Proposal (532) to South American Classification Committee

 

Revise linear sequence of species in Amazona

 

Effect on SACC: This changes the linear sequence of species in Amazona to be consistent with our best estimates of the phylogeny.

 

Background:  Our current sequence is a traditional one for which I do not know if an explicit rationale has been published.

 

Amazona tucumana Tucuman Parrot
Amazona pretrei Red-spectacled Parrot
Amazona autumnalis Red-lored Parrot
Amazona brasiliensis Red-tailed Parrot
Amazona dufresniana Blue-cheeked Parrot
Amazona rhodocorytha Red-browed Parrot
Amazona festiva Festive Parrot
Amazona barbadensis Yellow-shouldered Parrot
Amazona aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot
Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Parrot
Amazona kawalli Kawall's Parrot
Amazona amazonica Orange-winged Parrot
Amazona mercenarius Scaly-naped Parrot

Amazona farinosa Mealy Parrot
Amazona vinacea Vinaceous-breasted Parrot

New information:  Two independent analyses have produced largely congruent results in terms of relationships within and composition of Amazona: Otten-Wainwright et al. (2004) and Russello & Amato (2004) [I have pdfs if someone needs them], and we should have incorporated those data into our classification long ago.  The big finding of both papers relates to taxa outside our purview:  those big, colorful Lesser Antillean species do not form a group, as traditionally assumed, but in fact are independently derived.  For the South American species, the big finding, for me anyway, is another example of an Amazonian riverine species, A. festiva, being sister to everything else.

Their trees are below:

 

 

 

Translating the tree into a linear sequence involves, obviously, the usual arbitrary conventions.  I suggest that the sequence start with the oldest species lineage, festiva, and which is sister to vinacea + (tucumana + pretrei) (sequence N to S), etc.:

 

Thus a sequence that reflects the phylogeny, for South American taxa only, is:

 

Amazona festiva Festive Parrot

            Amazona vinacea Vinaceous-breasted Parrot

Amazona tucumana Tucuman Parrot
Amazona pretrei Red-spectacled Parrot

                                 Amazona autumnalis Red-lored Parrot

Amazona dufresniana Blue-cheeked Parrot
Amazona rhodocorytha Red-browed Parrot

Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-crowned Parrot
Amazona barbadensis Yellow-shouldered Parrot
Amazona aestiva Turquoise-fronted Parrot

Amazona farinosa Mealy Parrot
Amazona kawalli Kawall's Parrot

Amazona brasiliensis Red-tailed Parrot
Amazona amazonica Orange-winged Parrot

Unfortunately, one South American species is missing from the taxon-sampling of both papers: A. mercenarius.  I am open to suggestions as to where to put this.  I cannot find anything online using Google Scholar or Zoological Record.  I have not checked Forshaw, HBW, or other sources for rationale for relationships.  If there is nothing solid, we could place it at the end, which is not far from its traditional placement.

 

Literature Cited:

OTTENS-WAINWRIGHT, P., K. E. HALANYCH, J. R. EBERHARD, R. I. BURKE, J. W. WILEY, R. S. GNAM, AND X. G. AQUILERA.  2004.  Independent geographic origins of the genus Amazona in the West Indies.  Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 17 (Special Issue Honoring Nedra Klein): 23-49.

RUSSELLO, M. A., AND G. AMATO. 2004. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 421-437.

 

Van Remsen, June 2012

 

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Comments from Robbins: “YES, for following that sequence. With regard to A. mercenarius: given that there are no genetic data available and that it has an Andean distribution, hence it is likely more recently derived from this lowland group (perhaps sister to A. amazonica based on plumage?), and I concur with Van’s suggestion of placing mercenarius at the end of the sequence.”

 

Comments from Stotz: “YES, and it seems like placing mercenarius at the end makes the most sense in the absence of any data.”

 

Comments from Zimmer:  YES, and I would further agree with the reasoning behind placing mercenarius at the end of the sequence.”

 

Comments from Stiles: “YES (with mercenarius at the end, for want of a better place to put it, at least for the moment).”

 

Comments from Pacheco: “YES.  Regarding the sequence. If this information can indicate something, it is interesting to mention that the chewing lice of A. mercenarius are closer to those of Amazona farinosa inornata (cf. Carriker).”

 

Comments from Nores: “YES, including placing mercenarius at the end of the sequence until new data are available.”