Proposal (661) to South American Classification Committee

 

Revise the linear sequence of Vireonidae

 

Effect on SACC:

         This proposal revises the linear sequence of Vireonidae to reflect the molecular phylogeny of Slager et al. (2014).

 

Background:

         Vireonidae is a rather morphologically conserved family that has received relatively little phylogenetic attention over the years.

         SACC Vireonidae footnote 13a reads as follows:

 

     13a. Hylophilus flavipes and H. olivaceus were considered to form a superspecies by AOU (1983) and Sibley & Monroe (1990) because they were considered conspecific by Zimmer (1942b).  Slager et al. (2014), however, found that they are not sister species: H. olivaceus and H. pectoralis are sisters, and H. flavipes and H. semicinereus are sisters.  SACC proposal needed to modify linear sequence.

 

New Information:

         Slager et al. (2014) produced a phylogeny of Vireonidae using mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (3 Z-linked loci) data that included 221 samples representing 46/52 currently recognized vireonid species.

         Concurrently submitted SACC proposals address splitting the genus Hylophilus.  This proposal deals only with the linear sequence.

 

Analysis:

         The multilocus and ND2 trees in Slager et al. (2014) provide many new insights on relationships within Vireonidae.

         Gene tree conflict occurs at the deepest nodes in Slager et al. (2014).  Three Z-linked nuclear loci, concatenated mtDNA + nuclear loci, and species tree analyses of 4 loci place Cyclarhis sister to "scrub" Hylophilus, which are in turn sister to (Vireolanius + the rest of Vireonidae).  However, analyzing mitochondrial ND2 sequences alone places Cyclarhis sister to the rest of Vireonidae.  This proposal uses the former topology since it is the one best supported by multiple loci.

         Translating the tree of Slager et al. (2014) into a linear sequence (using their multilocus concatenated/species tree topology for the deeper nodes and their ND2 tree for shallower nodes) yields the following (with extralimital taxa in gray):

 

Cyclarhis gujanensis
Cyclarhis nigrirostris

    Hylophilus amaurocephalus *

    Hylophilus poicilotis

                Hylophilus olivaceus

                Hylophilus pectoralis

 

                Hylophilus flavipes

                Hylophilus semicinereus

               

                Hylophilus brunneiceps

 

                Hylophilus thoracicus

 

                Vireolanius melitophrys

                Vireolanius pulchellus

                Vireolanius eximius

                Vireolanius leucotis

Tunchiornis ochraceiceps

    Pachysylvia decurtata

                Pachysylvia hypoxantha

                            Pachysylvia muscicapina

                                        Pachysylvia aurantiifrons

                                        Pachysylvia semibrunnea

 

Vireo hypochryseus

 

(following AOU, mostly, because of lack of structure)

    Vireo osburni

    Vireo  brevipennis

    Vireo atricapilla

    Vireo nelsoni *

    Vireo griseus

    Vireo crassirostris

    Vireo pallens

    Vireo bairdi

    Vireo caribaeus *

    Vireo modestus

    Vireo gundlachi *

    Vireo latimeri

    Vireo nanus

    Vireo bellii

    Vireo vicinior

    Vireo huttoni

 

Vireo flavifrons

                Vireo carmioli

                Vireo masteri *

                            Vireo cassinii

                                        Vireo solitarius

                                        Vireo plumbeus

Vireo sclateri

                Vireo philadelphicus

                Vireo gilvus

                Vireo leucophrys

 

Vireo olivaceus (ignoring species limits problems)

Vireo gracilirostris *

Vireo flavoviridis

Vireo altiloquus

Vireo magister

 

Pachysylvia and Tunchiornis are new names, and Vireo sclateri is a new combination, pending other current SACC proposals.  Also, note that SACC proposal 658 proposes to transfer the species in Vireo from sclateri through altiloquus to Vireosylva.

 

* unsampled

 

Recommendation:

         I recommend a YES vote.  Although Slager et al. (2014) does not resolve every last node, the proposed linear sequence reflects the current state of knowledge much better than the existing linear sequence.

 

Literature Cited:

 

Slager, D.L., Battey, C.J., Bryson, R.W. Jr., Voelker, G., & Klicka J. (2014)  A multilocus phylogeny of a major New World avian radiation: The Vireonidae.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 80, 95-104.

Dave Slager, December 2014 (with input from Remsen)

 

=======================================================

 

Comments from Nores: “NO. In the phylogeny of Vireonidae (Slager et al. 2014), the taxon that splits first is Cyclarhis and must be placed at the top of the sequence. Then, splits the clade containing Vireolanius of which leucotis splits first and must be placed in that order. Then splits the clade containing several species of scrub-dwelling Hylophilus and finally, the clades containing Hylophilus ochraceiceps, “canopy” Hylophilus, Vireo and Hylophilus sclateri. In my opinion Hylophilus ochraceiceps, “canopy” Hylophilus and Hylophilus sclateri could be included within Vireo, the linear sequence would be as follows”:

 

    Cyclarhis gujanensis

    Cyclarhis nigrirostris

 

    Vireolanius leucotis

    Vireolanius eximius

   

    Hylophilus amaurocephalus

    Hylophilus poicilotis

    Hylophilus olivaceus

    Hylophilus pectoralis

    Hylophilus flavipes

    Hylophilus semicinereus

    Hylophilus brunneiceps

    Hylophilus thoracicus

   

    Vireo ochraceiceps

                Vireo decurtatus

                Vireo hypoxanthus

                Vireo muscicapinus

                Vireo aurantiifrons

                Vireo semibrunneus

                Vireo flavifrons

                Vireo masteri

                Vireo sclateri

                Vireo philadelphicus

                Vireo leucophrys

                Vireo olivaceus

                Vireo gracilirostris

                Vireo flavoviridis

                Vireo altiloquus

 

Comments from Stiles: “YES, with the minor tweak suggested by Manuel.  However, I do think that it would be important to sequence V. masteri in particular (see my comment on prop. 658).”

 

Comments from Jaramillo: “YES - I see no problems with the new proposed linear order, some fine-tuning on the species level stuff is of course necessary.”

 

Additional comments from Remsen: “Concerning Manuel’s objection to the proposed sequence, see the second paragraph under Analysis above.”

 

Comments from Pacheco:  “YES.  I choose the exact sequence in Slater's proposal, considering the comments of Remsen.”