</i>.<i><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></i>Many committee members stated in their comments that they were in favour of taking further steps to split up this group.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In particular, many authorities recognise the East Brazilian Chachalaca <i>O. araucuan </i>and the Scaled Chachalaca <i>O. squamata </i>as separate species.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This proposal gives committee members an opportunity to consider the rank of these taxa.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN'>History of treatments: <span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>There is no obvious <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>status quo</i> for these birds, with as many leading authorities splitting these taxa as lumping them.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Important publications splitting them include Peters (1934), Sick (1993 - the leading ornithological reference work for Brazil for 2 and a half decades) and the recent IOC list (Gills &amp; Donker 2011 online).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Vaurie (1965) appears to have been the person first to propose the lumped treatment for the greater <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata </i>group.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Other authorities such as Dickinson (2003), Rodriguez et al. (2005), Erize et al. (2006), Brooks (2006) and SACC, among recent treatments, also adopted this approach.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Some vocal data was recently presented in Donegan et al. (2010).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>That paper did not deal in detail with the status of these taxa (and a much smaller sample was studied of them compared to <i>columbiana</i>) but some sonograms were presented that may be of interest in considering this proposal</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Discussion of East Brazilian Chachalaca <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>1.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Plumage differences. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan</i> differs from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>in being white-bellied (not brown/buff-bellied), with ochraceous-cinnamon on the crown and hind neck (not dark brown) and buffier on the undertail coverts.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>There is a nice illustration in the Erize et al. (2006) non-passerines field guide of this one, alongside <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>2.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Vocal differences.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As can be seen from the sonograms in Donegan et al. (2010: bottom row, middle) and as discussed therein,  <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Recordings of the northern Brazilian populations araucuan examined are all of a three-syllable refrain. Recordings had different relative lengths of the three syllables compared to Amazonian populations (Figure 2).</i> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In the two inspected recordings of songs of this population, the second note of the  Gua-cha-rac refrain in the song is shorter than in other populations, appearing as a downstroke rather than a blob of noise.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>That note is followed by a larger gap than that which follows the second note in other populations, which means that the overall rhythm sounds similar and song length is similar to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, there is a clear difference in phraseology.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>These differences are not as striking as those between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. columbiana </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata</i>,<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>but available recordings can still be easily told apart on sonograms.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>Examples of songs of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata </i>group are available on xeno-canto, together with a map showing the distributions of the three groups (with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan </i>top right):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/XCspeciesprofiles.php?species_nr2=430.52">http://www.xeno-canto.org/XCspeciesprofiles.php?species_nr2=430.52</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>Two examples of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan </i>song are available here:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/recording.php?XC=13415">http://www.xeno-canto.org/recording.php?XC=13415</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/recording.php?XC=5634">http://www.xeno-canto.org/recording.php?XC=5634</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>3.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Biogeographic issues.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The ranges of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. araucuan </i>are not continuous.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>is widespread from East Andean foothills to the Amazonian region.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. araucuan </i>has a highly disjunct distribution (separated by ca. 1300 km from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>) and occurs in northeasternmost Brazil only.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Notably, the range of Buff-browed Chachalaca <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Ortalis superciliaris </i>occurs in the region between the two.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This sort of disjunct distribution pattern (with another related species range bisecting them) is rather strange, especially for a chachalaca.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The entire genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis </i>can be regarded as a giant superspecies (Sick 1993), but the lumping of these two looks most odd under any arrangement where it is split up.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Discussion of Scaled Chachalaca <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. squamata<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>1.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Plumage differences.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. squamata </i>has a more brownish-cinnamon hue on the cap and hind neck; and is greyer on the underparts than <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It has been regarded as intermediate in plumage between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan</i> (e.g. Erize et al. 2006).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>2.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Vocal differences.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The final note of the Cha-cha-lac refrain in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>squamata </i>is lower pitched than the other two notes, whilst in both <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>guttata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan </i>each note tends to be of a more similar frequency.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We did not ascertain any obvious differences in phraseology between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. squamata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>in Donegan et al. (2010).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Compare the sonogram on the left, last row of Donegan et al. (2010) with the various <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. guttata </i>sonograms therein.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>From what I have seen from studying songs of other groups, like tapaculos and antbirds, I would not consider this sort of a difference (in acoustic frequency of a single note) to be as significant as those in phraseology shown by <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i>, but that is just a hunch, not a reasoned or supported opinion.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Either way, the differences seem to be consistent; and there is a greater sample of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>squamata </i>(compared to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i>) available on xeno-canto and other published recordings.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>3.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Biogeographic issues.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. squamata </i>occurs in the Atlantic forest region of Brazil. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Its distribution is also disjunct from that of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. guttata </i>by a long distance (c. 1300 km) but no other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis </i>species range is interposed between them.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The ranges of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. squamata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan </i>are separated by some 1100 km.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Molecular studies<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>Molecular studies (e.g. Pereira et al. 2002, Frank-Hoeflich et al. 2007) have not addressed the issue of relations between members of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis guttata </i>group to date.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>English names<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>O. araucuan </span></i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>is often called  White-bellied Chachalaca (e.g. Sick 1993, Erize et al. 2006), but that name is pre-occupied by <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. leucogastra </i>of Mexico and Central America.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The IOC uses  East Brazilian Chachalaca as a result.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>If Proposal A passes, I would propose to use the IOC s English name.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>O. squamata </span></i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'>is generally known as  Scaled Chachalaca .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Recommendation<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>I am basically ambivalent about these two splits (as opposed to that of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. columbiana </i>which is clear-cut).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, I have little field experience with the Atlantic coast populations and would therefore welcome further comments from committee members or others.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The three postulated species in this group clearly share many plumage features and have broadly similar voice.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Nonetheless, populations are highly disjunct, and there are diagnosable plumage and vocal differences.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal A: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan. </i>On balance but with no great enthusiasm, I would support the treatment of East Brazilian Chachalaca <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan </i>as a separate species on the basis of its plumage differences, vocal differences and biogeographic considerations (a  YES vote).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal B: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. squamata.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></i>The plumage and vocal differences from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata </i>are less strong here, and the range of a combined <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata/squamata </i>does not so offend biogeographic ideals.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As a result, one cannot help but be even more ambivalent about this one than the first.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>With even less enthusiasm, I would on balance be inclined to accept this as a species on the basis of plumage and vocal differences and the large range disjunction (which are all symptomatic of long isolation).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This approach would be on the basis that accepting both these splits is preferable to adopting some novel treatment; and also on the basis that this split should be re-considered in the future as further data becomes available.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>(This is on the basis that the SACC should be more open to changing its treatment where there are widely used alternative taxonomies which sense in light of available data.)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Note</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Our recent <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ConservaciÛn Colombiana</i> paper did not really speak to the issues addressed in this proposal in much detail, as they were outside scope.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This proposal was produced only with a view to helping your committee and presenting data relevant to a widespread alternative treatment that is probably overdue for consideration.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I look forward to seeing how this one goes and to hearing any other people s views.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Please don t regard this as a position paper on splitting these species &#8211; an issue the proposal author has no strong views on &#8211; and I would appreciate it if committee members would not <span class=GramE>lay</span> into the author accordingly!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>References:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>See the previous <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis </i><a href="SACCprop439.html">proposal</a> and SACC baseline.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Thomas Donegan, January 2011</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none; border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> A very tentative NO:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I would prefer to have a more thorough analysis of vocalizations and morphometrics and especially genetic data.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I suspect that these two will eventually be split because the available data on plumage, vocalizations, and distributions are certainly suggestive. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>:  YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>In evaluating this proposal I have attempted to put it in the context of criteria used in defining currently recognized <i>Ortalis</i> species. Virtually all the recognized species are based solely on differences in morphology (plumage pattern and coloration and soft part color and extent), i.e., no vocalizations and genetic data have been available in species status designations. In the current case there are greater differences in plumage between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>araucuan</i> (primarily head and neck coloration) than there are between other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i> taxa that are recognized as species.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The biogeographic pattern also supports recognizing these as separate species. These aspects coupled with the vocal differences that Donegan has identified lead me to support this split.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As I mentioned in my review of proposal 439, I would like to see genetic data brought to bear to help clarify relationships within this entire group, but given what we now have available and to be consistent with treatment of other taxa in this genus it seems best to recognize <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>araucuan</i> as a species. Finally, to be consistent with my evaluation of this proposal I now support the recognition of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>O. columbiana</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> in proposal 439. </span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> </span><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>(A) Split<i> Ortalis araucuan </i></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>(hÌrwacan)<i> </i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>from<i> O. guttata<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></i></span>(charac·c).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>YES<b>. </b>Vocal and plumage differences seem to me sufficient reason for</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-bidi-language:HE'> </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; mso-bidi-language:HE'>splitting these taxa</span><span style='font-family:Arial; color:black;mso-bidi-language:HE'>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-bidi-language:HE'>Biogeographic issues, however, are not evidence for considering them different species. During the moister periods forest belts may have connected Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis guttata</i> and other Amazonian birds would have advanced toward the Atlantic forest and become isolated again in the subsequent drier period. Consequently, there are at present both species and subspecies in the Atlantic forest which are different from those of Amazonia.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> (B) Split <i>Ortalis squamata </i>from <i>O. guttata.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></i>NO<b>. </b></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; mso-bidi-language:HE'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>As I commented in Proposal #439, I consider that the Atlantic Region populations belong to one species (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan</i>) with two subspecies (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. araucuan araucuan </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O. a. squamata</i>). </span><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>[YES to both] </span><span lang=PT-BR style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language:PT-BR'>Influenciado diretamente pela opini„o de Sick e conhecendo os trÍs t·xons em campo, sinto-me confort·vel para admitir os t·xons em quest„o como independentes. Neste caso, o meu voto È coerente com aquele exposto na proposta </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>439. </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoTitle align=left style='text-align:left'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-weight:normal'> </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>A &#8211; YES. Separate <i>araucuan</i> from <i>guttata</i>. The biogeographic pattern, differences in plumage and vocal data available convince me this is legitimate.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoTitle align=left style='text-align:left'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoTitle align=left style='text-align:left'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> B &#8211; YES. Although this is less clear cut, for consistency (compared to other recognized <i>Ortalis</i> species), this separation appears to be necessary. Because vocal and genetic data have not been used to define species in this genus, at least consistent use of differences in morphology as a way to separate species is appropriate. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Comments from Cadena</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>A. YES, B. YES. The data available are not ideal, as no quantitative analysis of vocal variation with appropriate geographic coverage and sample sizes has been conducted. However, I agree with Mark in that vocal differences do appear suggestive and in the context of how species are currently recognized in the genus, these taxa likely merit species rank. Others have mentioned the need for genetic data, but in cases like this, where taxa are all allopatric, I think genetic data have actually little to offer. Some genetic differentiation in neutral markers will undoubtedly exist, but such data would say very little regarding the status of these populations as reproductively isolated entities, which is what we are trying to judge here. So, based on how other species in the group are defined, I am inclined to split them, although I am by no means directly familiar with the taxa involved. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>A)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> YES, and (B)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> YES .<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Splitting out both <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>araucuan</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>squamata</i> makes the most sense to me given the prevailing concept of species limits within the rest of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As Sick (1993) and Donegan (in the Proposal) point out, the entire genus could be regarded as a superspecies. We are talking about a large number of geographically isolated replacement species, which have traditionally been recognized on the basis of morphological differences and biogeography.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Morphology within this group appears to be evolutionarily conservative, with most species representing minor variations on common themes.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Given all of this, it does strike me as odd that disjunct <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>squamata</i>, each occupying distinct biogeographic regions with high degrees of endemism, and each morphologically distinct from other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i>, would continue to be treated as subspecies.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This is especially true for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i>, given that the range of another <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i> species (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>superciliaris</i>) separates its range from that of its presumed congener (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I think that vocal differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i> species are more significant than realized, but as with parrots, the distinctions are often difficult to assess because in many (most?) recordings of these birds it is difficult to impossible to know just how many birds are vocalizing at once (one, two, a group, or even multiple groups).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>One chachalaca of any given species will sound different from two, which will sound different from several.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In order to compare apples to apples, you have to have adequate sample sizes of recordings of a single individual, and even then, there may be sexual differences that can t be accounted for.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>So, it s tough to use vocalizations in this group, but I do think that once sound archives have accumulated enough recordings of known numbers of individuals, we will see vocal analyses that reveal significant differences between these various populations. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>A) YES, and (B) NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although I think the case is defensible for </span><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language: HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>araucuan </span></i><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>(including </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-bidi-language:HE'>squamata</span></i><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-language: HE'>) as a separate species from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O</i>. </span><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>guttata</span></i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>, the same cannot be said for </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; mso-bidi-language:HE'>squamata</span></i><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-language:HE'> as is evident in the proposal, and in agreement with Manuel, I think it is best to treat it as a subspecies of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>O.</i> </span><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>araucuan </span></i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>pending more data. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language:HE;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from PÈrez-Em·n</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>A: YES. B: YES. Morphological differences among these taxa seem to be small to elevate both taxa to species. Also, vocal differences are difficult to evaluate (few recordings and different vocalization scenarios as Kevin pointed out). However, if current <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ortalis</i> taxonomy is based on small plumage differences, then it makes sense to elevate these taxa to species considering congruent (but small) morphological and vocal characters. Biogeographically it also makes sense. I assume we will include <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>subaffinis</i> as a subspecies of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Additional comments from T. Donegan</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>: </span><span style='font-family:Cambria'> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt; font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>As set out in the proposal, the splitting of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i> only (and not&nbsp;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>squamata</i>)&nbsp;is a reasonable approach. The SACC does not deal in subspecies. However, as set out in the proposal, Part A, the better approach under a two-species approach contra some comments above would involve splitting only <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>araucuan</i> but retaining <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>squamata</i> with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>. Whilst plumage differences are pretty similarly differentiated among all three, the latter two taxa are vocally most similar (as set out in the proposal and illustrated briefly in sonograms in Donegan et al. 2010) whilst <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>araucuan</i> has most different note shapes in its songs, particularly in the second note. I would be more inclined to take vocal cues as an indication of species limits than seek to lump disjunct Atlantic populations on biogeographic, plumage or other grounds. Lumping <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>squamata</i> with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i> but splitting <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>araucuan</i> produces an Atlantic plus Amazon <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i> group with two subspecies and without any other species' distribution bisecting their ranges. This is a sensible outcome and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>guttata</i>'s range would reflect a pattern found in many other species (see e.g. the outcome of the recent <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Schiffornis turdina</i> proposal).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'> Separately, we did carry out an analysis using sonograms of the nature suggested by Kevin Zimmer in connection with the aforementioned paper. Vocalisations with two birds calling can be analysed when one looks carefully at sonograms and picks out the calls of different individuals, which are typically at different frequencies: when two birds call together this seems likely to be males and females which use different acoustic frequencies. Where more than two birds call, it's certainly very difficult to pick out what is happening, and one must scroll further through sonograms to find instances where fewer birds vocalise in order to analyse song structures.&quot;</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>