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mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insideh-themecolor:text1; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insidev-themecolor:text1; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff1e7"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="#fff1e7"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF1E7" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (564) to </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Merge <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Effect on SACC:</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This would merge the cracid genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'>: Our current footnote summarizes the situation:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>The genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> is merged by some (<span style='color:black'>Delacour &amp; Amadon 1973</span>, Haverschmidt &amp; Mees 1994) into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> is currently treated as a separate genus in most classifications. Genetic data (Pereira et al. 2002, Pereira &amp; Baker 2004) indicate that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> are sister taxa, and this is supported by morphological data (Grau et al. 2005). New genetic data (Grau et al. 2005) indicate that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria aburri</i> is embedded within <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, thus forcing the merger of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>. <span style='color:blue'>SACC </span></span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCprop277.htm"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;color:blue'>proposal</span></b></a><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;color:blue'> to merge <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> did not pass. </span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) presented morphological and genetic data to support the merger of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria.</i><span style='color:red'> </span><span style='color:black'>Eo et al. (2009) were unable to support the monophyly of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i> + <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> because <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>A. jacutinga</i> fell outside the group. </span><span style='color:red'>Proposal badly needed. </span></span></b><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO; layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>The original proposal for the merger of the two genera failed because we were not impressed with the genetic data: N=1 individual of each species, all based on blood samples from aviaries.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>So, not only are the identifications of the samples based on faith and cannot be checked, but as some who commented noted, cracids hybridize regularly in captivity.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although Pereira, Wajntal, and Grau, </span><a href="SACCprop277.html"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>in their comments to SACC</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>, defended their identifications because two or more co-workers were present when blood samples were drawn, this assumes that hybrids would be phenotypically obvious.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Since then, two additional studies have appeared.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) analyzed 669 bp of cyt-b and found that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> was the sister to the others including <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>aburri</i>, corroborating earlier genetic results.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, because they analyzed one of the same two mitochondrial genes (Grau et al. sampled cyt-b and ND-2), such a result was expected.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>More important from my view is that they evidently sampled different individuals, albeit from a single aviary (Estudillo Lopez, Mexico City) and still N=1 for the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> species, thus increasing confidence that the results of Grau et al. (2005) are valid.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Their analysis of 151 osteological characters revealed no differences between the 5 <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> taxa analyzed and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> &#8211; they appear in their Figure 2 as a monophyletic group but as a 6-way polytomy within the group.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, in their analysis of 74 morphological and behavioral characters, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> is the sister to all the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, and within <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>jacutinga</i> is the sister to the rest & in other words supporting the conventional, traditional view based on plumage etc.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>When all three data sets are combined (their Figures 3 and 4), the tree places <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> inside <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, i.e., <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> + (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>aburri</i> + ((<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>cujubi</i> + (((<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>cumanensis</i> + <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>grayi</i>)))))).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Eo et al. (2008) used a supertree approach to look at the phylogeny of Galliformes and Anseriformes in general.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Supertrees combine previously published phylogenetic trees, whether based on genetic, morphological, or behavioral information, to produce an overall phylogeny based on parsimony.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Thus, the outcome is derived from existing phylogenies (in this case, all the studies mentioned above), and conflicts among studies are resolved in a complicated but objective way.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Their supertree predicted that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> was sister to all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> except <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i>, which appeared in a polytomy with all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Penelope</i>, i.e. is not certainly the sister to the other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> + <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Discussion</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The merger of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria</i> is not a new or controversial idea &#8211; Delacour &amp; Amadon (1973) did it.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>That they are minimally sister genera is also not controversial.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>If the mtDNA tree is a true species tree, not just a gene tree (a serious problem not addressed by the previous studies), then merger of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> is required.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The species tree vs. gene tree problem was not addressed by those previous studies because the pitfalls of single-locus phylogenies as representing the true historical branching patterns of populations was not appreciated by most workers until recently, in ornithology at least.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>(In fact, I worry about some of the decisions that we have made in the past based on a single gene tree.)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I think the possibility of the mtDNA representing a gene tree rather than a species tree is a real one in this case because (1) mtDNA is probably more likely to have these problems because of matrilineal inheritance, and (2) the traditional view of relationships strongly favors <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> as separate; in fact, some authors have treated <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> as a member of a superspecies with the other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, and some authors have even treated them all as conspecific.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It s not just the plumage similarities among <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> vs. the much less-patterned <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> but also (A) the habitat (mostly lowland, often near water for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, including <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> according to HBW; vs. strictly montane for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>), and (B) the vocalizations.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The piping guans are named for their very high-pitched, rising song, and the </span><a href="http://macaulaylibrary.org/search?taxon=pipile%20jacutinga&amp;taxon_id=12014712&amp;taxon_rank_id=67"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>limited recordings of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i></span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> indicate that it shares that vocalization with the Amazonian group, at least </span><a href="http://macaulaylibrary.org/search?taxon=pipile%20pipile&amp;taxon_id=12014709&amp;taxon_rank_id=67"><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>cumanensis</span></i></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> (by someone named Mark Robbins) and </span><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Pipile-cujubi"><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>cujubi</span></i></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In contrast, as noted by Thomas Donegan in the original proposal, the voice of </span><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Aburria-aburri"><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Aburria aburri</span></i></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> is bizarre and unlike that of any other cracids (my wife, listening to this next to me, refuses to believe it s an actual bird). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>(Does <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> have the  propeller wing display of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>? &lt;check&gt;)<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Although we re used to examples of plumage characters misleading us with respect to phylogeny, I am concerned that such severe vocal differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> may reflect a species tree better than do 2700 bp of mtDNA.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Nonetheless, let s just say, hypothetically, that a DNA-sequence study with additional, nuclear loci and multiple individuals of vouchered individuals of non-aviary origin found that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> was indeed sister to traditional <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>?<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Then, in the subjective world of generic limits, would we follow Delacour &amp; Amadon in merging the two?<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>After all, those authors were familiar with these birds and assumed that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> was a <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> &lt;</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>need to check discussion in D&amp;A 1973</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>&gt;.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>On the other hand, Delacour &amp; Amadon s philosophy on generic limits included merging of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Nothocrax</i> into broadly defined <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Crax</i>, a treatment no one follows.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, note that </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) were unable to distinguish </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Pipile</span></i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>from </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Aburria</span></i><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>in their osteological analysis.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Recommendation</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I have none &#8211; I look forward to the discussion and will vote after reading what others have to say.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Those with stronger backgrounds in DNA sequence analysis should speak out on the chances that the published results are just a gene tree. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Those who really know these birds should speak out on the subjective issue of whether the two genera should be recognized even if <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> is a true <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>.</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Literature cited</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> (if anyone needs pdfs, just let me know)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>EO, S. H., O. R. P. BININDA-EMONDS, </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Times'>AND </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial'>J. P. CARROLL.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>2009.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A phylogenetic supertree of the fowls (Galloanserae, Aves).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Zoologica Scripta 38: 465&#8211;481.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>FRANK-HOEFLICH, K., L. F. SILVEIRA, J. ESTUDILLO-L”PEZ, A. M. GARCÕA-KOCH, L. ONGAY-LARIOS, AND D. PINERO. 2007. Increased taxon and character sampling reveals novel intergeneric relationships in the Cracidae (Aves: Galliformes). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 45: 242-254.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>GRAU, E. T., S. L. PEREIRA, L. F. SILVEIRA, E. H÷FLING, AND A. WAJNTAL. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Neotropical piping guans (Aves: Galliformes): <i>Pipile</i> Bonaparte, 1856 is synonym of <i>Aburria</i> Reichenbach, 1853. Molecular Phylogenetics &amp; Evolution 35: 637-645.</span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;tab-stops:4.5pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>PEREIRA, S. L., A. J. BAKER, AND A. WAJNTAL.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>2002. Combined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences resolve generic relationships within the Cracidae (Galliformes, Aves). Systematic Biology 51: 946-958.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'>Van Remsen, October 2012<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>NO. Although</span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;color:#333333'> </span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>the molecular</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'> </span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>study</span></span><span class=shorttext><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> </span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>of</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'> Frank</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>-Hoeflich et al. (2007)</span><span class=TitleChar1><span style='font-family:Arial; color:#333333;font-weight:normal'> </span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>supports</span></span><span class=shorttext><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> merging</span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> both genera, </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>the molecular analysis of Eo et al. (2009) <span class=hps>does not</span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;color:#333333'>.</span></span><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> </span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Moreover, they are not similar in plumage</span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> and the voice of </span><a href="http://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Aburria-aburri"><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Aburria aburri</span></i></a><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> is bizarre and unlike that of any other cracid (Thomas Donegan). <span class=hps>In</span> <span class=hps>addition</span>, <span class=hps>I do not agree </span>with<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span class=hps>sampling</span> <span class=hps>animals</span> <span class=hps>from aviaries, especially</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial'> </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>cracids which hybridize regularly<span class=hps> in captivity</span>.<span class=hps> </span></span><span class=hps><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span class=hps><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  Ugh, once again a subjective decision. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> has a unique voice and plumage compared to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> species, but does that merit generic recognition?<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Even if there are issues with using just mitochondrial data, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i> are obviously closely related and thus this becomes an arbitrary decision. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Comments from Thomas Donegan</span></u><span style='font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin'>: </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family: Tahoma'>&quot;The new proposal is not based in particular on much new data&nbsp;which was not available on the previous proposal.&nbsp; The Frank-Hoeflich study was cited and discussed in the last iteration, although in comments and not in the proposal itself.&nbsp; Eo et al (2009) subsequently found <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>/Pipile <u>not </u>to form a monophyletic group consistent with previous studies&nbsp;(contra Nores' comment: see their table of non-monophyly and their phylogeny showing&nbsp;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> in a polytomy involving some <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Penelope</i> among others).&nbsp; However, Eo et al. (2009) is a super-tree study based on essentially same data as used in the previous studies (Frank-Hoeflich et al. and Sergio Pereira et al.'s various papers).&nbsp; As a result, Laurent Raty's comments on the last proposal as regards the particular mtDNA strand which supports the paraphyly of the Aburria/Pipile&nbsp;group (and the other, which apparently does not so much) remain applicable.&nbsp; I don't totally&nbsp;share others' innate distrust of aviary samples and would also note that without these, a number of these species could only be sequenced using ancient DNA.&nbsp; Pereira and his team have produced some really interesting results especially as to issues like higher-level taxonomy, which are less likely to be affected by inter-species hybridisation.&nbsp; As long as one takes into account the possibility of aviary hybridisation and hence a conservative approach to making taxonomic changes based on the data, then that should be enough said.&nbsp; For such an endangered&nbsp;group like cracids - and of big birds which are difficult to catch, and hence only sample-able by shooting - there are few other ethical alternatives.&nbsp; One does sometimes find&nbsp;cracid body parts&nbsp;(e.g. casques) in farms of local people in the field and taking samples from these should perhaps be encouraged in the future such that fieldworkers can help collate materials in order to some more universally acceptable study materials.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none; text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family: Tahoma'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 16.0pt;font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'> If further studies of other DNA parts continue to support <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> being basal to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>aburria</i> (and the latter being basal&nbsp;to the rest of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>) then there is a real&nbsp;issue,&nbsp;not a question of taste.&nbsp; As Robbins notes, the solution to the issue would then be a subjective matter.&nbsp; Personally, I would think it a great shame (and Latin misnomer) to give the Piping-Guans, which all pipe and are appropriately called &quot;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>&quot;, a new name (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>), which is onamatopoeic for a totally different bird and type of song.&nbsp; Although there are no osteological differences, there are differences in bare skin/cere extent/shape, which actually unite <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>aburri</i> with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> (distinguishing both from the rest of&nbsp;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>) and massive&nbsp;vocal differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and the rest.&nbsp; Subjectively, and being familiar with all three 'groups' (if not all the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> taxa) in the field,&nbsp;I'd rather see &quot;<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Yacutinga jacutinga</i>&quot; or similar as a new monotypic genus and maintain <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria aburri</i> and the other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> where they are than lump the lot of them into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>.&nbsp; This opinion is not based particularly on genetic distance/divergence but also on subjective, aesthetic considerations.&nbsp; But similar to Pearman on another live proposal, I am not keen on making available what would be a controversial a new genus name. For the avoidance of doubt in the event that these interesting discussions are published one day, this paragraph is not intended to&nbsp;constitute a genus description.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 16.0pt;font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font: minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>NO. </span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>I¥d rather see <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>jacutinga</i> in its own genus than lump <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile </i>into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i>, which to me is a very different bird.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The problem here may be that with only data for mtDNA, we may be seeing a gene tree rather than a species tree, so we really need some nuclear data to better sort this problem out. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Undoubtedly, a subjective matter. Besides the glaring difference vocal between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, Wattled Guan apparently does not produce sounds with their wings (See Rios et al. 2005 at: </span><a href="http://www.galliformes-sg.org/cracids/bull21.pdf"><span style='font-family: Arial;color:#386EFF;text-decoration:none;text-underline:none'>http://www.galliformes-sg.org/cracids/bull21.pdf</span></a><span style='font-family:Arial'>).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial'>NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I m having a real hard time buying that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> is more closely related to all other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> than these are to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. jacutinga</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I can certainly accept the latter as basal to other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>, but aside from differences in the extent of bare skin on the face and cere, everything about <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> screams <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i> to me, including its voice, its behavior, its overall plumage pattern and morphology, and its altitudinal distribution (predominantly lowland, marginally into lower foothills of the Atlantic Forest, i.e. &lt; 1000 m), and its preference for riverine forest.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>On the other hand, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria</i>, with its completely divergent voice, even more extensively feathered head (relative to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga </i>versus all other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i>), relatively unpatterned plumage, lack of mechanical wing display sounds, and montane Andean distribution seems like a fairly different beast.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I could support lumping all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria</i> into a single genus over segregating <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>jacutinga</i> in a separate genus, but I d rather not do either.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> (including <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i>, which is most divergent and seemingly basal to the others), without <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Aburria</i>, comprises a morphologically, vocally, behaviorally and ecologically cohesive group, and I would want to see some stronger evidence before messing with it. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from PÈrez-Em·n</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span> NO. This proposal is basically the same as previous 277, which did not pass. Grau et al. (2005) estimated phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical piping guans using three mitochondrial genes and osteological characters, analyzed independently. Support for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> as sister taxon to all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> except <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> was low. Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) s study increased taxon sampling and combined molecular with osteological, integumentary and behavioral characters. However, as Laurent Raty pointed out in proposal 277, they used, for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile jacutinga</i>, the same Cyt <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>b</i> sequence than Grau et al. (2005). Raty also indicated that he ran independent analyses by gene (using GenBank sequences used by Grau et al.) and only Cyt <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>b</i> sequences were the ones supporting placement of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>jacutinga</i> as sister to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria </i>+ rest of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i>. Such an analysis would favor a hypothesis of results showing a gene tree more than a species tree. In fact, I also downloaded ND2 sequences from this study and ran a maximum likelihood analysis with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates. Results show a moderate support (bootstrap value, bv, = 76) for a sister relationship of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. jacutinga</i> to the rest of piping guans (which are a strongly support monophyletic group, bv = 98). Additionally, all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pipile</i> are sister to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> with strong support (99). It is important to say that Frank-Hoeflich et al. s study showed that osteological characters did not resolve relationships between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i> and that integumentary + behavioral characters support the idea of two different genera. The combined data phylogenetic hypothesis of these authors is potentially biased toward the Cyt <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>b</i> sequence information. Finally, Eo et al. (2009) s study used previous published data but without including Frank-Hoeflich et al. s study as it is not cited in the Supplementary Material document. Thus, I don t think we have more information to change our views than we had when proposal 277 was evaluated. Besides, morphology, behavior, ecology and even molecular information (at least for ND2 phylogenetic hypothesis) still support keeping both <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pipile</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Cadena</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  NO, for the same reasons as in proposal <a href="SACCprop277.htm">277</a>; I agree with additional points made by Jorge here. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>