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mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:right; text-indent:-9.0pt;} ol {margin-bottom:0in;} ul {margin-bottom:0in;} --> </style> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} table.MsoTableGrid {mso-style-name:"Table Grid"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-unhide:no; border:solid black 1.0pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-border-alt:solid black .5pt; mso-border-themecolor:text1; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insideh-themecolor:text1; mso-border-insidev:.5pt solid black; mso-border-insidev-themecolor:text1; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff1e7"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="#fff1e7"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF1E7" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (565) to </span></b></span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Merge <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Effect on SACC:</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This would merge the cracid genus <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi.</i><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'>: Our current footnote summarizes the situation:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><b><span style='font-family:Arial; color:black'>22. Generic limits in the curassows are controversial.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Vuilleumier (1965) merged <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi</i>, and even <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nothocrax</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Crax</i>, and <span class=GramE>this was followed by Delacour &amp; Amadon</span> (1973).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Vaurie (1967d), however, outlined rationale for maintaining the four genera as separate, and also pointed out that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nothocrax</i> was a strong outlier in the group, a prediction subsequently verified by genetic data Pereira &amp; Baker (2004).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Most subsequent treatments have followed Vaurie (1967d).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>However, </span></b><b><span style='font-family:Arial'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) presented morphological and genetic data to support the merger of <i>Mitu</i> into <i>Pauxi.</i><span style='color:red'> Proposal badly needed</span><span style='color:black'>.<o:p></o:p></span></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'>New information</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) analyzed mtDNA sequence data and an impressive matrix of phenotypic characters to generate trees (one using parsimony, one Bayesian) based on combined analyses that indicated that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Mitu</i> + <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> together formed a strongly supported monophyletic group with respect to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Crax</i>, but that the two genera were intermingled and the two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> species were not sisters.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The same pattern is evident in their mtDNA (661 bp cyt-b) tree alone.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In the tree based only <span class=GramE>on</span> osteological characters, only one species of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> and three <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Mitu</i> were available; they formed a monophyletic group but within the group, there was virtually no resolution.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Their tree based on external morphological and behavioral characters showed that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi</i> might form a monophyletic group but that it was inside <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Based on these analyses, Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) proposed a new classification that merged <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Mitu</i> into <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i>.</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Pereira &amp; Baker (2004) also previously found the same basic pattern with a much larger data set of mtDNA (6900+ bps, 6 genetic regions).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Therefore, </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>the data would seem overwhelmingly in favor of the merger &#8211; no data set confirms the monophyly of either genus.</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language:ES-CO;layout-grid-mode:line'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Discussion</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Pereira &amp; Baker (2004) did not recommend the merger of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Mitu</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> because they considered the result probably due to former hybridization in the wild between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi unicornis</i> and its  sister taxon in the phylogeny, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>M. tuberosum</i>, which is also the species of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> that is parapatric with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops: 28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Lucida Sans"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'>Given the relatively long period since <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> diverged (6.5 mya, on the basis of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. pauxi</i>), incomplete lineage-sorting seems an unlikely explanation.</span><span style='font-family: "Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:27.0pt;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops: 28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family:"Lucida Sans"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span> </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family: "Lucida Grande"'>Conversely, it is well known that cracids can hybridize very easily in captivity (<span class=SpellE>Nogueira</span>-</span><span style='font-family:"Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'> </span><span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Sans"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'>Neto</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 9.0pt;font-family:"Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'> 1973, Pereira et al. 1996, Grau et al. 2003), though natural hybridization has not been reported in the wild (Vaurie 1968). However, the restricted geographic distribution of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i> just south of the range of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>M. tuberosa</i> is consistent with the hybridization hypothesis, because they are the most likely taxa to have come in contact. Sequence divergence between those taxa rules out the recent transfer of mtDNA genomes in captive birds, and indicates instead that an ancient transfer in the wild might have occurred. Because only one specimen of each taxon was sequenced, caution is warranted in making conclusions about the generality of that transfer of the mtDNA genome. Ultimately, the hybridization hypothesis needs to be checked with nuclear markers on bigger samples of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i> from both disjunct populations before any recommendations can be made for revising generic limits. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Lucida Sans";mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Lucida Grande"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Although </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) cited Pereira &amp; Baker (2004) for their support for their <span class=GramE>findings,</span> they did not discuss Pereira &amp; Baker s interpretation.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In part this is understandable because Pereira &amp; Baker only had tissue of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i>, whereas Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) had samples of both subspecies of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>P. pauxi</i>, and these did not come out as sister to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis.<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Nonetheless, I tentatively support the cautionary view of Pereira &amp; Baker for the following reasons.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>First, it seems unlikely that the bizarre bony casque on the foreheads of the two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi</i> species would have arisen independently, especially since the two are also so similar in plumage that some authors have treated them as conspecific.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In fact, Vaurie (1967) devoted a section to enumerating the subtle differences between the two species to defend their treatment as separate species.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Pauxi</i> (each with two subspecies) also are the only curassows that share a lower montane distribution &#8211; all four taxa are isolated in Andean foothills or outlying ranges, whereas <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> are lowland tropical.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>These shared features are evidently overwhelmed or underweighted in the analysis of morphology in Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Convergence or parallelism is not out of the question, of course, but I would like to see stronger genetic data to verify this.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>This leads to my second concern, namely the underlying genetic data.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Pereira &amp; Baker themselves advocated a follow-up study that included nuclear loci.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>(See Carling and Brumfield [2008] for an important lesson in potential problems in accepting results from mtDNA-based phylogenies when they seem to conflict with common sense: in this case, for North Americans, the mtDNA trees said Lazuli Bunting was sister to Blue Grosbeak, not to its parapatric ecological equivalent, Indigo Bunting, but nDNA supported the traditional view, i.e. Lazuli and Indigo are sisters).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Also, all samples are single individuals from aviaries, none with vouchers.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The authors in both studies took utmost care, of course, to insure proper identifications, so I m probably being overly picky.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>But with hybridization among curassows evidently frequent in captivity, however, I worry about backcrosses.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The same aviary that produced all the samples in these studies has already produced a bogus taxon that is certainly an aviary hybrid despite claims that the bird was trapped as a chick in Bolivia; see Joseph et al. (1999).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>Recommendation</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria;mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A tentative NO on this merger.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I will change my recommendation and my vote if other s comments persuade me that my view is too conservative.</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Literature cited</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'> (if anyone needs pdfs, just let me know)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBodyTextIndent style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=GramE><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>CARLING, M. D. &amp; R. T. BRUMFIELD.</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>2008.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Integrating phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of multiple loci to test species divergence hypotheses in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Passerina</i> buntings.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><span class=GramE>Genetics 178: 363-377.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>EO, S. H., O. R. P. BININDA-EMONDS, </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:Times'>AND </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial'>J. P. CARROLL.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>2009.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A phylogenetic supertree of the fowls (Galloanserae, Aves).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Zoologica Scripta 38: 465-481.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span class=GramE><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>FRANK-HOEFLICH, K., L. F. SILVEIRA, J. ESTUDILLO-L”PEZ, A. M. GARCÕA-KOCH, L. ONGAY-LARIOS, AND D. PINERO.</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial'> 2007. Increased taxon and character sampling reveals novel intergeneric relationships in the Cracidae (Aves: Galliformes). J. Zool. Syst. Evol. <span class=GramE>Res. 45: 242-254.</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>GRAU, E. T., S. L. PEREIRA, L. F. SILVEIRA, E. H÷FLING, AND A. WAJNTAL. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Neotropical piping guans (Aves: Galliformes): <i>Pipile</i> <span class=GramE>Bonaparte,</span> 1856 is synonym of <i>Aburria</i> Reichenbach, 1853. Molecular Phylogenetics &amp; Evolution 35: 637-645.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;mso-pagination: none;tab-stops:28.0pt 56.0pt 84.0pt 112.0pt 140.0pt 168.0pt 196.0pt 224.0pt 3.5in 280.0pt 308.0pt 336.0pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>JOSEPH, L., B. SLIKAS, K. RANKIN-BARANSKY, B. BAZARTSEREN, D. ALPERS, AND A. E. GILBERT.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>1999.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>DNA evidence concerning the identities of <i>Crax viridirostris</i> Sclater, 1875, and <i>C. estudilloi</i> Allen, 1977</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>O</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-size: 7.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Garamond'>rnitologÌa Neotropical 10: 129-144.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;tab-stops:4.5pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>PEREIRA, S. L., A. J. BAKER, AND A. WAJNTAL.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>2002. Combined nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences resolve generic relationships within the Cracidae (Galliformes, Aves). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Systematic Biology 51: 946-958.</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;tab-stops:4.5pt'><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>VAURIE, C.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>1967. Systematic notes on the bird family Cracidae. No. 10. <span class=GramE>The genera <i>Mitu</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> and the generic relationships of the Cracini.</span><span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>American Museum Novitates 2307: 1-20.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-language: ES-CO'>Van Remsen, November 2012<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:ArialMT;mso-bidi-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>NO. </span><span class=hps><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Although</span></span><span class=shorttext><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> </span></span><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>both genetic studies </span></span><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language:ES-CO'>(Frank</span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>-Hoeflich et al. 2007, <span class=SpellE>Eo</span> et al. 2009)<span class=hps> indicated<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> that </span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>the two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> species were not sisters, </span><span class=hps>this requires corroboration. The two species</span> <span class=hps>are so similar that</span> <span class=hps>it seems</span> <span class=hps>unlikely</span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>, as </span><span class=hps>indicated</span><span class=shorttext> </span><span class=hps>by Remsen, </span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>that the bizarre bony casque on the foreheads of the two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> species would have arisen independently.</span><span class=hps> In</span> <span class=hps>addition</span>, <span class=hps>I do not agree </span>with <span class=hps>sampling</span> <span class=hps>animals</span> <span class=hps>from aviaries, especially</span></span><span style='font-family:Arial'> </span><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>cracids, which hybridize regularly<span class=hps> in captivity</span>.<span class=hps> For this reason</span> <span class=hps>I prefer to</span> <span class=hps>wait for</span> <span class=hps>new information</span> <span class=hps>before merging these genera. <o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span class=hps><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>For the same reasons that I stated in the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Aburria</i> proposal, I m on the fence with this subjective decision. In the case of both, I m fine with our current treatment if for no other reason than to just to have some stability and keep from flopping back and forth. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Jacob <span class=SpellE>Socolar</span></span></u><span style='font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>In making these comments, I do not claim or pretend to be an expert on the matter. &nbsp;However, I have spent a good deal of time thinking about this puzzle ever since the Pereira and Frank-Hoeflich papers crossed my desk. &nbsp;In that spirit, I have two sets of observations to share that are not treated in the literature thus far:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>1.&nbsp;</span></b><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>A brown color morph is known in&nbsp;<i>Pauxi <span class=SpellE>pauxi</span></i>,&nbsp;<i>P. unicornis</i>, and (recently)&nbsp;<i>P. koepckeae</i>, but not to my knowledge in any species currently treated as&nbsp;<i>Mitu</i>. &nbsp;If this is an ancestral character, then the suggestion that&nbsp;<i>Pauxi</i>&nbsp;is nested inside&nbsp;<i>Mitu</i>&nbsp;seems strange. &nbsp;But of course this is a single character compared to many morphological characters evaluated by Frank-Hoeflich.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>2.&nbsp;</span></b><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>There is (barely) enough online material now to evaluate similarities and differences in the vocalizations made by members of the currently recognized genera <i>Mitu</i> and <i>Pauxi</i>. &nbsp;Based on the recordings in the Macaulay Library and on Xeno-Canto (as well as written descriptions of the song of <i>P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;sensu stricto, the following observations:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>--The song of <i>Pauxi unicornis</i> sensu stricto is an outlier with respect to other <i>Pauxi</i> (including its presumed sister <i>P. koepckeae</i>) in that it has the sharp terminal BMM! <span class=GramE>note</span> typical of <i>Mitu tuberosa</i>. &nbsp;While on the one hand this could be construed as support for a sister relationship between <i>P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;and <i>Mitu</i>, on the other hand it makes the hybridization hypothesis especially plausible.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>One thing is clear: If, based on the booming songs, it would appear that if <i>P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;is more closely affiliated to <i>M. tuberosa</i>&nbsp;than to <i>P. pauxi</i>, then <i>P. koepckeae</i>&nbsp;should fall out with <i>P. pauxi</i>&nbsp;and NOT with <i>P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;as suggested by Weske and Terborgh (1971) based on morphological characters in their description of the taxon <i>koepckeae</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>--The 'barking' calls of <i>P. pauxi, P. koepckeae, and P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;are available online from the Macaulay Library, Xeno-Canto, and the Macaulay Library, respectively. &nbsp;These vocalizations are similar to one another, and (unless I overlooked something) there is no example in any of these collections of a <i>Pauxi</i>&nbsp;producing the whistling calls typical of <i>Mitu tuberosa</i>&nbsp;(and, I gather, other <i>Mitu spp.</i>)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>However, Birds of Peru describes a 'sharp popping <span class=SpellE><i>pseet</i></span>' for <i>P. unicornis, </i>and&nbsp;there are a few examples of <i>Mitu tuberosa</i>&nbsp;and <i>Mitu tomentosa </i>producing barking calls similar to <i>Pauxi </i>on XC and ML.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>In summary, I think that the vocal evidence, while utterly inconclusive, lends weight to the hybridization hypothesis and the maintenance of separate genera:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>1. &nbsp;The similarity in booming songs of <i>M. tuberosa </i>and <i>P. unicornis </i>sensu stricto lends additional plausibility to the hybridization hypothesis.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>2. &nbsp;<i>P. koepckeae </i>has a booming song similar to&nbsp;<i>P. pauxi</i>&nbsp;(and not<i>&nbsp;Mitu</i>), but has morphological characters more closely resembling&nbsp;<i>P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;(at least according to Weske and Terborgh). &nbsp;It is hard to believe that <i>P. koepckeae</i>&nbsp;and <i>P. pauxi</i>&nbsp;are not reciprocally monophyletic with respect to <i>Mitu</i>&nbsp;based on vocal characters. &nbsp;It is hard to believe that <i>P. koepckeae and P. unicornis</i>&nbsp;are not reciprocally monophyletic with respect to <i>Mitu</i>&nbsp;based on morphological characters.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt;mso-pagination: none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-family: Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Helvetica'>3. &nbsp;<i>Pauxi</i>&nbsp;as a group appears to be distinctive in that the commonly given call may be (based on limited sample size, for sure) barks rather than whistles. &nbsp;But <i>Mitu</i>&nbsp;can each give both barks and whistles, and perhaps <i>Pauxi</i>&nbsp;can give the occasional whistle.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria;mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>NO, at least until we have nuclear data from an adequate sample of known-locality, well-identified birds.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>There is just enough possibility of hybridization to justify a conservative stance here, which is also in accord with the ecological-biogeographical information, as per Van. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  NO.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Given the concerns raised by colleagues, I prefer to be conservative and keep for now the two separate genera. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial'>NO, for reasons outlined by Van, Manuel and Mark.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I share concerns about the depth of the sampling and the use of aviary birds, and Van s comments regarding the montane distribution of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi</i> also give pause.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Like Mark, I would just as soon wait for more conclusive evidence before making a change that we could end up changing again down the line. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from PÈrez-Em·n</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  NO. I think molecular evidence is not that strong yet to make such changes in our current taxonomic treatment of these <span class=GramE>genera.</span> Morphology, vocalizations and distribution all argue in favor of retaining both genera. It is worth to notice that phylogenetic hypotheses resulting from Pereira &amp; Baker (2004) and Frank-Hoeflich et al. (2007) s studies are not congruent. Whereas in the first study <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Pauxi <span class=SpellE>pauxi</span></i> was sister to all <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> + <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>P. unicornis</i>, in the second study there was support for a polytomy consisting of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu <span class=SpellE>mitu</span></i>, the two subspecies of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>P. pauxi</i> and a monophyletic group including the rest of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Mitu</i> species<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> </i>+ P<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>. unicornis</i>. This points toward the need of including nuclear characters to evaluate phylogenetic relationships of these species. The hybridization hypothesis cannot be discarded for reasons indicated by Pereira &amp; Baker (2004) and Jacob <span class=SpellE>Socolar</span>, mainly their potential parapatric distribution (currently or in the past) and their similar vocalizations. Thus, before we have more conclusive evidence, I would rather keep both genera. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>