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mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1026"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fff1e7"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFF1E7" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></span></a></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal (566) to </span></b></span></span><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></span></span></a><span style='mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK1'><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></span></span></p> <span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK2'></span><span style='mso-bookmark:OLE_LINK1'></span> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Treat <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Geotrygon purpurata</i> as a separate species from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. saphirina<o:p></o:p></i></span></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Proposal</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This proposal, if it passes, would result in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. purpurata </i>being split from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. saphirina</i>, a treatment accepted by several other authorities, including several major publications on pigeons over the last decade and others listed in Donegan &amp; Salaman (2012).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Discussion</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>This split was rejected in proposal </span><a href="SACCprop105.htm"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>105</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This was back in 2004, before sources like xeno-canto were really available or had good samples and consistent with the SACC's then approach to other &quot;field guide splits&quot; around this time.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Most committee members cited a lack of vocal data supporting the split, and no dissenting comments in support of the split are evident.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>There are two new publications relevant to this issue published in the last couple of years, and a further relevant paper was overlooked in 2004.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>Molecular data:<o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Brumfield &amp; Capparella (1996: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/brumfield/pubs/brum96.pdf), using three samples of each group, found unusually high divergence between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata </i>and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>saphirina </i>for lowland conspecifics with a ChocÛ / Amazonian distribution.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>More recently, Johnson &amp; Weckstein (2011) studied a single Ecuadorian <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>purpurata</i> and single Peruvian <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>saphirina </i>in a phylogeny including good sampling of new world pigeons.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>They found strong support for a sister relationship and moderate (modeled <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>c</i>.1.2 million years) differentiation, consistent with that observed between samples of Russet-crowned Quail-Dove <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Geotrygon goldmani </i>&amp; ChiriquÌ or Rufous-breasted Ground-Dove <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>G. chiriquensis </i>and those between nominate Grey-fronted Dove <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leptotila rufaxilla </i>&amp; Yungas Dove <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>L. megalura</i>, but also consistent with intraspecific variation in widespread <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leptotila verreauxi</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>One of their BEAST chronogram-based phylogenies is set out below.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Note these two <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Geotrygon </i>species at the bottom of the tree, and the relative depth of the branch.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1026" type="#_x0000_t75" style='width:848pt;height:842pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop566_files/image001.png" o:title=""/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=850 height=844 src="SACCprop566_files/image002.gif" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Neither studies reject monophyly for the combined group (and the latter study found strong support for this).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>But both studies show a relatively deep division, consistent with ChocÛ/Amazonia splits generally and those between several Neotropical pigeon species.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Vocal data<o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>Donegan &amp; Salaman (2012: link below) published various data on these pigeon species' natural history, voice and conservation, and included a rare photograph of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>purpurata</i> in life by Juan Carlos Luna.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We measured two acoustic variables and found no overlap for the length of the main note in songs between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>saphirina </i>and<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> purpurata </i>(see figure reproduced below).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The differences are statistically significant, but despite there being no observed overlap, the data did not meet the Isler <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>et al</i>. '97.5% using <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>t</i>-distributions' diagnosability test.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Acoustic frequency also varies between the taxa, with statistical significance found, but not diagnosability.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. saphirina</i> (in some but not all recordings) varies the frequency of songs but <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>G. purpurata </i>has flat notes in all recordings.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It is this variability of frequency that past transcriptions of vocal differences in field guides seem to have concentrated on as a difference, but this feature is non-diagnostic: <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>saphirina</i> also gives flatter calls.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Song length <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>does</i> however separate out the sample fully based on recorded data.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>It would be speculative to conclude whether, with a greater sample size, the ideal 97.5% diagnosability test would be met or not.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The vocal differences are, however, very real and substantial, and have gone largely overlooked or misunderstood in the literature until Salaman &amp; Donegan (2012).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>See our figure 3, reproduced below (song length on <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>x</i> axis, frequency on <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>y</i> axis; p=<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i>; s=<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>saphirina</i>). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_61" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Description: D:\Colombia\Checklist Birds Colombia\Quail Doves\Qual Dove vocal differentiation.TIF" style='width:852pt;height:658pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop566_files/image003.png" o:title="Qual Dove vocal differentiation.TIF"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=854 height=660 src="SACCprop566_files/image004.gif" alt="Description: Description: D:\Colombia\Checklist Birds Colombia\Quail Doves\Qual Dove vocal differentiation.TIF" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_61"><![endif]></span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>As discussed in our paper, given the way in which these songs are made, by birds inhaling a lot of air, expanding the chest, and then exhaling through their nostrils without bill movements (see this video: http://ibc.lynxeds.com/video/sapphire-quail-dove-geotrygon-saphirina/bird-singing-forest-while-perched-eye-level), such vocal differences seem likely to be constrained by physiological factors and not a result of learning.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>The two species seem to have different elevational ranges, and, hence one assumes, ecological requirements.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>In particular, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i> is a foothill bird that has not been recorded on the ChocÛ &quot;floor&quot; whilst <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>saphirina</i> is found in western Amazonia.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The molecular and vocal data seem consistent with other pigeon splits.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The split passes Tobias et al.'s &quot;species scoring tests&quot; also.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A subsequent communication with Nigel Collar revealed that their team last year independently assessed <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i> as (just) meeting the &quot;species scoring test&quot;, disregarding vocal differentiation data (which were not available to them).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We were more conservative in assessing plumage scores and had <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i> 'crossing the line' as a result of 2 points out of 3 for the highly differentiated and statistically significant (but not statistically diagnosable) vocal differences.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Neither the paper nor this proposal is intended as an endorsement of this score system, but it is a useful further indication for allopatric birds like these.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>On the basis of all the above, my own view, and that of all our team who work on the Colombian checklist, is that these molecular and vocal data tip the balance in favour of treating <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i> separately under a conservative BSC approach.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We appreciate that really hardcore Petersian lumpers could legitimately take another view given monophyly and failure to meet the toughest statistical tests of diagnosability.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>We also discussed the conservation status of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>A</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>lthough not relevant to taxonomic determinations, it is perhaps of note that (whether lumped or split), these are both threatened forest-dependent birds, VU when lumped based on the recent papers on Amazonian deforestation rates; and with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. purpurata</i> recommended in our paper for EN treatment if split.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This decision is, therefore, not solely of relevance to listers or bird checklist accuracy fanatics.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Vernacular names</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>: Quoting from our paper: &quot;</span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>Hellmayr &amp; Conover (1942) used the name Purple Quail-Dove, which is appropriate given that this is the most purple <i>Geotrygon</i>. However, this name seems to have been overlooked in the recent literature in favour of Indigo-crowned (e.g. Ridgely &amp; Greenfield 2001, Restall <i>et al</i>. 2006).&quot;<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>&quot;Purple&quot; for <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>purpurata</i> is a nice name and transliteration, which mirrors &quot;Sapphire&quot;.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Perhaps a separate proposal on that issue is needed if this passes?<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>We would suggest retaining <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>saphirina</i>'s existing vernacular name (Sapphire) given its appropriateness in light of plumage and the scientific name, relative sizes of distributions (this name would still apply to by far the greater part of the old combined range) and history of usage in other sources.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt'><u><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>References</span></u><span style='font-size:14.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:12.0pt;text-indent:-12.0pt;tab-stops: 13.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-language:ZH-CN'>Brumfield, R. T. &amp; Capparella, A. P. 1996. Historical divergence of birds in north-western South America: a molecular perspective on the role of vicariant events.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Evolution</i> 50(4): 1607-1624. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:13.5pt;text-indent:-13.5pt;tab-stops: 13.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'>Donegan, T.M. &amp; Salaman, P.G.W. 2012. Vocal differentiation and conservation of Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Geotrygon purpurata</i>. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>ConservaciÛn Colombiana </i>17: 15-19. </span><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: SimSun;color:black;mso-fareast-language:JA'>http://www.proaves.org/proaves/images/RCC/Con_Col_17_15-19_Geotrygon.pdf</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:13.5pt;text-indent:-13.5pt;tab-stops: 13.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family: Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Johnson, K.P. &amp; Weckstein, J. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>2011. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The Central American land bridge as an engine of diversification in new world doves. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Journal of Biogeography </i>38: 1069-1076.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:13.5pt;text-align:justify;text-indent: -13.5pt;tab-stops:13.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText style='margin-top:0in;margin-right:0in;margin-bottom: 0in;margin-left:13.5pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:justify;text-indent: -13.5pt;tab-stops:13.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Other papers mentioned are cited in the above.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoBlockText align=center style='margin-bottom:0in;margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Thomas Donegan, November 2012<o:p></o:p></span></p> <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:none;border-bottom:double windowtext 2.25pt; padding:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:double windowtext 2.25pt;padding:0in;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 1.0pt 0in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:19.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  YES, given the plumage and genetic (especially when compared to other recognized <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Geotrygon</i> species) data.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The relatively minor differences in vocalizations do not concern me, as most <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Geotrygon</i> primary vocalizations sound very similar. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  YES, given the genetic and biogeographical information; the vocal data are also suggestive, if not wholly conclusive. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES, from the new genetic and vocal data. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>:  </span><span style='font-family:Arial'>YES. We now have some genetic data plus some more suggestive (if not 100% conclusive) vocal data to hang our hats on &#8211; something that was lacking when voting on the earlier proposal. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from PÈrez-Em·n</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES. I think genetic and vocal data, when analyzed within the genus context, tip the evidence in favor of recognizing these two species. It also makes sense biogeographically. </span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>YES, barely.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Using comparative genetic distance as a yardstick for species ranking is inherently flawed, despite its seductive appeal.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Subjectively, however, plumage and vocal differences between the taxa are consistent with the slight differences in these features between close relatives in this lineage of doves (which includes <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Zenaida</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leptotila</i>).<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Finally, these were treated as separate species by Hellmayr &amp; Conover (1942), and I convincing rationale for their merger was never presented as far as I know. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial'> Concerning English names, I favor <span class=SpellE>Donegan s</span> proposed names, i.e. Purple and Sapphire, for the reasons he mentioned.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This is not the case of a new split requiring two new names &#8211; this is a  re-split of two taxa treated as separate species previously, when  Sapphire Quail-Dove was restricted to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>G. saphirina</i>.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Proposals for alternatives are welcomed as always. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-indent:.5in'><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES, barely. Plumage differences are not so noticeable and neither are the genetic differences. <o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>