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mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1028"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#ffeade"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFEADE" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial'>Proposal (679) to </span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/%7ERemsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></a><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><u><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:blue'><o:p></o:p></span></u></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Recognize <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalus obamai</i> Whitney et al. 2013 as a species<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Background:</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalus</i> puffbirds are widespread in Amazonia, especially south of the Amazon, occurring from the base of the Andes east to eastern Par· and Tocantins in eastern Brazil. Traditionally two taxa have been recognized, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatu</i>s Pelzeln 1856, of western Amazonia (east to Mato Grosso) and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus </i>Bond and Meyer de Schauensee 1940, of eastern Brazil.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The song of Amazonian <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalus</i> basically is a simple two-parted whistle, but Whitney et al. (2013) reported that there were three geographically distinct vocal types. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The song of birds of western Amazonia has a brief introductory stutter to the first phrase. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>This feature is lacking in songs of birds elsewhere; there is a very slight stutter in some, but not all, birds of the Madeira-TapajÛs interfluvium (their Figure 4E); but even where present, this stutter is much less developed than in birds of western Amazonia. And in birds of eastern Amazonia, the song has &quot;a continuous, falling then rising&quot; initial phrase, with no stutter.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>There is very little morphological variation across Amazonia. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The western group is characterized by numerous wholly blackish feathers on the mantle, these feathers lacking pale terminal fringes. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Birds of the Madeira-TapajÛs population are darker overall, the mantle is browner (less blackish), and the feathers of the mantle usually if not always have pale terminal fringes. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>The plumage of the eastern population is less <span class=GramE>well-known</span>; of the two specimens studied in detail by Whitney et al., one resembled birds of the western population, whereas the second was more similar to birds of the Madeira-TapajÛs interfluvium.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>Finally, genetic differentiation among these three groups is modest, as assessed by 1025 base pairs of DNA of the mitochondrial cytochrome <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>b</i> gene: with small sizes (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>n</i> = only 1-2 per population), these groups are separated from each other by uncorrected genetic distances of 3-3.5%.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>The name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatus</i> applies to the eastern population. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Whitney et al. (2013) documented that the name <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i> must refer to birds of the Madeira-TapajÛs interfluvium, leaving birds of western Amazonia without a name. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Therefore they described the western population as <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalus obamai</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>SACC previously considered the status of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalus obamai </i>in </span><a href="http://museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCprop617.htm"><span style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Proposal 617</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>, which also proposed recognizing <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i> as a species (i.e., a proposal to recognize three species of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Nystalu</i>s in Amazonia). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>This proposal did not pass.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>New information:</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> There isn't any. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Although Proposal </span><a href="SACCprop617.htm"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>617</span></a><span style='font-size: 14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> did not pass, several committee members offered comments suggesting that they would consider recognizing <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> as a species, were this option presented as a standalone proposal (with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>torridus</i> thus remaining as a subspecies of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>striolatus</i>). <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Please review Proposal </span><a href="SACCprop617.htm"><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>617</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>, with particular reference to the comments on the proposal by those casting votes, as well as the extensive comments submitted by Whitney. In sum:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>" The only genetic evidence to date on these puffbirds comes from a single gene, and with very small sample sizes (1 of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatus</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i>, 2 of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obama</i>i); and genetic divergences are modest (3-3.5% in pairwise comparisons).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>" Morphological differences between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatus, torridus</i>, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> are slight.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:67.5pt;text-indent:-31.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>" The three taxa differ most notably in voice. See in particular Whitney's comments to Proposal 617, in which he pointed out that the sample size for the vocal analysis in Whitney et al. (2013) was greater than was indicated in the paper itself (see the </span><a href="http://ibc.lynxeds.com/content/supporting-information#nystalus-obamai"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>supporting information</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>), and in which he emphasized &quot;the vocal type is still 100% diagnostic of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i>&quot;.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Recommendation:</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> I am agnostic on the question of whether <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai </i>should be recognized as a species; my only interest here is in following through on the suggestion from several members of SACC that there should be a revised proposal to focus solely on the status of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>obamai</i>. English names will be considered in a separate proposal, if necessary.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Literature Cited</span></b><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Whitney, B.M., V.Q. Piacentini, F. Schunck, A. Aleixo, B.R.S. Souza, L.F. Silveira, and M.A. RÍgo. 2013. </span><a href="https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/49130717/HBW/240-244_Original%20Scientific%20Descriptions.pdf"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>A name for Striolated Puffbird west of the Rio Madeira with revision of the Nystalus striolatus (Aves: Bucconidae) complex</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>. Pages 240&#8211;244 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, and D.A. Christie, editors, Handbook of the birds of the world. Special volume: new species and global index. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.5in'><a href="http://ibc.lynxeds.com/content/supporting-information#nystalus-obamai"><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Supporting information</span></a><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in;text-indent:-.25in'><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Tom Schulenberg, August 2015<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;mso-outline-level: 1'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'>=========================================================<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span style='font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Remsen</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>The vocal differences are convincing to me for species rank, although of course some standardized playback trials would greatly improve my confidence. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>This proposal singles out <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> from the three-way (and less strongly supported in my opinion) split proposed in Proposal #617.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>As far as I can determine, there is substantial individual plumage variation within this species complex, even between individuals from the same location, so I consider any purported morphological distinctions between <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>obamai, torridus</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatus</i> to be taxonomically uninformative at this juncture. Similarly, sample sizes upon which the genetic data were based are small.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>But the sample sizes supporting the diagnostic vocal differences are more robust, and a split across the Madeira certainly fits a well-established biogeographic pattern.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>I don t think the case for splitting <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i> is as strong, at least not based on current data. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES. Albeit somewhat hesitantly, given that the vocal differences of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai </i>from the other forms of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>striolatus</i> are 100% diagnosable by present evidence (however, the differences are not terribly great, and I agree with Van that playback experiments would be very useful for deciding the case). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Areta</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  Difficult proposal. I move between a cautious NO, and a hesitant YES, and cannot convince myself for a definitive vote.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'> Following Bret's recommendation in Proposal </span><a href="SACCprop617.htm"><span style='font-family:Arial'>617</span></a><span style='font-family:Arial'>, I examined the Supplementary material. Sound for figure 4C is missing from the Supplementary information section, so I could not compare it against other recordings. It looks like in the search for high-contrast figures, the sounds of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> were somewhat &quot;misrepresented&quot; by spectrograms in Figure 4: I see (and listen to) a single initial note, followed by an undulating note linked (or perhaps just barely separated from) the more continuous whistle. The contrast between what I hear/see when making my own spectrograms and what is illustrated in Figure 4 is more noticeably with the recordings of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i>, especially so with 4B, which looks very different in the spectrogram's paper but which sounds and looks like many other <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> recordings from other localities. I would say that structurally, the song of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> is very similar to those of other members of the complex, being composed by three notes: a whistle, an undulating whistle continued into a long segment, and the final whistled note. However, a random examination of recordings shows some variation, and indeed a recording containing typical <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> song (MLNS13611 from Madre de Dios, Peru), also includes a song from a presumed mate of the typical <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> singing bird, which is very similar to that of one <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i> (4E) used in the paper. Improved time and frequency resolution in the spectrograms should have helped perceive more distinctions or similarities between vocalizations (e.g., compare 4E here and in the paper).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'> The morphological diagnosis is not exhaustive or very convincing (all agree in that plumage differences are minor), and this, coupled with the few individuals sampled for the genetic analysis (divergence is around 3% between all three pairs of taxa, with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>striolatus</i> being represented by one sample and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>obamai</i> by two), the fact that birds respond to whistled imitations of their songs and to playback of each other (although no rigorous playback tests have been performed), and the similarities in their vocalizations make me unsure on to whether <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> deserves species status, despite its diagnostic song with the undulating whistle.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial'>obamai</span></i></span><span style='font-family: Arial'>-MLNS13611 (typical <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai<o:p></o:p></i></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:  YES. However, after reading the insightful comments by Areta, one of the two  diagnostic features, primary song, of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> comes into question.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Thus, we are left with the genetic data, which is based on one gene with very small sample sizes.<span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp; </span>Nonetheless, even with these caveats I will, for now, support recognition of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> as a species. </span><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'>)<span style='mso-no-proof: yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:obamai MLNS 13611.png" style='width:6in;height:136pt;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop679_files/image001.png" o:title="obamai MLNS 13611.png"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=434 height=138 src="SACCprop679_files/image002.png" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:obamai MLNS 13611.png" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_2" o:spid="_x0000_s1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:obamai MLNS13611.png" style='position:absolute;margin-left:-8.95pt;margin-top:31.6pt;width:211pt; height:134pt;z-index:251659264;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square; mso-width-percent:0;mso-height-percent:0;mso-wrap-distance-left:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-top:0;mso-wrap-distance-right:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-bottom:0;mso-position-horizontal:absolute; mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;mso-position-vertical:absolute; mso-position-vertical-relative:text;mso-width-percent:0;mso-height-percent:0; mso-width-relative:page;mso-height-relative:page'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop679_files/image003.png" o:title="obamai MLNS13611.png"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><span style='mso-ignore:vglayout;position: relative;z-index:251659264;left:-9px;top:32px;width:213px;height:168px'><img width=213 height=136 src="SACCprop679_files/image004.png" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:obamai MLNS13611.png" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_2"></span><![endif]><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <br style='mso-ignore:vglayout' clear=ALL> <p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_3" o:spid="_x0000_s1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:torridus 4E.png" style='position:absolute;margin-left:215.95pt;margin-top:17.55pt;width:207.05pt; height:116.1pt;z-index:251660288;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square; mso-width-percent:0;mso-height-percent:0;mso-wrap-distance-left:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-top:0;mso-wrap-distance-right:9pt; mso-wrap-distance-bottom:0;mso-position-horizontal:absolute; mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;mso-position-vertical:absolute; mso-position-vertical-relative:text;mso-width-percent:0;mso-height-percent:0; mso-width-relative:page;mso-height-relative:page'> <v:imagedata src="SACCprop679_files/image005.png" o:title="torridus 4E.png"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><span style='mso-ignore:vglayout;position: absolute;z-index:251660288;margin-left:216px;margin-top:18px;width:209px; height:118px'><img width=209 height=118 src="SACCprop679_files/image006.png" alt="Description: Pajarografo So&#769;lido:Users:javierareta:Desktop:torridus 4E.png" v:shapes="Picture_x0020_3"></span><![endif]><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:Arial'>obamai</span></i></span><span style='font-family:Arial'>-MLNS13611 (<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i>-like)<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>torridus</i>-4E (first two notes)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES, based on vocal differences and genetic divergence. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-family:Arial'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-family:Arial'>:  YES &#8211; Similarly to others, I am hesitant because the 100% diagnostic differences are slight. Having playback experiments would be great, although I realize this is not always easily obtained. <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>But we do know that voice is hardwired in this group, so a diagnostic difference in this key trait is enough for me to ok the notion that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>obamai</i> deserves a name. <o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>