ˇ˛<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml" xmlns:o="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word" xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml" xmlns:mv="http://macVmlSchemaUri" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"> <head> <meta name=Title content="Synonymize Scytalopus petrophilus with Scytalopus speluncae"> <meta name=Keywords content=""> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=macintosh"> <meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14"> <link rel=File-List href="SACCprop559_files/filelist.xml"> <link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="SACCprop559_files/editdata.mso"> <!--[if !mso]> <style> v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} </style> <![endif]--> <title>Synonymize Scytalopus petrophilus with Scytalopus speluncae</title> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author> </o:Author> <o:LastAuthor>James Remsen</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>344</o:TotalTime> <o:Created>2015-10-25T02:44:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2015-10-25T02:44:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>23</o:Pages> <o:Words>32728</o:Words> <o:Characters>164625</o:Characters> <o:Company>SACC</o:Company> <o:Lines>3048</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>605</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>196748</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>14.0</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:PixelsPerInch>96</o:PixelsPerInch> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--> <link rel=themeData href="SACCprop559_files/themedata.xml"> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:Zoom>116</w:Zoom> <w:DisplayBackgroundShape/> <w:SpellingState>Clean</w:SpellingState> <w:GrammarState>Clean</w:GrammarState> <w:TrackMoves>false</w:TrackMoves> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>JA</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> </w:Compatibility> <m:mathPr> <m:mathFont m:val="Cambria Math"/> <m:brkBin m:val="before"/> <m:brkBinSub m:val="&#45;-"/> <m:smallFrac m:val="off"/> <m:dispDef m:val="off"/> <m:lMargin m:val="0"/> <m:rMargin m:val="0"/> <m:defJc m:val="centerGroup"/> <m:wrapRight/> <m:intLim m:val="subSup"/> <m:naryLim m:val="subSup"/> </m:mathPr></w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" DefUnhideWhenUsed="false" DefSemiHidden="false" DefQFormat="false" LatentStyleCount="276"> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 2"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 3"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 4"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 5"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 6"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 7"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 8"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 9"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="annotation text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="annotation reference"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" QFormat="true" Name="Title"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="1" Name="Default Paragraph Font"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="Body Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" QFormat="true" Name="Strong"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="20" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="annotation subject"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="No List"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="99" Name="Balloon Text"/> <w:LsdException Locked="false" Priority="34" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph"/> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Arial; panose-1:2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073711037 9 0 511 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Courier New"; panose-1:2 7 3 9 2 2 5 2 4 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536859905 -1073711037 9 0 511 0;} @font-face {font-family:Times; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:Wingdings; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:2; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:0 268435456 0 0 -2147483648 0;} @font-face {font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1791491579 18 0 131231 0;} @font-face {font-family:Mangal; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:1; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:8192 0 0 0 0 0;} @font-face {font-family:Mangal; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:1; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:8192 0 0 0 0 0;} @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520092929 1073786111 9 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:Cambria; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 1073743103 0 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Lucida Grande"; panose-1:2 11 6 0 4 5 2 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-520090897 1342218751 0 0 447 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Avenir Roman"; panose-1:2 11 5 3 2 2 3 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-2147483473 1342185546 0 0 155 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Book Antiqua"; panose-1:2 4 6 2 5 3 5 3 3 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:"Bookman Old Style"; panose-1:2 5 6 4 5 5 5 2 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:Constantia; panose-1:2 3 6 2 5 3 6 3 3 3; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750091 0 0 415 0;} @font-face {font-family:Monaco; panose-1:2 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:"\30D2\30E9\30AE\30CE\89D2\30B4 Pro W3"; mso-font-charset:78; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-536870145 2059927551 18 0 131085 0;} @font-face {font-family:Times-Roman; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:Times; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:auto; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:SimSun; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:\5B8B\4F53; mso-font-charset:134; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:1 135135232 16 0 262144 0;} @font-face {font-family:AGaramondPro-Regular; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:"Adobe Garamond Pro"; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:auto; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} @font-face {font-family:AGaramondPro-Italic; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:"Adobe Garamond Pro"; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:auto; mso-font-signature:3 0 0 0 1 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} h1 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 1 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; mso-outline-level:1; mso-hyphenate:none; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-font-kerning:0pt; font-weight:bold;} h2 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 2 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; mso-outline-level:2; mso-hyphenate:none; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} h3 {mso-style-name:"Heading 3\,Normal 1"; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 3 Char\,Normal 1 Char"; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.3in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.3in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:3; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; font-weight:normal;} h4 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 4 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:4; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;} h5 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 5 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:5; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} h6 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 6 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:6; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;} p.MsoHeading7, li.MsoHeading7, div.MsoHeading7 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 7 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:7; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoHeading8, li.MsoHeading8, div.MsoHeading8 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 8 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:8; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} p.MsoHeading9, li.MsoHeading9, div.MsoHeading9 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 9 Char"; mso-style-next:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:9; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;} p.MsoToc1, li.MsoToc1, div.MsoToc1 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc2, li.MsoToc2, div.MsoToc2 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.0in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc3, li.MsoToc3, div.MsoToc3 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc4, li.MsoToc4, div.MsoToc4 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.0in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:right dotted 431.5pt; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc5, li.MsoToc5, div.MsoToc5 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc6, li.MsoToc6, div.MsoToc6 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:3.0in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc7, li.MsoToc7, div.MsoToc7 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:3.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc8, li.MsoToc8, div.MsoToc8 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:4.0in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoToc9, li.MsoToc9, div.MsoToc9 {mso-style-update:auto; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.3in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:4.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-no-proof:yes;} p.MsoFootnoteText, li.MsoFootnoteText, div.MsoFootnoteText {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Footnote Text Char"; mso-style-next:"Footnote TextMore"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoCommentText, li.MsoCommentText, div.MsoCommentText {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Comment Text Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Header Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 225.0pt right 6.25in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoFooter, li.MsoFooter, div.MsoFooter {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Footer Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 225.0pt right 6.25in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.MsoCommentReference {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-ansi-font-size:9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:9.0pt;} p.MsoEndnoteText, li.MsoEndnoteText, div.MsoEndnoteText {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Endnote Text Char"; mso-style-next:"Endnote TextMore"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoTitle, li.MsoTitle, div.MsoTitle {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-link:"Title Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;} p.MsoBodyText, li.MsoBodyText, div.MsoBodyText {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Body Text Char"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-indent:1.0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyTextIndent, li.MsoBodyTextIndent, div.MsoBodyTextIndent {mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoSalutation, li.MsoSalutation, div.MsoSalutation {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Salutation Char"; mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoDate, li.MsoDate, div.MsoDate {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Date Char"; mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyText2, li.MsoBodyText2, div.MsoBodyText2 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Body Text 2 Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:1.0in; line-height:200%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBodyText3, li.MsoBodyText3, div.MsoBodyText3 {mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Body Text 3 Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:1.0in; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoBlockText, li.MsoBlockText, div.MsoBlockText {mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {mso-style-unhide:no; color:blue; mso-themecolor:hyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {mso-style-unhide:no; color:purple; mso-themecolor:followedhyperlink; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} strong {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p {mso-margin-top-alt:auto; margin-right:0in; mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} pre {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.5in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Courier; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} p.MsoCommentSubject, li.MsoCommentSubject, div.MsoCommentSubject {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Comment Text"; mso-style-link:"Comment Subject Char"; mso-style-next:"Comment Text"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:bold;} p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate {mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoNoSpacing, li.MsoNoSpacing, div.MsoNoSpacing {mso-style-priority:1; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:ES;} p.MsoListParagraph, li.MsoListParagraph, div.MsoListParagraph {mso-style-priority:34; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst {mso-style-priority:34; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle {mso-style-priority:34; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, li.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast, div.MsoListParagraphCxSpLast {mso-style-priority:34; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.TitleChar {mso-style-name:"Title Char"; mso-style-priority:10; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Title; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA; font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;} span.BalloonTextChar {mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Balloon Text"; mso-ansi-font-size:9.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Lucida Grande"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Lucida Grande";} span.CommentTextChar {mso-style-name:"Comment Text Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Comment Text"; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;} span.CommentSubjectChar {mso-style-name:"Comment Subject Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-parent:"Comment Text Char"; mso-style-link:"Comment Subject"; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-weight:bold;} span.HTMLPreformattedChar {mso-style-name:"HTML Preformatted Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"HTML Preformatted"; font-family:Courier; mso-ascii-font-family:Courier; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Courier; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} span.Heading3Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 3 Char\,Normal 1 Char"; mso-style-priority:9; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 3\,Normal 1"; mso-ansi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-ascii-font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;} p.FreeForm, li.FreeForm, div.FreeForm {mso-style-name:"Free Form"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; mso-fareast-font-family:"\30D2\30E9\30AE\30CE\89D2\30B4 Pro W3"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;} p.Body, li.Body, div.Body {mso-style-name:Body; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; mso-fareast-font-family:"\30D2\30E9\30AE\30CE\89D2\30B4 Pro W3"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;} span.Heading1Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 1"; mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; font-weight:bold;} span.Heading2Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 2 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 2"; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} span.Heading4Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 4 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 4"; mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;} span.Heading5Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 5 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 5"; mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} span.Heading6Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 6 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 6"; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;} span.Heading7Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 7 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 7"; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} span.Heading8Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 8 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 8"; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-style:italic;} span.Heading9Char {mso-style-name:"Heading 9 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Heading 9"; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;} span.BodyTextChar {mso-style-name:"Body Text Char"; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Body Text"; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} span.BodyText2Char {mso-style-name:"Body Text 2 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Body Text 2"; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} p.BodyText2J, li.BodyText2J, div.BodyText2J {mso-style-name:"Body Text 2 J"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Body Text 2"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; text-indent:1.0in; line-height:200%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.BodyText3Char {mso-style-name:"Body Text 3 Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Body Text 3"; mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;} p.BodyText3J, li.BodyText3J, div.BodyText3J {mso-style-name:"Body Text 3 J"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Body Text 3"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; text-indent:1.0in; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BodyTextJ, li.BodyTextJ, div.BodyTextJ {mso-style-name:"Body Text J"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Body Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:justify; text-indent:1.0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BodyTextNumbered, li.BodyTextNumbered, div.BodyTextNumbered {mso-style-name:"Body Text Numbered"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-indent:1.0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l7 level1 lfo5; tab-stops:list 1.5in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.DateChar {mso-style-name:"Date Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Date; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} span.DocID {mso-style-name:DocID; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:""; mso-ansi-font-size:8.0pt;} span.EndnoteTextChar {mso-style-name:"Endnote Text Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Endnote Text"; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} p.EndnoteTextMore, li.EndnoteTextMore, div.EndnoteTextMore {mso-style-name:"Endnote TextMore"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Endnote Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.FooterChar {mso-style-name:"Footer Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Footer; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} span.FootnoteTextChar {mso-style-name:"Footnote Text Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:"Footnote Text"; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} p.FootnoteTextMore, li.FootnoteTextMore, div.FootnoteTextMore {mso-style-name:"Footnote TextMore"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Footnote Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.HeaderChar {mso-style-name:"Header Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Header; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} span.SalutationChar {mso-style-name:"Salutation Char"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-locked:yes; mso-style-link:Salutation; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} p.BlockText5, li.BlockText5, div.BlockText5 {mso-style-name:"Block Text \.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.TitleL, li.TitleL, div.TitleL {mso-style-name:"Title L"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:Title; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; font-weight:bold;} p.BlockText1, li.BlockText1, div.BlockText1 {mso-style-name:"Block Text 1"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:91.45pt; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BlockTextJ, li.BlockTextJ, div.BlockTextJ {mso-style-name:"Block Text J"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.HangingIndent, li.HangingIndent, div.HangingIndent {mso-style-name:"Hanging Indent"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:"Block Text"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.5in; text-indent:-1.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.Table, li.Table, div.Table {mso-style-name:Table; mso-style-unhide:no; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block, li.UK10Block, div.UK10Block {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block05, li.UK10Block05, div.UK10Block05 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 0\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block10, li.UK10Block10, div.UK10Block10 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 1\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block15, li.UK10Block15, div.UK10Block15 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 1\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block20, li.UK10Block20, div.UK10Block20 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 2\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block25, li.UK10Block25, div.UK10Block25 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 2\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Block30, li.UK10Block30, div.UK10Block30 {mso-style-name:"UK10 Block 3\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:3.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK10Title, li.UK10Title, div.UK10Title {mso-style-name:"UK10 Title"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:"UK10 Block"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:center; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;} p.UK11Block, li.UK11Block, div.UK11Block {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block05, li.UK11Block05, div.UK11Block05 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 0\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block10, li.UK11Block10, div.UK11Block10 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 1\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block15, li.UK11Block15, div.UK11Block15 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 1\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block20, li.UK11Block20, div.UK11Block20 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 2\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block25, li.UK11Block25, div.UK11Block25 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 2\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Block30, li.UK11Block30, div.UK11Block30 {mso-style-name:"UK11 Block 3\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:3.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK11Title, li.UK11Title, div.UK11Title {mso-style-name:"UK11 Title"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:"UK11 Block"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:center; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;} p.UK12Block, li.UK12Block, div.UK12Block {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block05, li.UK12Block05, div.UK12Block05 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 0\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block10, li.UK12Block10, div.UK12Block10 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 1\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block15, li.UK12Block15, div.UK12Block15 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 1\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:1.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block20, li.UK12Block20, div.UK12Block20 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 2\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block25, li.UK12Block25, div.UK12Block25 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 2\.5"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:2.5in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Block30, li.UK12Block30, div.UK12Block30 {mso-style-name:"UK12 Block 3\.0"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:3.0in; text-align:justify; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.UK12Title, li.UK12Title, div.UK12Title {mso-style-name:"UK12 Title"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-next:"UK12 Block"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:center; line-height:12.3pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:14.0pt; font-weight:bold; mso-bidi-font-weight:normal;} p.BulletedList, li.BulletedList, div.BulletedList {mso-style-name:"Bulleted List"; mso-style-unhide:no; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list .5in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BulletedListCxSpFirst, li.BulletedListCxSpFirst, div.BulletedListCxSpFirst {mso-style-name:"Bulleted ListCxSpFirst"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list .5in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BulletedListCxSpMiddle, li.BulletedListCxSpMiddle, div.BulletedListCxSpMiddle {mso-style-name:"Bulleted ListCxSpMiddle"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list .5in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} p.BulletedListCxSpLast, li.BulletedListCxSpLast, div.BulletedListCxSpLast {mso-style-name:"Bulleted ListCxSpLast"; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-type:export-only; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-add-space:auto; text-indent:-.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-list:l12 level1 lfo6; tab-stops:list .5in; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} span.apple-converted-space {mso-style-name:apple-converted-space; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.hps {mso-style-name:hps; mso-style-unhide:no;} span.shorttext {mso-style-name:short_text; mso-style-unhide:no;} p.PargrafodaLista, li.PargrafodaLista, div.PargrafodaLista {mso-style-name:"Par·grafo da Lista"; mso-style-priority:34; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-qformat:yes; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:35.4pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:PT-BR; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR;} p.Standard, li.Standard, div.Standard {mso-style-name:Standard; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:none; mso-hyphenate:none; text-autospace:ideograph-other; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-bidi-font-family:Mangal; mso-font-kerning:1.5pt; mso-ansi-language:PT-BR; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language:HI;} span.SpellE {mso-style-name:""; mso-spl-e:yes;} span.GramE {mso-style-name:""; mso-gram-e:yes;} .MsoChpDefault {mso-style-type:export-only; mso-default-props:yes;} @page WordSection1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} /* List Definitions */ @list l0 {mso-list-id:66073131; mso-list-template-ids:67698717;} @list l0:level1 {mso-level-text:"%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"%2\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.5in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-text:"%3\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.75in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.75in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level4 {mso-level-text:"\(%4\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.0in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"\(%5\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-text:"\(%6\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.5in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level7 {mso-level-tab-stop:1.75in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.75in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:2.0in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l0:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:2.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1 {mso-list-id:383648118; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:1954690474 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l1:level1 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l1:level4 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l1:level7 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l1:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l2 {mso-list-id:478115820; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-575646682 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l2:level1 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Symbol;} @list l2:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l2:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l2:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l2:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l2:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l2:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l2:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l2:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l3 {mso-list-id:536549169; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:740847258 818559760 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l3:level1 {mso-level-start-at:0; mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\2013; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l3:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l3:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l3:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l3:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l3:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l3:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l3:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l3:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l4 {mso-list-id:732041965; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:888542614 -1789785458 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l4:level1 {mso-level-tab-stop:1.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:1.0in;} @list l4:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l4:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l4:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l4:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l4:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l4:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l5 {mso-list-id:862748390; mso-list-template-ids:67698717;} @list l5:level1 {mso-level-text:"%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"%2\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.5in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-text:"%3\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.75in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:.75in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level4 {mso-level-text:"\(%4\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.0in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"\(%5\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-text:"\(%6\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.5in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level7 {mso-level-tab-stop:1.75in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:1.75in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:2.0in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l5:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:2.25in; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l6 {mso-list-id:1131484343; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-435123574 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l6:level1 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l6:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l6:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l6:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l6:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l6:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l6:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l6:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l6:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l7 {mso-list-id:1356544805; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-88847198 651730326 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l7:level1 {mso-level-style-link:"Body Text Numbered"; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:1.0in;} @list l7:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l7:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l7:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l7:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l7:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l7:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l8 {mso-list-id:1371686421; mso-list-template-ids:1595208552;} @list l8:level2 {mso-level-text:"%2\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l8:level3 {mso-level-start-at:4; mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:-; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l9 {mso-list-id:1417675183; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:1686173164 457623640 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l9:level1 {mso-level-text:"\(%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l9:level4 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l9:level7 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l9:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l10 {mso-list-id:1432161138; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-792658716 68550679 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l10:level1 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;} @list l10:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l10:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l10:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l10:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l10:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l10:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l10:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l10:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l11 {mso-list-id:1583904656; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:1500390610 68550679 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l11:level1 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;} @list l11:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l11:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l11:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l11:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l11:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l11:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l11:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l11:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l12 {mso-list-id:1668243753; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-1374227108 -1650426272 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693 67698689 67698691 67698693;} @list l12:level1 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-style-link:"Bulleted List"; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.5in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l12:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New";} @list l12:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l12:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l12:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New";} @list l12:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l12:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l12:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New";} @list l12:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l13 {mso-list-id:1734769006; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-1267676514 1222566092 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l13:level1 {mso-level-text:"\(%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l13:level4 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l13:level7 {mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l13:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l14 {mso-list-id:1814562236; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:310535694 215153676 1639433 1770505 984073 1639433 1770505 984073 1639433 1770505;} @list l14:level1 {mso-level-start-at:559; mso-level-tab-stop:45.0pt; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:45.0pt; text-indent:-27.0pt; mso-ansi-font-weight:bold;} @list l14:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l14:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l14:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l14:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l14:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l14:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l15 {mso-list-id:1944803743; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:57844560 68550679 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661 68550657 68550659 68550661;} @list l15:level1 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-text:"%1\)"; mso-level-tab-stop:.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;} @list l15:level2 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l15:level3 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l15:level4 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:2.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l15:level5 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l15:level6 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l15:level7 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0B7; mso-level-tab-stop:3.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Symbol;} @list l15:level8 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:o; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:"Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @list l15:level9 {mso-level-number-format:bullet; mso-level-text:\F0A7; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; font-family:Wingdings;} @list l16 {mso-list-id:2045056083; mso-list-type:hybrid; mso-list-template-ids:-160290466 -773534618 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715 67698703 67698713 67698715;} @list l16:level1 {mso-level-tab-stop:1.25in; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:1.0in;} @list l16:level2 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l16:level3 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:1.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l16:level5 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:2.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l16:level6 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:3.0in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} @list l16:level8 {mso-level-number-format:alpha-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.0in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in;} @list l16:level9 {mso-level-number-format:roman-lower; mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} ol {margin-bottom:0in;} ul {margin-bottom:0in;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} table.MsoTableGrid {mso-style-name:"Table Grid"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-unhide:no; border:solid black 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-border-alt:solid black .5pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insideh-themecolor:text1; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insidev-themecolor:text1; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1028"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff1e7,#fff6e2"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF6E2" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (559) to </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Synonymize <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae </i></span></b><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial'>and recognize <i>Scytalopus notorius</i></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:14.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Effect on SACC list:</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'> </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>If this proposal is accepted, the name <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i> would be applied to the Rock Tapaculo, thus replacing the name <i>S. petrophilus</i>, leaving the Mouse-colored Tapaculo (to which the name <i>speluncae </i>has been traditionally applied) with the available name <i>Scytalopus notorius</i></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Justification:</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'> This proposal advocates the adoption of the taxonomic recommendations made by Raposo et al. (2012), namely that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> should be considered a synonym of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The justification for this is that Raposo et al. (2012), by virtue of extensive historical research, made it abundantly clear that the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> is beyond reasonable dispute (based on the available evidence) from S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, in Minas Gerais.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>It is critical to note that the curator of the relevant collection in St. Petersburg (Vladimir Loskot), where the type specimen and many relevant documents are held, is one of the authors of Raposo et al. (2012).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The same locality, S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, is listed as the provenance of a paratype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. petrophilus</i>, yet all of the authors involved in this debate agree that the <span class=SpellE>prioponly</span> one species of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus</i> occurs in this region (diagnosed morphologically by being paler than the dark grey species of the Serra do Mar, and having the rump and posterior underparts barred brown).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>It should be abundantly clear, to those who have read the paper by Raposo et al., that whatever doubts were expressed by MaurÌcio (2005), Bornschein et al. (2007), MaurÌcio et al. (2010), and Whitney et al. (2010) reflect an incomplete knowledge of the historical facts, rather than being based on information that might permit a reasonable alternative interpretation. The best example of this is the incorrect interpretation of certain literature by MaurÌcio et al. (2010), which resulted in a wholly inadequate translation of the sole historical reference that was mounted in support of their position (see the figure and text on p. 58 of Raposo et al. 2012).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>If there is any doubt concerning a type locality, authors should follow the recommendations of the Code (ICZN, 1999, 76A.1) especially:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span> [articles] 76A.1.1. data accompanying the original material; 76A.1.2. collector s notes, itineraries, or personal communications; 76A.1.3. the original description of the taxon; 76A.1.4. as a last resort, and without prejudice to other clarification, localities within the known range of the taxon or from which specimens referred to the taxon had been taken (Raposo et al. 2012). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>These articles from the Code should be borne in mind when considering the following:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'>1. All of the available details directly attached to the specimen indicate that S. J. Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is the type locality.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'>2. All of the collector s notes and field diary also clearly indicate that S. J. del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is the type locality, and MaurÌcio et al. (2010) did not directly examine these sources.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'>3. The original description mentions the presence of white elements on the breast, which is also the case with the topotypical material collected from S. J. del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, but was considered to be in error by MaurÌcio et al.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'>4. MÈnÈtriÈs s itinerary definitely included S. J. del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>The remaining doubts concerning this specimen s morphology expressed by MaurÌcio et al. (2010) essentially revolve around the notion that one might discover a pale grey specimen with brown barring on the rear flanks and rump among the few variant individuals from the dark grey population, but this suggestion has been shown to be erroneous (see Raposo et al. 2012). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Unlike the majority of authors of Raposo et al., not one of MaurÌcio and his co-authors have examined the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>, and all of their conclusions are based on photographs supplied to them by the senior author of the 2012 paper itself.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Raposo et al. (2012) demonstrated that the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> is identical to the topotypes, which can easily be seen by viewing Fig. 7 in Raposo et al. (2012). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>With the synonymization of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. petrophilus</i>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>S. notorius</i> becomes the valid name for the dark grey species inhabiting the Serra do Mar of eastern Brazil </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial'>as shown in Raposo et al. (2006), who already had established the correct use of <i>S. speluncae</i>&nbsp;for the light gray form and described the &quot;notable&quot; dark-gray new species six years ago</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>My proposal can be concluded with the same words that closed Raposo et al.: &quot;Of what relevance are type localities, if not to assist in resolving such problems? If these authors doubt our analysis of the holotype, then they might use the type locality to determine the morphology of the species (in conjunction with the topotypes), rather than the opposite.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-outline-level:1'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial'>Literature cited<o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Bornschein, M.R., MaurÌcio, G.N., Lopes, R.B., Mata, H. &amp; <span class=SpellE>Bonato</span>, S.L. (2007) Diamantina Tapaculo, a new <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 15, 151&#8211;174.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) (1999) <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>International code of zoological nomenclature.</i> Fourth <span class=SpellE>edn</span>. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>MaurÌcio, G.N. (2005) Taxonomy of southern populations in the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> group, with description of a new species and remarks on the systematics and biogeography of the complex (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae). Ararajuba, 13, 7&#8211;28.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>MaurÌcio, G.N., Bornschein, M.R., Vasconcelos, M.F. Whitney, B.M., Pacheco, J.F. &amp; Silveira, L.F. (2010) Taxonomy of  Mouse-colored Tapaculos . I. On the application of the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> MÈnÈtriËs, 1835 (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae). Zootaxa, 2518, 32&#8211;48.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Raposo, M. A., Kirwan, G. M., Loskot, V. &amp; <span class=SpellE>Assis</span>, C. P. (2012) S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>is</i> the type locality of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> &#8211; a response to Mauricio <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al. </i>(2010). Zootaxa 3439: 51&#8211;67.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-indent:-21.3pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Whitney, B.M., Vasconcelos, M.F., Silveira, L.F. &amp; Pacheco, <span class=GramE>J.F. (2010) <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> </i>(Rock Tapaculo): a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 18 (2), 73&#8211;88.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='margin-left:21.3pt;text-align:center; text-indent:-21.3pt;mso-outline-level:1'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Guilherme</span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'> R. R. <span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, October 2012<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Bret Whitney</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>To address the recently posted <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Proposal 559</b> of <span class=SpellE>Brito</span> to synonymize <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>, I offer the following observations and opinions.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Mention of authors /parties names refers to the literature cited by <span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, occasionally specified to date for necessary emphasis.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <ol style='margin-top:0in' start=1 type=1> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> (today, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>) exists and all agree that it was an adult bird and was collected by and described by MÈnÈtriÈs. &nbsp; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>All agree that a high-quality color illustration accompanied the original description and, like the holotype, it is available for independent examination today; it shows an entirely gray bird with no hint of brown color or dark barring anywhere in the plumage.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>All agree that the holotype is not in perfect condition, having lost most of the feathers of its lower underparts, especially on one side. &nbsp;There is dissention as to whether there are enough feathers present in the posterior underparts to reliably allow their description today: Raposo et al assert that contour feathers are completely lost on both sides and it is impossible to see dark barring that must have been&nbsp;there, pointing to a miniscule brownish tinge or vestiges of some barred effect in the uppertail coverts, while Mauricio et al. and Whitney et al. explain the lack of barring as a natural feature of the specimen, with traces of brownish feathering anywhere on the lower underparts being remnants of a previous, subadult plumage. &nbsp; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The holotype is 180+ years old. &nbsp;All agree that it cannot be expected to have maintained its natural coloration (saturation and hue), but there is dissention as to how much it might have changed and in what manner, and there is dissention surrounding the original coloration of gray plumage areas and how to interpret MÈnÈtriÈs s description of this gray, especially in the throat and breast. &nbsp; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>All agree that MÈnÈtriÈs clearly designated a grotto near S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> the type locality and his diaries exist in which he provided sufficient detail to establish its identity near S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> today.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> <li class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:.1pt;margin-bottom:.1pt;mso-para-margin-top: .01gd;mso-para-margin-bottom:.01gd;mso-list:l8 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>MÈnÈtriÈs described fifteen (I believe) species of birds, over half of which have been shown to have been assigned erroneous type localities (Pacheco 2004 and subsequent elaborations of tangential details). &nbsp;All agree on this point, but Raposo et al do not believe that MÈnÈtriÈs could have erred in the case of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>M. speluncae</i> because he collected the specimen himself (i.e., it was not Langsdorff material) and provided an unusually accurate and detailed description of the locality and described iris color of a bird [possibly a tapaculo, we cannot objectively determine what kind of bird he had in hand] after collection. &nbsp;Mauricio et al. and Whitney et al. believe that it is not only possible, but essentially irrefutable, that MÈnÈtriÈs erred in his designation of the type locality because his description and the accompanying&nbsp;color plate of the holotype quite accurately portray another, geographically proximate population of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus</i>, one inhabiting the region through which his itinerary clearly indicates his party passed en route to and from S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> &#8212; and because there exists today &#8212; as all agree &#8212; only one form of &nbsp;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Scytalopus</i> in the immediate vicinity of S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, a form that in all plumages bears conspicuous dark barring on the flanks, features not mentioned at all in MÈnÈtriÈs s original description or featured in the color illustration of the holotype that accompanied the description. &nbsp;It is worth repeating that MÈnÈtriÈs published his description some ten years after collecting his specimen &#8212; plenty of time, according to Mauricio et al. and Whitney et al., for him to have forgotten critical details of his fieldwork or to have mixed up specimens in his possession or in museums, labeled or not. &nbsp;Mauricio et al. and Whitney et al. believe it highly probable that MÈnÈtriÈs improperly linked the specimen and the locality, as he more obviously did for several other birds he described (notwithstanding that most of the problematic ones were Langsdorff specimens). &nbsp;<b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>Great detail in MÈnÈtriÈs s description of the type locality, including collection of a tapaculo there, does <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>absolutely nothing</i> to validate that locality for the specific specimen in question.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></b>As for labels attached to the specimen, whether in MÈnÈtriÈs s handwriting or not &#8212; it is, of course, impossible to establish when those might have been affixed.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></li> </ol> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><br>  In our collective effort to determine identification of the holotype, which is far less complicated than it may seem, it certainly will be best to admit that disagreement on the condition and appearance of the 180-year-old specimen is understandable and to therefore drop any further discussion of these points. &nbsp;That it is not possible for scientists to agree on condition of an extant holotype is justification enough for discounting any lingering argument.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It matters not that no one among Mauricio et al. or Whitney et al. have personally examined the holotype because the high-quality photos and descriptions presented by Raposo et al. serve perfectly well to show that the holotype, especially the critically important flanks/belly region of it, is in poor condition. &nbsp;The productive course for resolution of the <span class=SpellE>holotype s</span> identity is, therefore, to concentrate on those points on which all parties do agree, and to consider each of them in their order of relevance under the ICZN*:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list: Ignore'>1.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>the author s original description with its accompanying illustration, and </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list: Ignore'>2.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>all other data or indications that seem reliable and may be brought to bear</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> MÈnÈtriÈs s description and the color illustration are in close agreement and clearly indicate an essentially plain, gray bird.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>If we are to trust MÈnÈtriÈs s diaries, description of a locality we can identify today, and even a bird s iris color &#8211; and I see no particular reason to doubt the authenticity or accuracy of any of these things &#8211; then we must also trust without prejudice his description of a very important specimen.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It would be inadmissible to imagine, for instance, that MÈnÈtriÈs might have failed to notice conspicuous barring on the flanks <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>on either side</i> of a specimen that shows no sign of shot having damaged the legs or feet and with the tail intact &#8211; even if the plumage damage we see today occurred during his inspection of stomach contents or preparation of the skin.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Such barring was obviously regarded as important detail because an illustration of </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Malacorhynchus albiventris</span></i><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 11.5pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> (</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>MÈnÈtriÈs 1835; today <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Eleoscytalopus indigoticus</i>) by the same artist on </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>the same plate shows extensively black-barred, rufous flanks.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As Raposo et al have pointed out more than once, all agree that there exists today only one form of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> in the vicinity of S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>: the one with conspicuously barred flanks.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> All data considered, it is clear that MÈnÈtriÈs could not have taken the specimen he described as being essentially plain-gray at that grotto near S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> &#8212; unless, perhaps, more humid forest habitat was present in that area of Minas Gerais in the early 19th Century and plain-gray birds then occurred there.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>*Raposo et al (2012) stated,  & </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Times-Roman'>correctly identifying the type locality is of overriding importance to ensure the correct nomenclature of the entire species-group&  <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Their insistence on placing provenance ahead of the original description of the specimen in establishing the identity of the holotype has unfortunately led to much wasted time on both sides of the aisle.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>It is poignant to note that the ICZN does not require designation of a holotype (see Recommendation 73A) or designation of a type locality (see Recommendation 73C.2) as part of a valid description of an animal.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I mention this to <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'>bring focus sharply to identification of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>extant </i>holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i></b> as the question we must strive to resolve.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In order to satisfy all parties involved in this argument today, identification of this specimen must reside in (as justified above) collective trust of: 1) MÈnÈtriÈs s description, the only salient point being <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>whether the flanks were conspicuously barred or not</i>; 2) the color illustration that accompanied the original description and whether or not it agrees with the description; and lastly, in other pieces of information.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>MÈnÈtriÈs s original description of present-day <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> must be considered applicable to the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> tapaculos matching it in areas in which he is known to have collected birds at the time.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It really is as simple as that.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Thus, the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>speluncae</i> must stand for plain-gray birds that (today, at least) occur as near to his designated locality as about 70 km in Minas Gerais and which remain common in vast areas he traversed and collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> Whitney, Vasconcelos, Silveira, and Pacheco 2010 is the valid name for tapaculos they described as  Rock Tapaculo , which is the only <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> that occurs around S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, Minas Gerais, today.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The specimens from near S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> called  topotypes of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>S. speluncae</i> by Raposo et al (2006) are specimens of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. petrophilus</i> and have no bearing as types of any taxon.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Once again, the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>notorius</i> Raposo, <span class=SpellE>Stopiglia</span>, Loskot, and Kirwan 2006 must be considered (at least for the present, [Whitney et al 2010]) a junior synonym of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> In answer to the question from the concluding remarks of Raposo et al (2012) repeated by <span class=SpellE>Brito</span> to close his proposal, above, I refer to ICZN Article 76, Recommendation A.2:  A statement of a type locality that is found to be erroneous should be corrected. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>That is what Mauricio et al (2010) effectively accomplished in designating  Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span> as a much more appropriate type locality for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i>, a proposal endorsed by Whitney et al. (2010).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A highly desirable result was the maintenance of stability of nomenclature long in use.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Finally, concerning stability of nomenclature, which is the single most important objective of the Code, it occurred to me that it might be desirable to submit a request to the Commission to consider the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>speluncae</i> a <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>nomen dubium</i> because the holotype is damaged to such an extent that interested scientists are unable to agree on its identity.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The Commission could decide to set aside the extant holotype and allow designation of a neotype.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although this course might well stabilize the nomenclature (argument on the subject never seems to go away), I quickly decided against petitioning the Commission for two clear reasons: 1) neotype designation of a plain-gray specimen from Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span> (or anywhere else) would only lead to heightened dissention among ornithologists interested in resolving the issue, a situation the Code explicitly attempts to head-off (see Recommendation 75B); and more importantly 2) it is highly probable that  ancient DNA from the extant holotype could be extracted and amplified to objectively establish its identity.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>After all, about 90% of the specimen is intact and in perfect agreement with the author s description and the artist s accompanying depiction.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Despite the dissentions enumerated above, there is no good reason to abandon the holotype, to the contrary, it should definitely be maintained.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>If there is any request or recommendation to be made, it is certainly for the curator(s) at the </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (ZISP), St. Petersburg</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> to allow specialists with no vested interest in the outcome of this debate to obtain from the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> (ZISP145251) enough biological material to permit amplification of its DNA and, consequently, establishment of its identity and stabilization of nomenclature.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The technology and methodology for undertaking this analysis exist today, and cadres of scientists around the world are currently working toward ever finer resolution of  ancient-DNA analysis such that an attempt to amplify material that might fail or come up short of confidence levels today might well be repeated with satisfactory results some time into the future. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>So that the historical research related to this case is truly  extensive and the  available details impartially interpreted, I think it opportune to advance a couple of observations bearing in mind that MÈnÈtriÈs, once he was established as curator in St. Petersburg following his experience in Brazil, had at his disposition ornithological material collected in Brazil during the 1820s by Langsdorff, <span class=SpellE>Freyress</span>, and <span class=SpellE>Bescke</span> as well as his own material.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Observation 1: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>In the collection in St. Petersburg, the specimens originating from Brazil, especially those from the Langsdorff-MÈnÈtriÈs Expedition, did not bear labels with data, nor field numbers.</i></span></b><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> The subsequent annotation of data on labels was the work of the curator.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In this case, this was MÈnÈtriÈs himself.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span class=SpellE>Chrostowski</span> (1921) attested to this reality:  </span><span class=SpellE><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font:major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: major-latin'>Ce</span></span><span style='font-family:Calibri;mso-ascii-theme-font: major-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:major-latin'> <span class=SpellE>n¥est</span> pas le <span class=SpellE>cas</span> pour les oiseaux de Langsdorff-MÈnÈtriËs, <span class=SpellE>dont</span> <span class=SpellE>il</span> <span class=SpellE>n¥existe</span> au <span class=SpellE>MusÈe</span> <span class=SpellE>aucun</span> catalogue. Sur les <span class=SpellE>Ètiquettes</span> les indications relatives au <span class=SpellE>sexe</span>, ‡ la date et au lieu prÈcis de la capture de <span class=SpellE>l¥oiseau</span> <span class=SpellE>sont</span> <span class=SpellE>nÈgligÈes</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>.&nbsp;ª<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> For those species he described, MÈnÈtriÈs relied on his memory and annotations in his diaries, but lacking a numerical or other organization of the material, he inserted on the labels a small amount of additional information.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Helmut Sick (who visited the collection of ZISP on 31 August 1982) wrote in his scientific diary that the majority of the labels on Brazilian specimens contained only  Langsdorff, Brasilia .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Observation 2: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>MÈnÈtriÈs did not always remember if individual specimens were collected by him or by someone else.</i></span></b><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> In the same article in which he described <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i>, MÈnÈtriÈs (1835) described <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Formicivora melanaria</i> (= <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Cercomacra melanaria</i>), designating as its type locality  Minas Gerais and augmenting the information on the specimen labels of his syntypes (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>apud</i> <span class=SpellE>Chrostowski</span> 1921) to indicate that he had collected the specimens himself:  E. MÈnÈtriËs leg. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The distribution of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. melanaria</i> (Mato Grosso Antbird) is centered on the region of the Pantanal, at least 1,160 km west of the region through which MÈnÈtriÈs passed (see the full line of<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Figure 10 of Raposo et al. 2012) and most certainly could not have been collected by him.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> These two observations together reveal that MÈnÈtriÈs would have had to  select specimens from within his Brazilian collection in the absence of information unequivocally defining their provenance.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In the case of his  &#8470; 18 <i>Myothera</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style: italic'>,</span> he probably (as must be expected, after the passage of nearly ten years) relied heavily on his field journal describing an impressive cavern and, recalling his collection of a furtive bird of some kind at that memorable spot, apparently <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>extrapolated</i> that he collected the tapaculo specimen he wished to describe in St. Petersburg <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>at that place near S„o Jo„o del Rey</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Whether this interpretation is really what happened or not, the fact remains that a failure of memory could easily be involved. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Comments solicited from Richard Schodde (Chair, Standing Committee Ornithological Nomenclature, IOC)</span></u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> </span><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua"; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Raposo et al. emphasize the type locality in settling the issue because they find the holotype difficult to identify. Whitney &amp; Pacheco emphasize the identity of the holotype as the primary issue, place considerable faith in its illustration, and treat the type locality as a secondary and, in this case, indecisive issue.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> I would always side with Whitney and Pacheco in such a case because it is the identity of type specimens that decide the application of names, not type localities. Type localities may provide critical collateral information, but that information is secondary to the primary issue of type specimen identity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> Reliance on type locality diverts attention from and diminishes the power of the type specimen - the only true name bearer for a species-group taxon - in fixing names. That's why new species-group taxa must be based on whole collected type specimens. If it is thought that collection might contribute to extinction, then the taxon is on the way out anyway and, with a specimen, we would at least have a record of what it looked like and how it compared with other related taxa. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'> Whitney's suggestion that ancient DNA sequencing should be used to resolve the issue is a good one. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments solicited from Edward C. Dickinson</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family: "Bookman Old Style";mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>It is not evident to me that the Code has a particular contribution to make here unless it is perhaps to force the question of whether there is sufficient proof that the painting was made from the type as opposed to a better, more easily depictable specimen thought to be the same taxon but perhaps not and perhaps not from the same locality. In those days the type concept was hardly formed in most people's minds. Indeed this remained true until the 1870s or so; until then the question &quot;asked&quot; of arriving specimens was whether a specimen was typical of some known population rather than whether it was the specimen, or one of the specimens from which the original description was drawn. Thus for example many specimen labels, especially those of Boucard, which say TYPE are simply those seen to be typical of the population concerned and the name given to that population was then added to the label. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Bookman Old Style";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>:  YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Having read the Raposo papers as well as the rebuttals by Whitney and Mauricio et al., I find the arguments of Raposo et al. to be the more convincing. I am especially impressed by their painstaking first-hand examination of the type specimen and the historical materials, the reproduction of which makes it eminently clear that the type locality is indeed Sao Joao do <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> and its cave and that the type, while damaged, is typical of material from that locality and thus correctly identified with the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>speluncae</i>.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Comments from Marcos Raposo</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>:  </span><span style='background:white'>No resume of the situation can replace a close reading of at least the papers by Raposo <i>et al</i>. (2012) and MaurÌcio <i>et al</i>. (2010), or, even better, all of the relevant papers published since MaurÌcio (2005). Nonetheless, it seems reasonable to provide a specific response to the comments of Whitney and Pacheco above, in order to give clear balance to the discussion directly available here.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> I maintain that what we have at issue is a dispute between a scientific hypothesis based on clear facts (Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2012) and a poorly defined opinion (MaurÌcio <i>et al</i>. 2010).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Throughout the papers by Raposo et al (2006), Raposo &amp; Kirwan (2008), and Raposo et al. (2012), there is a clear and, significantly, unmodified narrative, namely that the holotype of <i>S. speluncae</i> corresponds in plumage to those of its topotypes, and that it is representative of the generally paler populations found in the interior of Minas Gerais. We introduced the name <i>S. notorius</i> for the darker species of the coastal mountains and we defended that the original type locality designation, S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, is correct because the morphology of the type of <i>S. speluncae</i> and its topotypes, other specimens of both species, the diaries of Langsdorff and MÈnÈtriÈs, the original description, images produced by the expedition s artist (<span class=SpellE>Rugendas</span>), other historical data and practically all of the 20th century literature support this hypothesis.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='background:#FFFBEE'><span style='background:white'> In general, MaurÌcio (2005), MaurÌcio et al. (2010), and the responses of Pacheco and Whitney on this website have sought, as one of their principal objectives, the transfer of the type locality from S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> to the Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span>. It is worth spending some time on detail on the fact that each of these works contains important differences of interest to our discussion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyText style='text-indent:0in'> First, MaurÌcio (2005) <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>described the holotype as being homogenously dark grey</b> and disagreed with <span class=SpellE>Chrotowski</span> (1921), who had analyzed the holotype directly and had mentioned that it possessed a barred rump. MaurÌcio postulated that the holotype represented the all-dark population from the coastal mountains (<i>S. notorius</i> sensu Raposo et al.) and consequently, its type locality would be there. In this respect, however, his work was meritorious in that demonstrated for the first time the existence of two species of <i>Scytalopus</i> in southeast Brazil, one basically dark and the other paler with some barring. Where he erred was in deciding which should carry the name <i>S. speluncae</i>, and this has been the basis for the entire dispute. MaurÌcio based his analysis entirely on very poor quality photographs (of which copies are also in my possession) yet believed that <span class=SpellE>Chrotowski s</span> (1921) direct, personal analysis of the holotype was wrong. <span class=SpellE>MaurÌcio s</span> ideas concerning the morphology of the holotype were categorically refuted not only by Raposo &amp; Kirwan (2008) but also by MaurÌcio et al. (2010)!</p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Thus, MaurÌcio et al. (2010) effectively admitted that <span class=SpellE>Chrotowski</span> had been correct, persuaded by the (much better quality) photographs of the holotype provided by myself, and that <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>the specimen was not all dark but paler with some barring</b> (contra MaurÌcio 2005). However, these authors then went on to suggest that this pattern could be considered a polymorphism of those populations that we had named <i>S. notorius</i> (not admitted in MaurÌcio, 2005; see also Raposo et al. 2012). On the basis of the paper by Pacheco (2004), MaurÌcio<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>et al. (2010) proposed that the type locality of <i>S. speluncae</i> henceforth be considered the Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> The following points in MaurÌcio et al. (2010) may be considered particular weaknesses:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'>a) once again, these authors failed to analyze the holotype directly;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'>b) given that their initial assumption of what the holotype looked like (MaurÌcio 2005) could no longer be defended, they adopted an ad hoc hypothesis suggesting the existence of polymorphism in the birds of the coastal mountains;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'>c) they proceeded to search for variants of (what we called) <i>Scytalopus notorius</i> that possess paler plumage and barring on the underparts (see photos in MaurÌcio et al. 2010), but while admitting that the type was not all dark, <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>but instead paler with some barring, they did not admit the primacy of S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> as the type locality of <i>S. speluncae</i></b>, despite the fact that all specimens from the latter show this pattern!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>d) they failed to identify a single specimen that simultaneously possessed generally paler plumage and a barred abdomen and rump, equal to the holotype, within the range of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. notorius</i> yet insisted on changing the type locality of <i>S. speluncae</i>; <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'>e) Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span> was chosen as the new type locality, despite the lack of historical or morphological evidence to support this change, for the doubts expressed by MaurÌcio <i>et al</i>. in relation to MÈnÈtriÈs and S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, even if accepted as valid, do not point in any single direction, much less towards the Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span>;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;text-indent:-13.5pt'><span style='background:white'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>f) the only historical information brought to bear for instituting this change was a partial, incomplete reading and translation of a passage in Pacheco (2004) (which see Raposo et al. 2012 for a detailed response).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Pacheco on the SACC website has concentrated on attempting to cast doubts on the reliability of the author of <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i>, but a number of problems are immediately apparent with his arguments.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyText style='text-indent:0in'> (1) Pacheco states correctly that some of MÈnÈtriÈs Brazilian type localities are dubious or wrong, but then appears to assume that because of this S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> can only also be considered doubtful. However, it would be just as correct to claim that many of his type localities are valid, especially those on which his own specimens were based (Pacheco 2004). In this case, the authors of Raposo et al. (2012) have not based their opinion on the validity of this particular type locality using the presupposition that it might or might not be correct because other type localities designated by the same author are or are not valid, but on evidence concerning the type specimen, its topotypes, and historical data collated and studied only by us.</p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> (2) Pacheco does not discuss the documentation presented by Raposo et al. (2012) in support of MÈnÈtriÈs (and his work). It is very easy to criticize the authors of extremely old works, in this case (as in others) not wholly without some vindication, but it should be clearly remembered that few specimens from this era are as well documented (with date, specific locality, etc.) as that of <i>S. speluncae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> (3) Pacheco evokes the authority of one of his mentors, Helmut Sick, who wrote privately that he did not trust in MÈnÈtriÈs. Frankly, this type of argument has little use in scientific discussion. In practice, i.e. public, Sick did not question S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> as the type locality of <i>S. speluncae</i> (Sick 1997, p. 525), and neither did he possess access to the diaries of MÈnÈtriÈs or many of the historical data studied by us.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> (4) Another interesting point is that Pacheco (2004: p. 5) stressed the importance of analyzing MÈnÈtriÈs diaries. This is something that we have specifically done, yet Pacheco s comments suggest that he now considers the original diary information to have little value, at least in the present case.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Whitney s comments above appear to present a different opinion to that expressed in MaurÌcio et al. (2010). Specifically, he now appears to regard the question of the type locality as lacking in importance, whereas MaurÌcio et al. (2010) apparently considered it sufficiently important to change it. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> The question of stability, raised by Whitney, is scarcely applicable in this case. His interpretation of the ICZN articles is equivocal. <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i> has never ceased to be used. Prior to 2005 only one species belonging to this complex was known to exist in southeast Brazil. With the description of a new species (<i>S. pachecoi</i>), it became inevitable that the name <i>speluncae</i> should be defined correctly. Stability should not be invoked to defend the mistaken use of a name. Generally, it is used to preserve a junior synonym against a senior synonym in widespread and long-term use in the literature.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Furthermore, in respect of the proposal to designate a neotype in <span class=SpellE>favour</span> of the extant holotype: a) this suggestion rather ignores the fact that all of those people who have recently examined the holotype (Marcos Raposo, Guy Kirwan, <span class=SpellE>Renata</span> <span class=SpellE>Stopiglia</span> and its curator Vladimir Loskot) are of the opinion that it presents the major morphological diagnostics of the single <i>Scytalopus</i> taxon known from the relevant region; and b) if someone decides to substitute a holotype with a neotype this should be done with clear respect to the original type locality, which runs clearly contrary to Whitney s stated opinion that the type locality is of lesser importance.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Another last and important point to address is the claim of Whitney that the identity of the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> should now (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>contra</i> MaurÌcio 2005 and MaurÌcio et al. 2010) rely on:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo11'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>1.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;background:white;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>the author s original description with its accompanying illustration, and; <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast style='text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo11'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>2.<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:"\FF2D\FF33 \660E\671D"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast;background:white;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>all other data or indications that seem reliable and may be brought to bear.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> Considering that MaurÌcio et al. (2010) suggested that MÈnÈtriÈs badly (or incorrectly) described his specimen, for example remarking that his description of the throat must have been effectively an illusion, produced by examining the specimen at a sideways angle; little is left for us. The second point of Whitney ( all other data&  ) is exactly all historical data that we ve brought to light but he apparently refused to consider it valid. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='background:white'> We should also call attention to the fact that the only thing Whitney considers valid in this entire story is the fact that the plate does not show the brown feathers on the flanks and rump. Based on this, he insists the holotype is a <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. notorius</i>. But all authors to date (Raposo et al. 2006, MaurÌcio et al. 2010 and Raposo et al.2012) agree that the holotype has those brown feathers. It is quite obvious that because the feathers of flanks are damaged, MÈnÈtriÈs (1835) and the illustrator did not notice the remains of brown, but they are there (see a clear illustration of rump in Raposo et al. 2006). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='color:black;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Additional comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  To promote a full understanding of the case, I summarize here some points that should be known to all who will give an opinion or vote on this proposal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 1) Raposo <i>et al.</i> (2006, 2008, 2012) and <span class=SpellE>Brito's</span> and <span class=SpellE>Raposo's</span> comments made &#8203;&#8203;here exhaustively repeat and put particular weight on the direct analysis of the holotype as the foundation for the unsurpassed decision on the application of the name <i>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> and the consequent description of <i>Scytalopus notorius</i>. A few excerpts from their arguments on this point of view:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><u><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> We analyzed</span></u><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> two recently collected topotypes of <i>S. speluncae</i> collected by MAR and RS, in September 2005 at S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, Minas Gerais (21<sup>o</sup>04 16.8  S, 44<sup>o</sup>20 19.4  W), <u>and the holotype</u> (ZISP 145251) (Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2006) <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> The Brazilian species complex <i>Scytalopus speluncae: </i>how many times can a holotype be overlooked? (Title in Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> Failed to compare their purported new taxa with the holotype that bears the senior name of the complex (Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.5pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> The species holotype is an adult male (ZISP 145251) held in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, in St. Petersburg, Russia. On various occasions between 2006 and 2009, each of the present authors, except CPA, examined this specimen (Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2012) </span><span style='font-size:10.5pt;mso-bidi-language:PA'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> Our own knowledge of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i> is based on a thorough examination of the holotype (Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>et al.</i> 2012)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> MaurÌcio et al. (2010) without having examined the specimen, attempted to discredit the notion that the holotype possesses those whitish or pale gray elements (Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2012)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> Unlike the majority of authors of Raposo <i>et al</i>., not one of MaurÌcio and his co-authors have examined the holotype of&nbsp;<i>Scytalopus speluncae</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> <i> </i></span>(<span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> & . ignores the fact that all of those people who have recently examined the holotype (Marcos Raposo, Guy Kirwan, <span class=SpellE>Renata</span> <span class=SpellE>Stopiglia</span> and its curator Vladimir Loskot) (Raposo, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Amidst so many catch-phrases, one very important issue has to be clearly stated: <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>all main conclusions made by Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2006 were decided <u>before</u> the direct examination of the holotype</b>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Better said, all decisions were based on photographs sent by V. Loskot &#8211; the curator of St. Petersburg Museum.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='tab-stops:340.2pt'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 2) Raposo <i>et al.</i> (2006, 2012) and <span class=SpellE>Brito's</span> and <span class=SpellE>Raposo's</span> comments placed excessive emphasis on the type locality, and therefore the origin of the holotype, as a strong point to support the application of the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>speluncae</i>. They also emphasized that only one taxon of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> &quot;occurs&quot; in the region of S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span>. A few among many examples:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2012) use 191 lines specifically dealing with this aspect (60% of the work), whereas Mauricio <i>et al. </i>(2010) use 23 lines (9% of the work).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> <i>is </i>the type locality of <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i><span style='mso-bidi-font-style:italic'> <i> </i></span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-language:PA'>(Title in Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2012)</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-language:PA'> Known thus far only from the opposite ends of the <u>EspinhaÁo range</u> at S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, Minas Gerais, in the south, and Chapada Diamantina, Bahia (Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2006) <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> The original type locality as designated by the species author is S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> and this conforms to the available historical data </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-language:PA'>(Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2012)</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> The unanimous agreement that just one species of <i>Scytalopus </i>occurs in the vicinity of the type locality </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-language:PA'>(Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2012)</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> All of the available details directly attached to the specimen indicate that S. J. Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is the type locality (<span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Only one species of&nbsp;<i>Scytalopus</i>&nbsp;occurs in this region &nbsp;(<span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, here) <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> We defended that the original type locality designation, S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, is correct &nbsp;(Raposo, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> To demonstrate that the acquisition of topotypes or the confirmation of the type locality are not as conclusive as they seem, and that the thesis that only taxon occurs in the [biogeographical] region of S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is a fallacy, I clarify certain facts below.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>a)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is located in the  Campos das <span class=SpellE>Vertentes</span> , <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>i.e. </i>northern portion of the Mantiqueira range and is not part of the EspinhaÁo range (<i>contra</i> Raposo<i> et al.</i> 2006). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>b)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>It is true that <i>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> (or light-gray taxon) is the only <i>Scytalopus</i> of the EspinhaÁo range in Minas Gerais and that <i>Scytalopus speluncae </i>(or dark-gray taxon) is the only <i>Scytalopus</i> on the Serra do Mar in Rio de Janeiro. <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>However</b>, <b>on the intermediate Mantiqueira range (where S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is located) both taxa occur sympatrically</b> &#8211; as shown for at least 3 localities (Pacheco <i>et al.</i> 2008; Whitney <i>et al.</i> 2010) and records for other still unpublished localities.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=PargrafodaLista><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_i1030" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: EspinhaÁo_Mantiqueira_Serra-Mar" style='width:268pt;height:401pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop559_files/image001.jpg" o:title="EspinhaÁo_Mantiqueira_Serra-Mar"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=270 height=403 src="SACCprop559_files/image002.gif" alt="Description: EspinhaÁo_Mantiqueira_Serra-Mar" v:shapes="_x0000_i1030"><![endif]></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:1.0in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Partial map of Southeastern Brazil showing the mountain ranges: EspinhaÁo (orange), Mantiqueira (pink) and Serra do Mar (green). Localities: 1 &#8211; S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span> (type locality of <i>Scytalopus spelunc</i>a<i>e</i>, according to MÈnÈtriÈs 1835, Raposo <i>et al</i>. 2006, <b>2012</b>); 2 &#8211; Serra da <span class=SpellE>Piedade</span> (type locality of <i>Scytalopus petrophilus</i>); 3 &#8211; Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span> (type locality of <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i>, assigned by Pinto 1952, MaurÌcio <i>et al</i>. 2010); 4 &#8211; <span class=SpellE>Ibitipoca</span> State Park and 5 &#8211; Campos do <span class=SpellE>Jord„o</span> (localities where <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i> and <i>S. petrophilus</i> are sympatric).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>c)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is 66 km in a straight line from <span class=SpellE>Ibitipoca</span> State Park (both on the Mantiqueira), where both taxa occur together <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>today</b> (not 75 km, as in Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2012); but it is about 100 km far from the southernmost record of de <i>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> on the EspinhaÁo range.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l10 level1 lfo14; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>d)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Hence, it could be expected, and is biogeographically sound to speculate that, in the past (especially 180 years ago!) both taxa (light-gray, dark-gray) occurred together in many more localities on the Mantiqueira range, when the forests and the connections were more extensive, without any reasons to exclude S„o Jo„o Del-<span class=SpellE>Rei</span> as a contact zone of both taxa. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:red'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 3) Raposo <i>et al.</i> (2006, 2008, 2012) and <span class=SpellE>Brito's</span> and <span class=SpellE>Raposo's</span> comments made here suggest a thorough and unquestionable historical survey of the case. And so on...<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> MÈnÈtriÈs s diary notes are also in perfect accordance with those of the leader Langsdorff (<span class=SpellE>Mikulinskii</span> 1995) [a Russian source] (Raposo et al. 2006)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> Yet, MaurÌcio (2005) and Bornschein <i>et al. </i>(2007) persist in dismissing the shared conclusion of six authors that have personally examined the holotype (namely MÈnÈtriËs, <span class=SpellE>Chrotowski</span> (sic) and the four authors of Raposo <i>et al. </i>2006). (Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008) </span><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> To our knowledge, only three other authorities have taken the trouble to examine the holotype of </span><i><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Italic","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Italic;mso-bidi-language:PA'>S. speluncae. </span></i><u><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'>The first to do so was Burmeister</span></u><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> (1856)&  </span><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> (Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008) </span><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-language:PA'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.5pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> & a comprehensive review of all available historical data concerning its collection (Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2012) </span><span style='font-size:10.5pt;mso-bidi-language:PA'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> Historical data concerning its collector and author, as detailed below, are also very complete. (Raposo <i>et al.</i> 2012)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> MaurÌcio et al. (2010) neither examined the holotype nor were they able to quote from much of the historical literature, because it runs largely contrary to their hypothesis (e.g. <span class=SpellE>Chrostowski</span> 1921, <span class=SpellE>Gaysinovich</span> &amp; <span class=SpellE>Komissarov</span> 1968, <span class=SpellE>Komissarov</span> 1977, <span class=SpellE>Mikulinskiy</span> 1995). </span><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>(Raposo et al. 2012) </span><span style='font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family:AGaramondPro-Regular; mso-bidi-language:PA'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> The justification for this is that Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al.</i> (2012), by virtue of extensive historical research. (<span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> It should be abundantly clear, to those who have read the paper by Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>., that whatever doubts were expressed by&nbsp;MaurÌcio (2005), Bornschein et al. (2007), MaurÌcio et al. (2010), and Whitney <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2010) reflect an incomplete knowledge of the historical facts. (<span class=SpellE>Brito</span>, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l3 level1 lfo12; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; mso-bidi-language:PA'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>&#8211;<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"AGaramondPro-Regular","serif";mso-bidi-font-family: AGaramondPro-Regular;mso-bidi-language:PA'> Other historical data and practically all of the 20th century literature support this hypothesis (Raposo, here)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> It is perfectly possible to see that all the extensive historical research carried out by Raposo and colleagues had a clear and only goal: to corroborate the type locality. However, the confirmation of this point must be properly placed in perspective according to the arguments presented in the previous topic. On the other hand, the historical research by Raposo and colleagues (Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2006, Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008) about the previous examination of the holotype was clearly incomplete.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>a)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Burmeister (1856) did not examine the holotype (<i>contra</i> Raposo &amp; Kirwan 2008); however, at least two well-known authors of the Neotropical ornithology, Charles Hellmayr and Helmut Sick, had directly compared the holotype with specimens from the <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i> group.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>b)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Hellmayr (1907) compared a [dark-gray] specimen from the Itatiaia massif with the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i>, and stated that the former  ... is a perfectly adult male agreeing in every respect with the type of the species kindly lent to me by Dr. Bianchi. (Mauricio <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2010). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>c)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>To convince himself of the differences, Sick (1993:401) compared [in 1982] the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> with the holotype of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus novacapitalis</i>, described by him in1958, and concluded that the differences were &quot;very clear&quot;.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>d)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Knowing that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus novacapitalis</i> is the [light-gray] taxon more closely related and morphologically similar to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i> (Mata <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2010; Whitney <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2010), Sick's conclusions from this direct comparison are meaningful.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l15 level1 lfo16; tab-stops:list .5in'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:Arial'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'>e)<span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>At least, as far as Sick's name is involved, this has more meaning than a statement that I have never made here or anywhere else: Raposo stated:  Pacheco evokes the authority of one of his mentors, Helmut Sick, who wrote privately that he did not trust in MÈnÈtriÈs. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 4) Concerning <span class=SpellE>Raposo's</span> statement:  a dispute between a scientific hypothesis based on clear facts (Raposo&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. 2012) and a poorly defined opinion (MaurÌcio&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. 2010) , I leave the exactness of <span class=SpellE>Raposo's</span> allegation to the other members of this committee, based on the following observation:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <ul style='margin-top:0in' type=disc> <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-list:l2 level1 lfo17;tab-stops:list .5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>To reach a conclusion on the application of the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i>, Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>et al</i>. (2006) examined 28 specimens of the entire <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae </i>complex, including only two specimens of the light-gray taxon. To question these conclusions, MaurÌcio <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2010) and Whitney <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2010) analyzed over 200 specimens of the same complex, from which 30 were from the new <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus petrophilus</i>, the light-gray taxon.<o:p></o:p></span></li> </ul> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Finally, for the debate to be productive, you need to redirect the discussion to the application of the name by the features present in the holotype, with the help of defensible inferences. After all, the Code refers to a name-bearing type but not to such a thing as a name-bearing type-locality!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-outline-level:1'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black;background:white'> Let¥s focus on the holotype?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> Additional references: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:25.0pt;text-indent:-25.0pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; background:white'>Hellmayr, C.E. (1907) <i>Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club</i> 19: 76.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:25.0pt;text-indent:-25.0pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; background:white'>Mata, H.; Fontana, C. S.; MaurÌcio, G. N.; Bornschein, M. R.; Vasconcelos, M. F. and <span class=SpellE>Bonatto</span>, S. L. (2009). Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae: <i>Scytalopus, Eleoscytalopus</i>): cryptic diversification in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. <i>Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution </i>53(2):450-462.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:25.0pt;text-indent:-25.0pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; background:white'>Pacheco, J. F.; Parrini, R.; Lopes, L. E. and Vasconcelos, M. F. (2008). A avifauna do Parque Estadual do <span class=SpellE>Ibitipoca</span> e <span class=SpellE>·reas</span> <span class=SpellE>adjacentes</span>, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com uma <span class=SpellE>revis„o</span> <span class=SpellE>crÌtica</span> dos <span class=SpellE>registros</span> <span class=SpellE>prÈvios</span> e <span class=SpellE>coment·rios</span> <span class=SpellE>sobre</span> <span class=SpellE>biogeografia</span> e <span class=SpellE>conservaÁ„o</span>. <i>Cotinga, </i>30:16-32.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:25.0pt;text-indent:-25.0pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Pinto<span style='color:black;background:white'>, O.M.O.</span><span style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span>1952<span style='color:black;background:white'>.</span><span style='color:black'>&nbsp;</span><span class=SpellE>S˙mula</span> <span class=SpellE>histÛrica</span><span style='color:black'>&nbsp;<span style='background:white'>e <span class=SpellE>sistem·tica</span> da <span class=SpellE>ornitologia</span> de Minas Gerais. <span class=SpellE>Arquivos</span> de Zoologia, S„o Paulo 8(1):1-51. <o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:25.0pt;text-indent:-25.0pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black; background:white'>Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: A Natural History. Princeton: Princeton University.\</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Response from Raposo</span></u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'>I will try to be as concise as possible in addressing the four points of Pacheco.</span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> Point 1</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'>- Pacheco now says something totally new and surprisingly:  all main conclusions made by Raposo et al. 2006 were decided before the direct examination of the holotype. Better said, all decisions were based on photographs sent by V. Loskot &#8211; the curator of St. Petersburg Museum. </span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'>RESPONSE: <b>False.</b> Pacheco has forgotten that Dr. Loskot is one of the four authors of our 2006's paper (see bellow). Obviously, he has conduced our first analysis of the holotype. </span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'>Raposo, M.A., <span class=SpellE>Stopiglia</span>, R.,<b> Loskot, V.</b> &amp; Kirwan, G.M. (2006) The correct use of the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> (MÈnÈtriÈs, 1835), and the description of a new species of Brazilian tapaculo (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae). Zootaxa, 1271, 37&#8211;56.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='mso-font-kerning: .5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> Point 2</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> &#8211; Pacheco claims now that  the thesis that only one taxon occurs in the [biogeographical] region of S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> is a fallacy . RESPONSE: <b>False and contradictory</b>. False, because we have never referred to a  biogeographic region when discussing the type locality (please, search it in Raposo et al. 2012). We defended that only one species occurs (to the best of current knowledge) at the type locality S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>. Pacheco is also contradictory, because Mauricio et al. (2010), Whitney et al. (2010), and Whitney's response above (point 6) (<b> &#8212; as all agree &#8212; only one form of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> in the immediate vicinity of S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> Whitney's words</b>) agree with Raposo (2008 and 2012) on this point. </span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'> Pacheco also states again that we  placed excessive emphasis on the type locality . One more time: <u style='text-underline:black'>our 2012 paper on the type locality (where we also have addressed the holotype) is a response to the change of type locality promoted by MaurÌcio et al. (2010) and defended by Whitney et al. (2010).</u> <u style='text-underline:black'>So we were forced to address the issue. </u>We gave special attention to the holotype in Raposo and Kirwan (2008) paper &quot;The species complex <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>: How many times a holotype can be overlooked&quot;. </span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> Point 3</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> &#8211; I will split it in two different small points. a) After repeating some selected phrases from our papers he states,  the confirmation of this point [ our thorough and unquestionable historical survey of the case ] must be properly placed in perspective according to the arguments presented in the <u style='text-underline:black'>previous topic</u> . <b>RESPONSE:</b> I consider that the previous topic was properly responded to. b) Pacheco also claims here  the historical research by Raposo and colleagues ........... was clearly incomplete . RESPONSE: <b>Inapplicable. </b>I cant imagine a complete historical research, but I guess you all will also agree that our historical research (Raposo et al. 2012) is far more complete than the one presented by Mauricio et al (2010), won't you?.</span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> Point 4</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'> &#8211; Pacheco criticizes the number of specimens analyzed by us in our 2006 paper. <b>RESPONSE</b>: <b>Inapplicable</b>. We all (myself and MaurÌcio) examined and collected many more specimens after 2006. The focus here is not the examined material of MaurÌcio (2005) or Raposo et al. (2006), but the conclusions of MaurÌcio et al. (2010) and Raposo et al. (2012). It is fair to mention that we all agree in the differences between the two species of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> of the region, so the comparison between Mauricio's and our sample is not relevant at all. We don't agree in the holotype identification (and it is only one specimen...).</span><span style='mso-font-kerning:.5pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'> In relation to Pacheco's last phrase  Let's focus on the holotype , I can only say again (sorry) that four of our authors examined the Holotype (we all went between 2007 and 2008). How many of Pacheco's collaborators went to St. Petersburg? <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:13.0pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:13.0pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-outline-level: 1;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline: black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'>Response from </span></u><u><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#660066'>Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#660066'>: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><b><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> Point 1</span></b><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> - Thank you. You confirm what I said exactly (!): that the initiator and main author of the paper decided about the identity of the holotype (and everything else) before examining it directly. It is relevant to note that in spite of this, you have written an article (without the participation of Dr. Loskot) titled &quot;The Brazilian species complex <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i>: how many times the holotype can be overlooked?&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> It would be quite reasonable and also very scientifically appropriate to expect you to abandon ambiguity and provide precise dates and circumstances of your examination of the holotype in St. Petersburg. This was not provided in any of your works and such information is relevant, although unfortunately, it would arrive after you having already decided on the nomenclatural arrangement. You also have not stated in any of your works that you (or Dr. Loskot) have directly compared the holotype to specimens of the light-gray or dark-gray taxa, as Hellmayr and Sick did.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><b><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> Point 2</span></b><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> - I reiterate what I claimed. It could very well be called &quot;the fallacy of the false exclusive occurrence .<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> A statement in Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>et al</i>. 2012: &quot;Regarding the topotypical and near topotypical (sic) material (e.g., from S„o Jo„o del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> and <span class=SpellE>CaraÁa</span>)&quot; is clearly an indicative of this fallacious argument because S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> and <span class=SpellE>CaraÁa</span> are in distinct watersheds and mountain ranges and distant more than 135 km. In turn, the 66 km between S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> and Serra do <span class=SpellE>Ibitipoca</span> (one of the localities of sympatry of the two taxa involved) are in the same Mantiqueira range and interconnected by the course of the river <span class=SpellE>Elvas</span>, whose mouth is on the river das <span class=SpellE>Mortes</span>, less than 2 km from the cave <span class=SpellE>Gruta</span> de <span class=SpellE>Pedra</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> I do not need to abandon the Serra dos <span class=SpellE>Org„os</span> as a rectification of the type-locality of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae</i> to recognize that the maintenance of S„o Jo„o Del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> does not imply &#8211; due to biogeographical reasons &#8211; the exclusion of the occurrence of the dark-gray taxon.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> If you put together your hypothesis (60% of the content of Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2012 were spent just to ratify the original type-locality) without checking the biogeographical issue, this was a resounding failure.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> My points 3 and 4 consisted of counter-arguments to improper statements made initially by Raposo and <span class=SpellE>Brito</span>. The significance and value of the historical research and the quality and breadth of the sampling are available to everyone from the works cited.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in;text-indent: -.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> To answer the last sentence: &quot;How many of Pacheco's collaborators went to St. Petersburg?&quot; I retrieve a specific passage in MaurÌcio <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. 2010:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:99.0pt; text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'> </span><span style='font-family:Courier; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'>Furthermore, the decision to apply the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i> to a taxon other than the dark-gray species and introduce a new name for the latter relied upon the examination of the holotype by only one author of that paper (V. Loskot), whereas the other three worked with second-hand information.  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language: PT-BR'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none;border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none;border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The following is an email exchange among those concerned with the issue, posted here &#8211; keep in mind this is unedited, so any errors in grammar etc. are forgiven and ignored:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:black'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:blue'>Additional comments from G. <span class=SpellE>Brito</span></span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:blue'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Since new information and ideas are being expressed, I have to state this: science is based on facts, not doubts or speculations.</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Lets consider that the holotype is very damaged, thus leading to all this confusion (despite the fact that all the people that analysed it personally do not have any doubts) .... what's the next step to be made??</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Arial;color:blue'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Designate a neotype! That according to the Code should be a topotype .... since with no doubts Raposo et al. (2012) show very accurate facts that the type&nbsp;locality&nbsp;is the cave in S. J. del Rey...and the topotypes collected until now are representatives of the light-gray taxon with brown barring on the lower back, flank, and&nbsp;thighs!</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> All must bear in mind that an application to ICZN should be made to set aside the extant holotype information.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.0pt;font-family: "Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> It's simple! If this happens (neotype designation) ... the dark gray taxon still bears the name&nbsp;<i>Scytalopus notorius&nbsp;</i>because all the topotypes are undoubtedly the light-gray form and should bear&nbsp;<i>S. speluncae</i>&nbsp;name<i>. </i>And&nbsp;<i>S. petrophilus&nbsp;</i>is still a junior synonym .... because it's type&nbsp;locality&nbsp;is S J del Rey .... end of the story!!&quot; </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.5pt;font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Times;color:blue'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:green'>Response from Whitney</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri; color:green'>No, <span class=SpellE>Guilherme</span>, the next step is <i>not </i>to abandon the holotype. &nbsp;The next step is to get a DNA sample of the holotype, somehow, someday &#8212; a sample <i>extracted by a person who has no personal interest  the answer </i>. &nbsp;Meanwhile, can you or Marcos or anyone else please prove to me that that particular specimen was collected at S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>? &nbsp;As I said in my comments to the SACC, I trust that Menetries collected birds at the grotto that his artist illustrated. &nbsp;No problem. &nbsp;But as far as I can tell, there is absolutely no evidence that the <i>particular specimen</i> we are interested in was taken there. &nbsp;Labels do not help &#8212; we cannot possibly know for sure when those were affixed to the specimen. &nbsp;You guys insist that the contour flank feathers <i>on both sides of the specimen</i> are completely missing, and insist that this is why we cannot see the barring that must have been there. &nbsp;Gosh, it s pretty hard to deal with this kind of posturing &#8212; and I am not disposed to argue longer that there are enough feathers there to tell that they were plain gray, not barred. &nbsp;Now, can you or Marcos please explain how the specimen lost all of those feathers &#8212; and only those feathers &#8212; without any damage to the tarsi or feet or tail? &nbsp;Obviously the feathers were <i>not lost due to damage from the shot</i>, even if Menetries shot the bird twice or three times, because it is simply <i>impossible</i> to inflict that amount of feather damage from shot without damaging anything else. &nbsp;Thus, Menetries must have had a relatively undamaged bird in his hand. &nbsp;Given the detail he wrote in his diary, <i>why didn t he describe the barred flanks</i>, which had to have been clearly visible on one side or the other?? &nbsp;Why didn t the artist illustrate the specimen clearly showing barred flanks, as he did for <i>Malacorhynchus albiventris</i>?? &nbsp;The answer is quite simple &#8212; <i>the specimen they described/illustrated did not have barred flanks</i>. &nbsp;These plain facts &#8212; <i>not speculation</i> &#8212; mean one thing: &nbsp;Menetries did not collect that specimen at the grotto near S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>. &nbsp;Most likely, he collected it in the mountains of Rio and just mixed up his thinking or notes or memory or what have you in the 8-10 years before he published his description. &nbsp;Why is this simple and very commonplace human failure so difficult for you and Marcos to imagine? &nbsp;It is, quite truly, the single most parsimonious interpretation of <i>the facts</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'>If you still do not agree, then <b>please explain to everyone, <span class=SpellE>Guilherme</span> and Marcos, how Menetries managed to fail to see and describe the conspicuously barred flanks and why we should all believe that he was immune to common human error</b>, alright? &nbsp;Remember, we already know that made some pretty boldfaced mistakes... &nbsp;If, in return, you have any specific questions or points you would like me to address for you and everyone else, I stand by to give clear, direct answers. &nbsp;No problem if you want to settle it in Portuguese.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:green'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'>I ve read the papers, so no need for you to reword any of that. &nbsp;Yes, I definitely do believe that it is more parsimonious for two major reasons: &nbsp;The holotype is described by the collector without having barred flanks and the holotype was illustrated to accompany the description without barred flanks. &nbsp;I am sure you understand the disconnect there! &nbsp;When we consider these facts, and we consider that Menetries made mistakes about type localities, and we consider that he delayed years (not a month!) to describe the bird (not to mention that the holotype itself looks to some people who know quite a bit about Scytalopus in Brazil like it had gray flanks, not barred flanks, judging from the excellent photos supplied to the ornithological community by Raposo et al) -- then yes, definitely, I believe it is far more likely that Menetries made one simple mistake that explains everything: &nbsp;<i>he did not collect the specimen he described at the cavern near S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span></i> &#8212; <span class=SpellE>sÛ</span> <span class=SpellE>isso</span>!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><u><span style='color:blue'>Brito</span></u></span>: <span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua"'> </span><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua"; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'>Yes, I'll later send you a full response with facts that leads me to believe that that particular specimen was collected in S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>, but all of them are already published in the Raposo et. al. (2012) paper!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'>But before that I just ask you one question: do you really think that believing that Menetries collecting one dark bird in RJ, messing up labels, describing the cave, been mindless during 8 or 10 years, forgetting to read his diary and etc. is MOST PARSIMONIOUS than</span><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'> just believing in the actual label (with locality and date) on a type specimen? </span><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin;color:blue'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'><o:p><span style='text-decoration: none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><u>Remsen</u>: <span style='color:#943634;mso-themecolor: accent2;mso-themeshade:191'> </span><span style='font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:#943634;mso-themecolor:accent2;mso-themeshade: 191'>I thought that it had been established that <span class=SpellE>Menetries's</span> localities and labels have been shown repeatedly to be untrustworthy. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:#2152A8'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-outline-level: 1;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><u><span style='color:blue'>Brito</span></u></span>: <span style='color:blue'> </span><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'>Some...not all of the localities and labels of Menetries have problems!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'> But note that all of the localities with problems are from birds not collected personally by Menetries. All problems are on specimens collected by Langsdorff and sent to Menetries in Russia after the baron got sick (and kind of crazy) in Mato Grosso! The Pacheco' paper (in Portuguese from Atualidades Ornitologicas...forgot the year) clearly states that, and reading the Menetries book all of you can see the very different descriptions from birds originating from the <span class=SpellE>Langsdorff's</span> last bird batch and the birds collected by Menetries himself!<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Malacorhynchus speluncae</i> is one of these (collected by him) since there's information about iris colors, stomach contents, and habits of the bird collected! Also note that the handwriting on the label and the &quot;Journal de <span class=SpellE>ch·sse</span>&quot; are the same, and there's a number (7 if I remember well) that is the same date that Menetries and Langsdorff diaries tell about the cave and that Menetries describes as the collection date! Of course this is not a very accurate label, but from a bird from more than 200 years old we can't ask too much! Not everybody was like Natterer!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'> Several of <span class=SpellE>Sellow's</span> birds have also known localities and labels problems, but because of that should we discard the information from nearly 5000 specimens? Same thing for some of the Olalla s birds...should we burn them all because a few known mistakes?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua";mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:"Book Antiqua"; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'> About the barring....I didn't personally examined the type but everybody agrees that exist some barred feathers on it (and in the Mauricio et al 2010 paper there's a good part of the discussion on the search of light gray birds with barring as polymorphisms on the dark bird population). Why the artist didn't paint them or Menetries didn't mention it I don't know.... and we'll never know! Any explanation would be equally mere speculations.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#660066; mso-fareast-language:PT-BR'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;color:green'>Whitney</span></u><span style='font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:blue'>: </span><span style='font-family: Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;color:green'> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri; color:green'>Thanks for your reply, <span class=SpellE>Guilherme</span>, but writing off as inconsequential the lack of critically important brown coloration and flank barring in both the original description and the artist s illustration is inappropriate and, I must say, unprofessional.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It s a big deal &#8212; the only deal here. &nbsp;All <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus</i> tapaculos have some brown in the posterior underparts as immatures, and it apparently takes several years for some species, maybe all species, to attain definitive plumage, which, in the case of Mouse-colored Tapaculo in the mountains of southeast Brazil, is entirely gray. &nbsp;It is not unusual, to the contrary, it is expected that many birds will show some brown vestiges in the posterior underparts, and adult females usually have some faint flank barring according to Marcos Bornschein who, along with Giovanni MaurÌcio, has spent more time collecting more <i>Scytalopus </i>in Brazil than anyone else. &nbsp;To the point, the plumage of the posterior underparts of the holotype is damaged to the extent that it is not possible for scientists to agree on what the natural feathers looked like.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'> If Raposo et al. insist that the flanks were conspicuously barred and all interested parties are now not able to clearly determine this &#8212; and we (MaurÌcio et al. and Whitney et al.) are absolutely <i>not </i>convinced of this and no amount of scrutiny of the damaged holotype will help in this regard -- then why do we not immediately turn to the author s description and the accompanying color illustration? &nbsp;I really don t care where Menetries collected the bird: <i>it does not matter one iota</i>. &nbsp;What does matter is the identification of the holotype. &nbsp;The description and illustration <i>do not</i> support the insistence of Raposo et al. that the flanks were conspicuously barred, <i>period</i>. &nbsp;Raposo et al .and you need to stand up to this, and defending your position with insistences that the holotype  must have had barred flanks because you found some brown bits and only barred birds occur around S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> today, 180+ years later, all requires special pleading because your  facts do not add up. &nbsp;Consider this: <b>If the type had been lost 100 years ago and all we had today was Menetries description and the accompanying illustration, none of this arguing would be happening, &nbsp;and  notorius would never have been thought about, right?</b> &nbsp;Instead, we would all be wondering how in the world Menetries managed to get an all-gray bird at S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>. &nbsp;And the consensus would likely be that he made a mistake about exactly where he shot the bird. &nbsp;By the way, if you want to dig into how Menetries was capable of making mistakes <i>about where he personally collected birds in Rio de Janeiro</i>, such as the vicinity of Serra dos <span class=SpellE>”rg„os</span>, ask Pacheco to tell you the story of <i>Formicivora <span class=SpellE>deluzae</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'> One again, and finally, I hope, the onus is on you (and Raposo et al), Dr. Stiles, and anyone else who may vote  yes on your proposal, to explain why <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> description and the accompanying illustration do not feature conspicuously barred flanks. &nbsp;Please let s have you and Raposo et al. answer this directly: &nbsp;<b><i>Mauricio et al and Whitney et al assert that the holotype must have had essentially plain-gray flanks.<o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'> It would certainly be ideal to have an <i>impartial </i>DNA analysis of the holotype conducted, but Dr. Dickinson has informed us that this will not be happening under the current directorship of the ZISP. &nbsp;That s no problem -- <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>the world will keep turning while science waits. &nbsp;I guarantee you that that specimen will eventually be analyzed and probably reanalyzed well into the future. &nbsp;But for now, here s another consideration: If the description and illustration had been lost and we had only the damaged holotype on which to base the name <i>speluncae</i>, the DNA analysis would be seen as critically important -- or it might indeed be desirable to abandon the holotype in favor of designation of a neotype. &nbsp;Fortunately, an entirely reasonable resolution of this issue does not require DNA analysis and we certainly do not want to designate a neotype because we possess a trustworthy description from the author and an excellent illustration that accompanied the description.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;color:green'> Ah, as for Dr. Dickinson s idea that maybe the illustration was of some other specimen... If someone can provide any direct evidence that this is a possibility, I would be delighted to consider it &#8212; but absent some direct evidence (of the sort, for example, that clearly indicates that Menetries erred in assigning type localities to multiple birds he named) it has no bearing on the issue at hand. &nbsp;Which would, of course, bring us straight back to the point of explaining why this high-quality illustration does not show <i>speluncae</i> with conspicuously brown, barred flanks. </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-outline-level:1'><u><span style='font-family: Helvetica'>Comments from </span></u><u><span style='font-family:Helvetica; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>Marcos&nbsp;Bornschein</span></u><span style='font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>:</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'> A feature of the flank plumage of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Scytalopus speluncae </i>type seems forgotten. More important than the holotype having barred feathers on the flank is what that barring shows.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'> Having traveled 35.000 kilometers after the dark-gray taxon (from Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina), having collected more than 80 specimens and having followed some pairs of this species to collect their juveniles (unfortunately, necessary to the study), I can assure that many adult dark-gray taxon individuals are not completely gray and have vestigial flank and rump barring, 100% concordant with the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'> My experience with the light-gray taxon is smaller, but I saw many specimens in collections and collected 5 of them, more than double of what Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2006) collected. Regardless, what matters is that we can pluck all the feathers but one from the flanks of the light-gray taxon, and yet the great difference from the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i> will be evident. This is because not only the barring matters, but also the aspect of this barring. This is why the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae </i>type is perfectly identifiable as belonging to the Mouse-colored Tapaculo populations, rendering unnecessary a genetic analysis or a neotype. It is not necessary to repeat here the barring characteristics and differences between the light-gray and dark-gray taxa because it was covered in MaurÌcio <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>et al</i>. (2010).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'> I want to leave a personal (and unscientific) perception of what I think is the reason for the current controversy. Due to the absence of bars on the wings, the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i> is an adult (unanimous to both groups of researchers). Raposo &amp; Kirwan (2008) thought that adults of the dark-gray taxon have 100% gray flanks (&quot;... <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. notorius</i> lacks any trace of brown in the rump and flanks in adult males.&quot;). This work was produced after Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. (2006). Therefore, that was the rational they had when they proposed considering the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae </i>attributable to the light-gray taxon, which always keeps the barring on the flanks. Having barring, the direct conclusion was that the type of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. speluncae</i> could not be the Mouse-colored Tapaculo. And <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>S. notorius</i> was described.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;background:white'> We are discussing how a gray animal with vestigial barring on the flanks as in the Mouse-colored Tapaculo, described as gray and painted gray, could be a barred gray animal with barring typical of the light-gray taxon. And in this whole process, the emphasis on direct examination of the type specimen and the discussion of the type locality only serves to divert attention from the misconception that Raposo <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. perpetrated by not knowing the plumage variation of the dark-gray taxon. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-outline-level:1'><u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  NO, based on comments by Whitney and Pacheco. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal style='border:none;mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The following yellow-highlighted is an email discussion mainly between <span style='background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Raposo</span> and <span style='background:aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>Whitney</span></span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family: Monaco;mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Marcos Raposo</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> &gt; Dear friends,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; If you do not understand after this.... . I couldn't be more didactic then this, cant I? I answered the central question that motivated Whitney and friends to change type locality and put MÈnÈtriÈs in doubt. Later I will send my last contribution... a more complete explanation on all this mess. The appended pictures should be carefully observed and read if you really want to understand the things.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; &nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; Hope you also understand now that analysis of the holotype is different from analysis of pictures. The destroyed feathers were analyzed one by one in St. Petersburg.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; &nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; Dr. Remsen, would you mind uploading this last contribution to SACC's website?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; &nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; All the best, Marcos<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt; &lt;</span><a href="SACCprop559Figuras%2520explicadas.pdf"><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco;mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco; background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>Figuras</span></span><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco;mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco; background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'> explicadas.pdf</span></a><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco;mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco; background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Monaco; mso-bidi-font-family:Monaco;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'>WHITNEY</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background: aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>:  </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'>Well, Marcos, I am sorry, but this does not explain how Menetries failed to describe the conspicuously brown, barred flank feathers because the specimen he collected (and you say it is the same one for which he described iris color and stomach contents) was not so badly damaged by shot that all of those feathers were lost; the legs, feet, and tail are all in fine shape!! &nbsp;In other words, <i>the flanks were definitely visible on at least one side before Menetries opened the stomach cavity or prepared the specimen</i>, <span class=GramE>which</span> action(s) I suppose could have resulted in the damage we see today. &nbsp;Here is all you have ever given us (Raposo et al. 2006) to suggest how Menetries failed to describe to brown, barred flanks and the artist failed to illustrate these features:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:22.5pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>The holotype of <i>Scytalopus speluncae</i>. </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: Times;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>M</span><span style='font-size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family: Helvetica;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>ÈnÈtriÈs (1835: 527) made no mention of the<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:22.5pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>rufous and black stripes on the tips of the rump and flank feathers in the original<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:22.5pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>description of <i>S. speluncae</i>, nor were they illustrated (pl. 13, fig. 1). It seems likely that<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:22.5pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>these parts were already damaged either in the collection or preparation so that </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>M</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>ÈnÈtriÈs<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:22.5pt;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt;font-family:Helvetica;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>would not have been aware of such features, in 1835, some ten years after the specimen was collected. That vestiges of these characters still remain on the holotype makes their omission from the plate and type description less important.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>This  seems likely passage is critically important in establishing the identity of the holotype (without DNA analysis). &nbsp;If we are to trust <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> diaries and other things (e.g., iris color and stomach contents of some bird he collected), and we clearly see that he and the artist recognized the importance of barring on the flanks of <i>Malacorhynchus albiventris</i>, published together with <i>M. speluncae</i>, then we have to trust that he would have accurately described the flanks of the specimen he collected and described &#8212; not made critical errors of the sort you are telling us he and the artist committed. &nbsp;Your selective application of <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> memory failure is frustrating, and only diverts attention from the critical points we need to establish. &nbsp;And, once or twice, again, your  vestiges are merely remnants of the bird s normal, subadult plumage &#8212; and the omission of conspicuously barred, brown flanks is no  less important . &nbsp;You did not discuss these blatant anomalies in any of your subsequent papers (understandably so, given your point of view).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>Obviously, there will be no rest to this case until the type s DNA is analyzed and it is placed in a well-corroborated phylogeny of Brazilian <i>Scytalopus</i> &#8212; but let s se how the SACC, at least, goes with the voting.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-outline-level:1'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>RAPOSO</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>I will propose an efficient change of strategy now... Let me talk with Bret without interruption of huge e-mails... Only Bret and me. My mission will be to explain our logic to Bret because I am feeling I am really coming close to convince him.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>Question 1 of Bret:  </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'>please explain to everyone, <span class=SpellE>Guilherme</span> and Marcos, how Menetries managed to fail to see and describe the conspicuously barred flanks and why we should all believe that he was immune to common human error, alright? Remember, we already know that made some pretty boldfaced mistakes... </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>(Whitney to everybody some days ago)&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>ANSWER 1 of Marcos: MÈnÈtriÈs did not describe the abdominal area in his description, simply, because it was not intact enough to be described. But we all must agree that no artist would opt by describing a destroyed venter& so, the artist simply made his job and described it, parsimoniously, gray. Is it difficult to understand? I would do the same if I were a painter, won't you? <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>Question 2 of Bret: &quot;</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri; background:aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>I am sorry, but this does not explain how Menetries failed to describe the conspicuously brown, barred flank feathers because the specimen he collected (and you say it is the same one for which he described iris color and stomach contents) was not so badly damaged by shot that all of those feathers were lost; the legs, feet, and tail are all in fine shape!!&nbsp; In other words, the flanks were definitely visible on at least one side before Menetries opened the stomach cavity or prepared the specimen, which action(s) I suppose could have resulted in the damage we see today</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'>&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>ANSWER 2 of Marcos: Bret, if you had read our paper you would have noticed that all this information (iris color, stomach content etc.) are written in MÈnÈtriÈs' diary, in French (easy to read). See the figure 1 where we show a photograph of the diary. The painting was obviously made in St. Petersburg as well as the description of the plumage (they are not in the diary). Yes, it is the same specimen! Labels are the proof we need. And remember, as soon as we have already shown (and you agree!), the specimen is not dark gray as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>S. notorius</i>, but lighter and buff-marked on flanks and rump. No reason to doubt it is the one collected and referred in the diary. Also have in mind that the cave reported by MÈnÈtriÈs is a place where this tapaculo is one of the first Birds to be seen and heard.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-outline-level:1;mso-layout-grid-align: none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'>Next question!<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>WHITNEY: Marcos, tell us how we can know that the bird for which Menetries described iris color and stomach contents was a tapaculo (Scytalopus). &nbsp;It could have been anything! &nbsp;The labels don t help because we cannot know when they were affixed to the specimens. &nbsp;Menetries labels on the holotype does not mean that that specimen is one that he collected at S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span> &#8212; it indicates, at most, that there is good chance that the specimen was among the lot he tried to put together in publishing his descriptions. &nbsp;Yes, I agree that the specimen is not as dark gray as the birds we have traditionally called <i>speluncae</i>, and I reiterate that this is due to the physical properties of the feathers having changed in predictable ways over 180+ years: &nbsp;basically, the gray becomes paler, and in as little as ten years (Whitney 1994). &nbsp;There is no way that that specimen is as dark gray as it was when fresh, and furthermore, it has glass eyes, so there is a good chance that it was mounted and displayed at some time (i.e., possibly exposed to even more UV light than if in a drawer), but this is more speculative. &nbsp;If the artist simply  filled in the blank of supposedly damaged (at the time) flanks and belly, I guess he could well have opted to make them just like the other tapaculo on his plate, and put in brown flanks with conspicuous barring &#8212; no? &nbsp;The cave area holds, today, only S. petrophilus, and your supposed  topotypes of <i>S. speluncae</i> have no status as types of any taxon.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>In closing, Marcos, we must maintain focus on this:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>How should we, as scientists and taxonomists, explain or interpret the fact that <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> original description and the accompanying illustration of the holotype <i>do not</i> feature brown flanks with conspicuous barring?</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>Asking me and everyone else to simply believe that it did not when there is direct evidence to the contrary is, frankly, beyond my capacity to understand you.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:yellow; mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>RAPOSO</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>: Dear all, please, give us some more time (only me and Bret). Our dialogue will be useful to your understanding of the problem.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>Bret, I want to respond to all your doubts, including your doubt on how could someone prove the exact time the label met a bird 180 years ago. I will explain exactly why I don't have to present a proof to the proof (label). I will show you, why epistemologically, we need not find an historical passage where MÈnÈtriÈs says something like &quot;at this exact moment I am labeling my specimen...&quot; and why the one who have to prove the falsity of the label are you. I will also dedicate myself to remind you that both MÈnÈtriÈs and Langsdorff (the healthy one) were renowned in their time and in history for their meticulousness <span class=SpellE>exceto</span> <span class=SpellE>pelos</span> <span class=SpellE>infundados</span> <span class=SpellE>coment·rios</span> <span class=SpellE>postados</span> <span class=SpellE>aqui</span> (we discussed it properly in Raposo et al. 2012). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>But to continue with this discussion, we have, first, to finish with the explanations on the first two questions. The second one you have probably already understood. The data were at the diary (Raposo et al. 2012, fig. 1). Your persistent question is:&nbsp; &quot;</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri; background:aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>How should we, as scientists and taxonomists, explain or interpret the fact that <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> original description and the accompanying illustration of the holotype <i>do not</i></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'> feature brown flanks with conspicuous barring?&quot; .</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt;font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight:yellow'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>Essentially you didn't understand how MÈnÈtriÈs have not described the totally destroyed feathers....<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>&nbsp;Ok! maybe it will be easier for you if I give you not an answer, but a question. Please respond it with few words. It is a very simple question.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>Considering that MÈnÈtriÈs described the totally preserved throat as &quot;whitish gray&quot; and the plate illustrates a gray belly: Why do you insist in rejecting his description of the throat (feathers that exist) and, simultaneously, agree with the part of the plate which is based on feathers we both know don't exist (also knowing that those preserved feathers contradict the plate)?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'>If you manage to respond this question I guess you can understand where, in terms of science (not in rhetoric!), you are erring.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:yellow;mso-highlight: yellow'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'>WHITNEY</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";background: aqua;mso-highlight:aqua'>: </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 15.0pt;font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua; mso-highlight:aqua'>No need to determine any exact times anything happened; all we need to recognize is that it is not possible to determine when <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> or others labels were attached to the holotype. &nbsp;Your response to my question is, of course, not adequate. &nbsp;If we all accept that Menetries collected the holotype, and we are to trust his diaries and notes about some (quite possibly other) bird he collected, then we should also accept that he produced a trustworthy description of his specimen. &nbsp;Menetries had a largely undamaged specimen in his hand when he described it: As I have pointed out several times now, the feather damage on both sides of the posterior underparts had to have happened after he shot the bird, during preparation or sometime later, because it is impossible to inflict that amount and kind of shot damage to both sides of a small bird without also heavily damaging the legs, feet, or tail. &nbsp;This brings us back to:  Why didn t he describe and the artist illustrate the brown flanks with conspicuous dark bars? &nbsp;I will, again, answer the question for you, and in the single most parsimonious manner (i.e., no special pleading, no convoluted explanations): &nbsp;<b><i>The flanks were essentially plain gray, not remarkably different from the rest of the bird.<o:p></o:p></i></b></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:15.0pt; font-family:Calibri;mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri;background:aqua;mso-highlight: aqua'>Why do you refuse to recognize this remarkably straightforward explanation? &nbsp;<i>Answer</i>: You firmly believe that the specimen had to have been collected at the cavern near S J del <span class=SpellE>Rei</span>; you believe that only birds with brown, barred flanks could have occurred at that locality 180+ years ago because that is the only form that occurs there today; you believe that it is not possible that Menetries made a mistake in designating this specimen from that locality; and you believe that Menetries and the artist could not have been able to determine the color or pattern of the damaged posterior underparts, and they decided to illustrate them as plain gray just to fill in the flanks &#8212; I mean blanks. &nbsp;Menetries probably didn t describe the posterior underparts as any specific color or with barring because they were essentially plain gray like the rest of the bird. &nbsp;All that really matters, however, is that he did not describe them as brownish with black barring. &nbsp;All of your beliefs, above, are somewhat <span class=GramE>to</span> highly equivocal, and none are based on irrefutable evidence. &nbsp;I know you do not agree with me on this, so let s concentrate on what we do have as solid evidence to establish the identity of the holotype: &nbsp;A valid description from the person who collected the specimen accompanied by a high-quality, color plate that agrees perfectly with it, right down to the throat color &#8212; and, you should objectively also believe, the color and patterning of the posterior underparts. &nbsp;Gosh, I guess we <i>could</i> warp it so far as to imagine that Menetries collected a bird with brown, barred flanks, opened the stomach and prepared the specimen right after collection, in the process inflicting the extensive damage we see today, and then <i>forgot to make note of the most conspicuous characters</i> of the specimen, and when he described the bird years later he didn t mention the flanks and his artist, or Menetries himself, looking at the damaged specimen, just painted it all gray except the silvery throat sheen, which was easy to see. &nbsp;This convoluted scenario would require special pleading on several levels, invoking a mega-reversal of your previous insistence on <span class=SpellE>Menetries s</span> trustworthiness to require all to accept that Menetries could indeed have made some very serious mistakes about this individual specimen. &nbsp;It s actually all somewhat imaginable, but what certainly works best is to recognize that the bird was not so massively damaged at the time of collection; to trust