ˇ˛<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:mv="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Split Pyrrhura pacifica from Pyrrhura melanura"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=macintosh"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <link rel=File-List href="SACCprop524_files/filelist.xml"> <link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="SACCprop524_files/editdata.mso"> <!--[if !mso]> <style> v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style> <![endif]--> <title>Split Pyrrhura pacifica from Pyrrhura melanura</title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>James Remsen</o:Author> <o:LastAuthor>James Remsen</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>14</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2015-10-25T00:29:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-10-25T00:29:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>2</o:Pages> <o:Words>2097</o:Words> <o:Characters>11116</o:Characters> <o:Company>Louisiana State University</o:Company> <o:Lines>217</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>44</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>13169</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>14.0</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--> <link rel=themeData href="SACCprop524_files/themedata.xml"> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:TrackMoves>false</w:TrackMoves> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:DrawingGridHorizontalSpacing>18 pt</w:DrawingGridHorizontalSpacing> <w:DrawingGridVerticalSpacing>18 pt</w:DrawingGridVerticalSpacing> <w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEvery>0</w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEvery> <w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery>0</w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>JA</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:DontAutofitConstrainedTables/> <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp/> <w:DontBreakConstrainedForcedTables/> <w:Word11KerningPairs/> <w:CachedColBalance/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef m:val="off"/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapRight/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="subSup"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="false" DefSemiHidden="false" DefQFormat="false" LatentStyleCount="276"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="No List"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Arial; panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073711037 9 0 511 0;} @font-face {font-family:Times; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:Times; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520092929 1073786111 9 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:Cambria; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1073743103 0 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Lucida Grande"; panose-1:2 11 6 0 4 5 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520090897 1342218751 0 0 447 0;} @font-face {font-family:ArialMT; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:Arial; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:auto; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} p.MsoTitle, li.MsoTitle, div.MsoTitle {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Title Char"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-para-margin-top:.01gd; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd; mso-para-margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {mso-style-unhide:no; color:purple; mso-themecolor:followedhyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;} span.TitleChar {mso-style-name:"Title Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Title; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-ascii-font-family:Times; mso-hansi-font-family:Times;} p.yiv773145288msonormal, li.yiv773145288msonormal, div.yiv773145288msonormal {mso-style-name:yiv773145288msonormal; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-para-margin-top:.01gd; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd; mso-para-margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} span.hps {mso-style-name:hps; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.st1 {mso-style-name:st1; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.hpsalt-edited {mso-style-name:"hps alt-edited"; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.BalloonTextChar {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Balloon Text"; mso-ansi-font-size:9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande";} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} .MsoPapDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; margin-bottom:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1026"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff4d3"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF4D3" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;tab-stops:64.0pt center 394.0pt'><a name="OLE_LINK2"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center;tab-stops:64.0pt center 394.0pt'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (524) to </span></b></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm">South American Classification Committee</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;</span></b><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Split <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pyrrhura pacifica</i> from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura melanura<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Gene flow plays a critical role in the evolution of species (Slatkin, 1987). Speciation does not absolutely depend on a total interruption of gene flow, but we can be sure that if some factor causes a complete break in gene flow between two populations, and sufficient time passes after that break, then the two populations will evolve into two different species. Helbig et al. (2002) pointed out that sufficient time must have elapsed to ensure that even if the two taxa come into contact at some time in the future, they would not be able to interbreed.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Geology can be relevant here, because if geological processes are involved in the interruption to gene flow, that may allow us to date that interruption. Such a case occurs with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura melanura</i>, the Maroon-tailed Parakeet. This species has a number of taxa on the eastern side of the Andes: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>melanura</i> in the lowlands of eastern Colombia, those of southern Venezuela in Amazonas and Bol</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Ì</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>var, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and Amazonian northwest Brazil east to the Rio Negro It also has several subspecies occurring along the eastern base of the Andes: <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>souancei</i></span> of eastern Colombia from the Macarena Mountains south to Putumayo; Ecuador: eastern base of North Andes in SucumbÌos, Napo, Pastaza and Morona-Santiago; and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>berlepschi</i> of eastern Ecuador: eastern base of southern Andes in Morona-Santiago on Cordillera de Cutuc˙, &amp; west of <span class=SpellE>Macas</span> in lower RÌo <span class=SpellE>Upano</span> valley of <span class=SpellE>Sangay</span> National Park; and Peru: Huallaga Valley; finally we have <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>chapmani</i> in Colombia: upper Magdalena Valley from southern Tolima to the head of the valley in Huila. The altitudinal range of these taxa is mainly <span class=GramE>lowlands</span> to 500 m, but for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>chapmani</i> 1600-2800 m.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>We also have <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> on the western side of the Andes. This occurs in southwest Colombia on the Pacific slope of NariÒo, and in Ecuador: Pacific slope in northwest: Esmeraldas south to west Cotopaxi: <span class=SpellE>Caripero</span> area. Its altitudinal range is mostly 500-1400 m, locally down to 250 m along RÌo Verde in east Esmeraldas; and as high as 1900 m at <span class=SpellE>Caripero</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Between these two groups we have the Andes. Note that the only gaps in the main Andes are well south of the range of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>pacifica</i>: the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Peruvian flat-slab segment</i> (3 ∞S-15 ∞S), the <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pampean</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> flat-slab segment</i> (27 ∞S-33 ∞S) and the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Patagonian Volcanic Gap</i> (46 ∞S-49 ∞S). The first one separates the Northern from the Central Volcanic Zone, the second the Central from the Southern and the last separates the Southern from the Austral Volcanic Zone. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>According to <span class=SpellE>Garzione</span> &amp; <span class=SpellE>Hoke</span> (2008), the Andes formed rather abruptly - between 10 and 6 million years ago - much faster than previously assumed. Given their altitudinal range, this means that cannot have been gene flow between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> and the taxa on the other side of the Andes for at least 6 million years and probably longer.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>There are also morphological differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> and the other taxa. According to Ridgely and Greenfield (2001: 276), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> resembles the nominate race, in that it has narrow breast scaling, but in the case of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i>, the breast is heavily suffused with a pinkish wash. It also differs in its shorter tail and greyish (not white) periophthalamic ring. Ridgely &amp; Tudor end their account by stating that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> may deserve full species status.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Photos of both <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>melanura</i> follow:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:196pt;height:257pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop524_files/image001.jpg" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=198 height=259 src="SACCprop524_files/image002.png" alt="x’À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^À&amp;^ ( (øN" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Choco Parakeet <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura pacifica</i> R</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Ìo <span class=SpellE>Canades</span> Esmeraldas </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Thanks to Lou <span class=SpellE>Hegedus</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_2" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:248pt;height:300pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop524_files/image003.jpg" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=250 height=302 src="SACCprop524_files/image004.png" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_2"><![endif]></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Maroon-tailed Parakeet <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pyrrhura melanura</i> Napo Ecuador Thanks to Mike <span class=SpellE>Danziger</span>.</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The calls of the two groups also differ. These may be heard by going to my website, </span><a href="http://www.worldbirdinfo.net"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>http://www.worldbirdinfo.net</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Please click on Birds Search, and enter <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura pacifica</i> as the search term, making sure that the Scientific Name button is operative. When the results appear, click on Choco Parakeet. When that species account opens, click on Media, and then click on the mp3 record under Sounds.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span class=GramE>The repeat the process, but entering <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura melanura</i>.</span> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>References</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#333333'>Garzione</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:#333333'>, C. N., <span class=SpellE>Hoke</span>, G. D., <span class=SpellE>Labarkin</span>, J. C., Withers, S., MacFadden, B. J., <span class=SpellE>Ghosh</span>, P., and Mulch, A., 2008, Rise of the Andes: Science, v. 320, p. 1304-1307.</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Helbig AS, Knox AG, Parkin DT, Sangster G, Collinson M. 2002; Guidelines for assigning species rank.</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'> Ibis, 144: 518-525.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Ridgely, R.S. &amp; Greenfield, P.J., 2011. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Slatkin, M. 1987.</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'> Gene Flow and the Geographic Structure of Natural Populations. <span class=GramE>Science 236, 787-792.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>John Penhallurick, May 2012<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-indent:-.5in;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial'>Comments from Cadena</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>NO, for a lack of published quantitative analyses. And of course, that a study focused on the Colombian Andes <span class=GramE>indicated</span> <span class=GramE>rapid uplift over a specific time period need not imply</span> that all of the Andes uplifted at the same time. Even if the northern Andes effectively also uplifted quickly and at the time when Penhallurick indicates, this says little to nothing about gene flow, as we know well that many species have crossed the Andes following their uplift and in some lineages this has occurred repeatedly. If one follows this logic, then it would follow that dozens of species with cross-Andes distribution should be split in two. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Comments from AndrÈs Cuervo</span></u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:  </span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman"'>John Penhallurick might be right in that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> should be elevated to species rank, but I ignore if there is novel or overlooked information in the literature that would justify that change at this point. Nonetheless, I d like to comment on two assumptions that people usually make and that may lead to justify a split with no rigorous evaluation of data.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman"'> First, that present-day distributions (geographical and elevational) of organisms, and the biomes they inhabit, have been in stasis since their origin. By extension, people assume that if barrier <span class=GramE>A</span> emerged X Mya, then </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 16.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>current populations on opposite sides have that age</span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman"'>. That may be true for some but certainly not for all organisms separated by a barrier; the only way to assess alternative scenarios is by having appropriate species-specific biological information. The proposal reads: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> & if geological processes are involved in the interruption to gene flow, that may allow us to date that interruption</i>.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> Such a case occurs with Pyrrhura melanura, the Maroon-tailed Parakeet</i> ; however, interruption of gene flow in these parakeets has not been evaluated (please correct me if I am wrong), so there is no subject for temporal calibration (not to mention what the proper calibration is, it may not be the rise of the Andes after all!). Moreover, the geological paper cited is about the rise of the Andean Altiplano.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman"'> The second assumption often made is that morphological differences immediately confer species status. This is circular reasoning. If <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> is considered a valid subspecies (as it has been the case for a long time), then it must be phenotypically different at least from other races of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>melanura</i>; otherwise, it would not be valid. Therefore, highlighting the existence of morphological distinctions to support a split is not really bringing new information as to whether the differentiated populations should be considered species (under the working definition of species endorsed here). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial'>Comments from Thomas Donegan</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  </span><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>It can <span class=SpellE>seemably</span> sometimes be&nbsp;tempting to pick up on drafting or technical points on a proposal and lose sight of the issue being considered.&nbsp; Such approaches may discourage proposals and result in not fully considered decisions.&nbsp; The below comments are focused on considering&nbsp;the split set out in the proposal, which is an issue we&nbsp;looked at briefly when producing the recent Colombian field guide / checklist versions.&nbsp; There are probably lower fruit out there in terms of taxonomic changes, and we have not adopted this split to date because all the necessary data are probably not yet&nbsp;available to revise the group.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><i><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'> Voice: </span></i><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>Parrots are the best-studied example of a family in which voice can be learned, even from humans. Also, there are some sympatric species that are vocally almost identical (e.g. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Brotogeris</i> in Amazonia), so voice is not often used in considering species limits. An inspection of recordings on xeno-canto reveals similarity in note shape, overtone patterns, and frequency among these birds (follow link below and click on 'sonograms'):<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Maroon-tailed%20Parakeet%20Pyrrhura%20melanura&amp;amp;pagenumber=&amp;amp;order=taxonomy&amp;amp;view=3"><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:#2152A8; text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?query=Maroon-tailed Parakeet Pyrrhura <span class=SpellE>melanura&amp;amp;pagenumber</span>=&amp;<span class=SpellE>amp;order</span>=<span class=SpellE>taxonomy&amp;amp;view</span>=3</span></a><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><i><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'> Plumage and Distributions</span></i><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>: As set out in the proposal, <i>pacifica</i> is geographically isolated from other populations and separated by the Andes in one of its highest parts.&nbsp; It occurs only in southwestern Colombia and is not found in the Cauca or Magdalena valleys.&nbsp; Most of the rest of the group occurs east of the Andes.&nbsp; However, the proposal somewhat brushes over the most oddball pieces of this puzzle&nbsp;- subspecies <i>chapmani </i>which occurs in the southern Central Andes (so 'west of the Andes')&nbsp;but&nbsp;close to the Amazonian distribution of <i>melanura </i>and subspecies <span class=SpellE><i>souancei</i></span><i> </i>of the Colombian east slope, each of which occur at higher elevations than <i>melanura</i>.&nbsp;The distribution and plumages of this group in Colombia&nbsp;are well-<span class=SpellE>summarised</span> in the Rodriguez &amp; Hernandez book.&nbsp; Subspecies <i>melanura </i>has extensive mottling on the upper breast; <i>pacifica </i>has much reduced speckling, and in <i>chapmani </i>the speckling extends to a nuchal collar.&nbsp; The plate in Restall field guide somewhat exaggerates the darkness of the orbital ring of <i>pacifica</i>, as can be seen in photos from the following ProAves database photo on Flickr.&nbsp; The orbital is a light rather than dark grey:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/proaves/3567340969/"><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:#2152A8'>http://www.flickr.com/photos/proaves/3567340969/</span></a><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin; mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'> Any consideration of this group probably needs also to consider the correct placement of other subspecies, particularly <i>chapmani </i>but also some of the other eastern&nbsp;forms such as <span class=SpellE><i>souancei</i></span><i> </i>that occur close to the distribution of the nominate subspecies.&nbsp; The various subspecies of <i>melanura</i> are among the most marked taxa in the genus that are currently treated as conspecific, and this is a difficult genus more generally, as shown from the SACC's&nbsp;<i>picta </i>proposals.&nbsp; If one were to apply the new 'species scoring' system of Tobias et al. or adopt comparative splitting considering differences between these alongside recently split members of the <i>picta </i>group,&nbsp;one could potentially come up with a reasonable basis to split various of them.&nbsp; Whether or not to adopt this approach at present should be a consideration based on plumages and distributions.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial'> My personal view is that a more detailed analysis including a consideration of voice, biometrics and molecular data of the whole&nbsp;group is needed&nbsp;to take this one forwards, in light of the lack of vocal differences and puzzling distributions.&nbsp; The proposal to split <i>pacifica </i>may well be correct as part of dealing with this group, but such a treatment may be an incomplete and overly simplified approach. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Arial'>&nbsp;=================================================================================================<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:  NO, at least on currently available evidence.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I think that the critical area for determining which and how many species should be split off from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. melanura</i> is Colombia, particularly in view of the intervening form <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>chapmani</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Genetic and vocal evidence from this area are the critical data that would be needed.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>That <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>melanura </i>and<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> pacifica</i> differ genetically in Bolivia is interesting, but this represents the oldest part of the high Andes; the orogenic events that may have separated the three forms in Colombia are much more recent, and if gene flow still occurs here we might be seeing something like a  ring species situation. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>NO. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span></span><span lang=PT-BR style='mso-bidi-font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;mso-ansi-language:PT-BR'>Considerando as opiniıes acima emitidas, enquanto n„o houver uma an·lise publicada da situaÁ„o</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:  </span><span style='font-size:13.0pt;font-family:Arial'>NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>When Bob Ridgely and I described <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. orcesi</i> in 1988 we recognized that the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. melanura</i> complex probably consisted of multiple species, including <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>pacifica</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> which is likely sister to </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>orcesi</i>; however, what is needed is a comprehensive molecular data set to address this question given how morphologically similar this group is and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pyrrhura</i> as a whole. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>The biogeographical and morphological distinctions cited in the proposal are certainly suggestive, but I would echo the calls of others for an actual analysis of the entire <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>melanura</i> complex before splitting <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> on what currently amounts to circumstantial evidence. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi'>NO. <span class=hps>This proposal</span> <span class=hps>has a lot of</span> <span class=hps>unnecessary and</span> <span class=hps>little</span><span class=hpsalt-edited> necessary</span><span class=hps> information. Even if </span>Penhallurick might be right that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pacifica</i> should be elevated to species rank, as indicated by Robbins </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>a comprehensive molecular data set </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>is </span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>needed to address this question, given how morphologically similar this group is, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pyrrhura</i> as a whole. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>