ˇ˛<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:mv="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Elevate Pauxi unicornis koepckeae to species status"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=macintosh"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <link rel=File-List href="SACCprop537_files/filelist.xml"> <link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="SACCprop537_files/editdata.mso"> <!--[if !mso]> <style> v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style> <![endif]--> <title>Elevate Pauxi unicornis koepckeae to species status</title> <!--[if gte 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spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff1e7"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF1E7" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (537) to </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Elevate<i> Pauxi unicornis koepckeae </i>to species status<o:p></o:p></span></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Effect of Proposal:</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>If it passes, this proposal would result in treatment of <i>Pauxi unicornis koepckeae</i> as a separate species from <i>P. u. unicornis </i>(Horned Curassow).<i><o:p></o:p></i></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>Background:</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Current classifications typically treat <i>Pauxi unicornis</i> as consisting of two subspecies, with disjunct ranges: nominate <i>unicornis</i> in the Andean foothills of Bolivia, and <i>koepckeae</i>, known only from the isolated Sira range in Peru, ~1000 km north (and ~60 km east from the nearest Andean slopes over 1000 m, Terborgh &amp; Weske 1971).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The two subspecies are differ in morphology (</span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Weske &amp; Terborgh 1971,</span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> <span class=SpellE>GastaÒaga</span> et al. 2011</span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>),</span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'> vocalizations, and behavior (<span class=SpellE>GastaÒaga</span> et al. 2011).<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>New information:</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style: italic'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span class=SpellE>GastaÒaga</span> et al. (2011) studied vocal, behavioral, ecological, and morphological differences between the two populations of <i>P. unicornis</i>, as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Vocal differences &#8211; </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>koepckeae</span></i></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'> has a low booming vocalization that lacks the final emphatic far carrying note that is the most distinctive feature of the song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The booming sequence of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> is a series of up to four notes followed by a pause of approximately 2 sec, repeated every 4-5 sec.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In contrast the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i> booming sequence comprises four phrases totaling eight notes that lasts 8-10 sec and is repeated every 15 sec, and also has a very distinctive and very loud final sharp  BMM! note that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>koepckeae</i> lacks (Figure and Table below). These vocal differences are based on N = 97 encounters with singing individuals (N = 25 <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and N = 72 <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>) between 1999 and 2008.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Sonogram-PUK-2" style='width:361pt;height:117pt; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop537_files/image001.jpg" o:title="Sonogram-PUK-2"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=363 height=119 src="SACCprop537_files/image002.gif" alt="Description: Sonogram-PUK-2" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]></span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_2" o:spid="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Sonogram-PUU-1" style='width:361pt;height:116pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop537_files/image003.jpg" o:title="Sonogram-PUU-1"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=363 height=118 src="SACCprop537_files/image004.gif" alt="Description: Sonogram-PUU-1" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_2"><![endif]></span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Sonograms of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>koepckeae</i> (upper) and<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> unicornis</i> (lower). The song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> has a phrase of four notes (indicated by the black horizontal lines) with the first note somewhat louder than the following 3 notes.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In the sonogram the third note was so quiet that it could not be separated from the background noise of the recording although it was audible to the observers in the field.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i> has eight notes (indicated by the black horizontal lines), forming the four phrases shown in the sonogram.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i> is three times longer, with the final distinctive and far-carrying note much louder and this is completely absent from the song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Variation in vocal signatures of <i>P</i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>. u.<span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> koepckeae</span></i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> and <i>P</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>. u.<span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> unicornis</span></i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>.</span><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></span></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=440 style='width:439.55pt;margin-left:-6.05pt;border-collapse:collapse;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=66 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:65.6pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Pauxi<o:p></o:p></span></u></i></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>form</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=51 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:50.55pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Final <o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>loud note<o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:52.95pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Phrase</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> duration<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=48 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:48.0pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Pause</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> duration<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=61 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:60.75pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Number</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>of phrases<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:53.25pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Number</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>of notes<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=90 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.25in;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Tail gesture</span></u></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> during alarm calls<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=18 valign=top style='width:18.45pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>N<o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=66 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:65.6pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>koepckeae</span></i></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=51 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:50.55pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>No<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:52.95pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>3 sec<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=48 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:48.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>2 sec<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=61 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:60.75pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>1<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:53.25pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>4<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=90 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.25in;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>horizontal fanning<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=18 valign=top style='width:18.45pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>25<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=66 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:65.6pt;border:none;border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>unicornis</span></i></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=51 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:50.55pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Yes<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:52.95pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>8-10 sec<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=48 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:48.0pt;border:none;border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>5-7 sec<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=61 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:60.75pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>4<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=53 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:53.25pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>8<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=90 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.25in;border:none;border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>vertical pumping<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=18 valign=top style='width:18.45pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>72<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The song of the only other curassow found in the Sira Mountains, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu tuberosum</i>, has a similar number of notes and length of song to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i>, and its song is much more similar to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> than <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>koepckeae</i> is to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The  <span class=SpellE>Ksop</span>! alarm call was accompanied by a horizontal fanning of the tail feathers concordant with each call in<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> koepckeae</i>; <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> accompanies each alarm call by pumping the tail up and down concordant with each call.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Habitat and altitudinal differences &#8211; </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>koepckeae</span></i></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'> is resident in cloud forest (1100-1600 m), whereas <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i> occurs in humid forest on the edge of tropical lowlands and lower montane forest (400-1100 m).<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The Sira Mountains are isolated from the Andes, characterized by habitat zones that are at lower altitudes than the Andes; the cloud forest to montane forest transition is at 1050 m, which is several hundred meters lower than this transition at comparable locations in the main Andes<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'> </b><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>(low of 1380 m,</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'> </b>Terborgh &amp; Weske 1975).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Therefore the difference in habitats occupied by the two taxa is even greater than is suggested by a simple comparison of altitudinal ranges.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Morphological differences &#8211; </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>As noted by (Weske &amp; Terborgh 1971) there are striking differences in casque form, with a flattened shield-like ellipsoid in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae </i>and an erect cone-shaped horn in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> (see Figure below), as well as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> having less white at the tip of the tail than either <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> or <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pauxi</i>.<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> </i><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>We have also confirmed the casque shape of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> (N = 14 observations) differs consistently from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> (N &gt; 30 observations) in the field, with all observation recording the upright horn in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> and the flat shield in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and no intermediate casque forms recorded in either population.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_2" o:spid="_x0000_s1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pauxi unicornis SC Zoo" style='position:absolute; margin-left:252pt;margin-top:0;width:116.6pt;height:135pt;z-index:251657728; visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square;mso-wrap-distance-left:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-top:0;mso-wrap-distance-right:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-bottom:0;mso-position-horizontal:absolute; mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;mso-position-vertical:absolute; mso-position-vertical-relative:text'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop537_files/image005.jpg" o:title="Pauxi unicornis SC Zoo"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><span style='mso-ignore:vglayout;position: relative;z-index:251657728'><span style='position:absolute;left:249px; top:-37px;width:119px;height:137px'><img width=119 height=137 src="SACCprop537_files/image006.gif" alt="Description: Pauxi unicornis SC Zoo" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_2"></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-no-proof: yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_3" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pauxi in Peru 5 head" style='width:106pt; height:131pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop537_files/image007.jpg" o:title="Pauxi in Peru 5 head"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=108 height=133 src="SACCprop537_files/image008.gif" alt="Description: Pauxi in Peru 5 head" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_3"><![endif]><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_4" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pauxi unicornis koepckeae 2006g head" style='width:2in;height:132pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop537_files/image009.jpg" o:title="Pauxi unicornis koepckeae 2006g head"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=146 height=134 src="SACCprop537_files/image010.gif" alt="Description: Pauxi unicornis koepckeae 2006g head" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_4"><![endif]></span></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>P. koepckeae</span></i></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'> (Peru)<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i> (Bolivia)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Although Weske &amp; Terborgh (1971) offer measurements of casque diameter and c<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>ulmen tip to top of casque</span> for<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> koepckeae</i>, they were not compared to other congeners, which we offer in the Table below.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We note non-overlapping measurements between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and its two congeners <a name="OLE_LINK4"></a><a name="OLE_LINK3"><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK4'>for c<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>ulmen tip to top of casque, maximum diameter of casque, and casque length</span></span></a><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>. F</span>or c<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>ulmen tip to top of casque and casque length the differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i> are greater than the differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pauxi</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i>. We also note the measurements are not consistent with a latitudinal cline across the 3 species as the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>koepckeae</i> measurements are not intermediate between those of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> in Bolivia and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>pauxi</i> in Colombia/Venezuela.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Variation in casque morphology among separate forms of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></span></span></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width=256 style='width:255.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=52 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:52.4pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Pauxi</span></u></i></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=75 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:75.45pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Culmen tip to top of casque<o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=72 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.0in;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Max diameter <o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>of casque<o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=56 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:55.85pt;border-top:solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;border-right:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Casque length<o:p></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td nowrap valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>koepckeae<o:p></o:p></span></i></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-style:italic'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=75 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:75.45pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>84.2<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(83.6-84.9)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=72 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.0in;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>21.4<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(20.4-22.5)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=56 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:55.85pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>45.3<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(45.0-45.7)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.75pt'> <td nowrap valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>unicornis<o:p></o:p></span></i></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=75 nowrap valign=top style='width:75.45pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>99.3<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(98.9-99.7)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=72 nowrap valign=top style='width:1.0in;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>24.6<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(23.0-26.3)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=56 nowrap valign=top style='width:55.85pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>56.8<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(55.0-58.6)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td nowrap valign=bottom style='border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>pauxi<o:p></o:p></span></i></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=75 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:75.45pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>95.2<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(87.0-104.1)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=72 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:1.0in;border:none;border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>36.3<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(29.8-44.0)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> <td width=56 nowrap valign=bottom style='width:55.85pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:.75pt .75pt 0in .75pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>60.5<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(57.2-62.3)<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> </td> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span> </tr> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Discussion:</span></u></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As noted above, the vocalizations of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> differ strongly from those of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>, and in many ways the vocalizations of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> are more similar to those of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu tuberosum</i> than <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>For ranking allopatric taxa under the Biological Species Concept, differences of this magnitude in voice are typically considered strong evidence for ranking the taxa as species.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The differences in casque size and shape might also be associated with divergence to the point of being a barrier to gene flow if these structures are associated with mate selection.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although differences in habitat and elevation are not species-level characters per se, they are at least consistent with species-level differences.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></b></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Recommendation:</span></u></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'> A  YES vote.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although assessment of species limits among allopatric taxa is problematic, we think that the degree of differentiation between these widely separated populations is consistent with the level of differences associated with taxa ranked as species in the Cracidae.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>For example, these differences are arguably greater than those between taxa treated as separate species in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Penelope</i>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria/Pipile</i>, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Ortalis</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:none;mso-list-ins:"James Remsen" 20120808T1555; mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>English names:</span></u></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'> We recommend  Sira Curassow for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and retaining  Horned Curassow for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although there are advantages to creating two new names for the split species, we prefer the simpler names to something like Northern Horned Curassow and Southern Horned Curassow.<o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial'>References:<o:p></o:p></span></u></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>GastaÒaga</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, M. 2006. Peruvian Horned Curassow (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi unicornis koepckeae</i>) rediscovered in the Sira Mountains, Peru. Bulletin of the Cracid Specialist Group 22: 10-23.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>GastaÒaga</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, M., A. B. Hennessey, &amp; R. MacLeod. 2007. Rediscovery of Southern Horned Curassow <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi unicornis koepckeae</i> in Cerros del Sira, Peru. Cotinga 28: 63-66.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyTextIndent style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>GastaÒaga</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>-C., M., R. MacLeod, D.M. Brooks and B. Hennessey. 2011. </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Distinctive morphology, ecology, and first vocal descriptions of Sira Curassow (<i>Pauxi </i>[<i>unicornis</i>] <i>koepckeae</i>): evidence for species rank</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span class=SpellE>Ornitol</span>. Neotrop. 22: 267-279.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Graham, J.G. 2009. A new specimen of Southern Horned Curassow <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi unicornis</i> from Peru. Cotinga 31: 73.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial'>G˙zman</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>, E., D. M. Brooks, &amp; G. <span class=SpellE>Sedaghatkish</span>. 1999. <span class=SpellE>Notas</span> <span class=SpellE>sobre</span> la <span class=SpellE>historia</span> natural de los <span class=SpellE>cr·cidos</span> <span class=SpellE>albergados</span> en el Museo  Noel Kempff Mercado , Santa Cruz, <span class=SpellE>Boliva</span>, con <span class=SpellE>notas</span> <span class=SpellE>sobre</span> la <span class=SpellE>taxonomÌa</span> de las <span class=SpellE>pavas</span> del <span class=SpellE>genero</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>. Bulletin of the Cracid Specialist Group 8: 20-28.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Herzog, S. K., &amp; M. Kessler. 1998. In search of the last Horned Curassows <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi unicornis</i> in Bolivia. Cotinga 10: 46-48.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoTitle align=left style='margin-left:.5in;text-align:left; text-indent:-.5in'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal'>Maillard</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal'>-Z., O. 2006. <span class=SpellE>Reciente</span> <span class=SpellE>espÈcimen</span> de la <span class=SpellE>Pava</span> <span class=SpellE>Copete</span> de <span class=SpellE>Piedra</span> (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi unicornis</i>) <span class=SpellE>para</span> Bolivia. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Kempffiana</i> 2: 95-98.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyTextIndent style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Weske, J.S. and J.W. Terborgh. 1971. A new subspecies of curassow of the genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> from Peru. Auk 88: 233-238.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Daniel Brooks, Ross MacLeod, and Melvin <span class=SpellE>GastaÒaga</span>-C.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial'>August 2012</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Remsen:</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I think the proposal clearly places burden-of-proof on treatment of koepckeae at the subspecies rank.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In fact, I think that species rank is better-justified than it is for a number of allopatric species in the Cracidae. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Comments from Jacob <span class=SpellE>Socolar</span></span></u><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>I want to offer three brief comments. &nbsp;I do not expect any of these comments to substantially influence the committee members' decisions, but perhaps it could somehow be useful to mention these points:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'> --On August 7, 2010, I observed a <i>Pauxi [unicornis] koepckeae</i>&nbsp;at great length at 1650 <span class=SpellE>masl</span> on Terborgh and <span class=SpellE>Weske's</span> original transect of the Sira. &nbsp;This individual clearly had white tipping to all <span class=SpellE>retrices</span>, and I do not believe that the extent of white in the tail is a consistent difference between <i>koepckeae </i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;nominate&nbsp;<i>unicornis.<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'> --The casque morphology is somewhat variable in <i>koepckeae</i>. &nbsp;In particular, I have in my possession a very poor photo of a <i>P. [u.] koepckeae</i>&nbsp;(which I can send to anyone who wants to see it) that shows an individual of <i>koepckeae</i>&nbsp;with a casque that appears to approach <i>Pauxi <span class=SpellE>pauxi</span></i>&nbsp;in shape. &nbsp;The casque morphology in <i>Pauxi <span class=SpellE>pauxi</span></i>&nbsp;is also variable. &nbsp;Among the specimens at the Smithsonian, the only gender/subspecies combination with multiple specimens involves three&nbsp;female&nbsp;<i>P. p. gilliardi</i>, and their <span class=SpellE>casques</span> are tremendously variable in size and shape, apparently due to damage and wear during the birds' lifetimes.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'> --Whether <i>koepckeae</i>&nbsp;is truly sister to <i>P.&nbsp;unicornis </i>or <i>P. pauxi</i>&nbsp;is not entirely clear to me.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'> While I think that additional data (likely including genetic work and also a further attempt to follow up on Ted Parker's possible record) are required to thoroughly understand the relationships between the various taxa in the genus <i>Pauxi, </i>I&nbsp;agree with the recommendation for a 'yes' vote on this proposal. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Additional comments from Brooks and MacLeod</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Jacob, thanks for your comments, here are some brief responses:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> The individual you saw at Terborgh and <span class=SpellE>Weske's</span> site was probably in molt and simply shed the central rectrix. &nbsp;Mel and Ross found two shed rectrices in the Sira in mid July 2007, which is close to your date of 7 August. &nbsp;The Holotype at AMNH deposited by Weske and Terborgh from the same site where you saw the bird in question also lacks a white tip centrally.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'>-<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span> We're not surprised about the casque variation in the small series of female P. p. gilliardi, as variation increases with size of a given character, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. pauxi</i> has a large casque. &nbsp;More importantly there is some ontogenetic variation in casque size of different age classes since <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> reaches adult body size within a year, but the casque doesn't attain full size for 2-3 years. &nbsp;Despite the potential for size variation due to growth we've seen at least 14 <span class=SpellE>casques</span> of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>koepckeae,</i> and they were all similar in size and flat shield-like appearance, which contrasts with the invariably upright horn of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i>. &nbsp;In captive individuals of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> at the Santa Cruz Zoo (Bolivia) the upright horn shape was present from a young age; although the size of the horn increased with age it didn't change shape or ever resemble the casque of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Cambria'>Additional comments from Jacob <span class=SpellE>Socolar</span></span></u><span style='font-family: Cambria'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>I am currently in the field without my notes to say with certainty how many rectrices I observed with white tips on the Terborgh-Weske transect. &nbsp;It is indeed possible that the bird only showed 10 rectrices, although that is not my recollection. &nbsp;In any case, a recent brown-morph specimen from the east slope of the Sira (details forthcoming) shows cream (rather than white) tips to the rectrices, and clearly shows such tips on all twelve rectrices (save the outermost, whose tips are worn off entirely).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> Furthermore, Weske and Terborgh (1971) note the absence of white tips on four central rectrices. &nbsp;I am certain that the bird I observed was not missing four central tail feathers, and so there is definitely variability in the number of white-tipped rectrices in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. koepckeae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> Again, I suspect that this information won't substantially affect the admirably documented case for a split, but I just don't think that the white tipping on the tail should go down as an &quot;official&quot; diagnostic character to distinguish between the forms (absence of white seems to be diagnostic for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i>, but presence of white is not diagnostic for nominate <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>unicornis</i>). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> YES .<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I think that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>koepckeae</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>unicornis</i> could be justifiably split on the vocal differences alone, but the rather extreme differences in casque shape, even if proven to vary individually in size, provide clinching evidence.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>These differences are not only consistent with the levels of differentiation between other species pairs of cracids, but they exceed those differences for many pairs of taxa already treated as specifically distinct.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Should this proposal pass, I would also recommend adoption of the English names suggested by the authors for the two resulting species. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>YES. Differences in voice and casque shape, probably both important in mate choice, suggest to me that this split is biologically meaningful. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>A <span class=SpellE>partir</span> do <span class=SpellE>exposto</span>, <span class=SpellE>eu</span> <span class=SpellE>sou</span> <span class=SpellE>favor·vel</span> <span class=SpellE>ao</span> tratamento <span class=SpellE>sugerido</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from PÈrez-Em·n</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>YES. Vocal and morphological differences argue in favor of this split. It would be interesting to pursue Jacob s question on phylogenetic relationships within the genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> because <i>koepckeae</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> might not be closer to <i>unicornis</i> (compared to <i>pauxi</i>). <o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family: Arial'>YES. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>In particular, the vocal data is what swayed me the most. The further morphological differences are icing on the cake. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.55pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT; mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic'>YES. The vocalizations and the casque form are </span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>different enough to</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> treat </span><i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Pauxi (unicornis) koepckeae </span></i><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>as a species.<span class=TitleChar1><span style='font-weight:normal'> N</span></span><span class=hps>o</span><span class=shorttext> </span><span class=hps>other differences</span><span class=shorttext> </span><span class=hpsalt-edited>are so important.</span> I&nbsp;agree with <span class=SpellE>Socolar</span> that genetic data are required to thoroughly understand the relationships between the various taxa in the genus <i>Pauxi. </i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>