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mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#ffefea,#fdf1ff,#fdf7ff,#ffefdc"/> <o:colormenu v:ext="edit" fillcolor="#ffefdc"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFEFDC" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval: .5in'> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center;tab-stops:76.5pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family: Arial'>Proposal (357) to </span></b><a href="http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm"><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:18.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:blue'>South American Classification Committee</span></b></a><span style='font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='tab-stops:76.5pt'><span style='font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Treat&nbsp;<i>Anas puna&nbsp;</i>as a subspecies of&nbsp;<i>Anas versicolor</i></span></b><span style='font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><b><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></i></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Effect on South American Checklist</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>: This proposal remove a species to the Main List by reducing&nbsp;<i>A. puna</i>&nbsp;to a subspecies of&nbsp;<i>A. versicolor</i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Background</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>: Our current Note is as follows:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-left:.25in'><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>22.&nbsp;<i>Anas puna</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>A</i>.&nbsp;<i>versicolor</i>&nbsp;are sometimes (e.g., &lt;?&gt; Peters 1931, Johnsgard 1978, 1979, Carboneras 1992f, Dickinson 2003) considered conspecific, but most classifications (e.g.,&nbsp;Hellmayr &amp; Conover 1948a,&nbsp;Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977, Fjelds &amp; Krabbe 1990) consider them to be separate species. They form a superspecies (Sibley &amp; Monroe 1990), and genetic&nbsp;data (Johnson &amp; Sorenson 1999) confirm that they are sister species.&nbsp;</span></b><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:red'>Proposal needed</span></b><b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>.</span></b><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>This situation is similar in many ways to that in Proposal </span><a href="SACCprop356.htm"><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial'>356</span></a><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'> on&nbsp;<i>Anas flavirostris</i>/<i>andium</i>, and I repeat some of that text here. At the outset, it seems to me that they should be treated in the same way, one way or another, in contrast to our current classification. I do not have any first-hand knowledge of the taxa involved, nor am I aware of recent data that address the problem directly. This is one of those cases in which the classification in Dickinson (2003), which formed our baseline list, was changed just before publication, thus generating a discrepancy between SACC and its stated starting point. We have to address this with a proposal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Anas puna</span></i><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family: Arial;color:black'>&nbsp;is found exclusively in the Andes from Peru to n. Argentina. It differs from&nbsp;<i>A. versicolor</i>&nbsp;of the lowlands of southern South America primarily in having an all blue bill (yellow basal half in&nbsp;<i>versicolor</i>) and an all white face (buff in&nbsp;<i>versicolor</i>); there are other differences in pattern in the sides and flanks, and&nbsp;<i>puna</i>&nbsp;is also larger. They are nicely illustrated in Jaramillo (2003). They are allopatric as far as is known.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Johnsgard (1978, 1979) treated them as conspecific, so that implies (to me) that at least at that time there were no known behavioral/display/vocal differences between the two groups, nor are any differences referenced in HBW (Carboneras 1992f).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Johnson &amp; Sorenson (1999) included both in their mtDNA analysis and found them to be more different from one another in terms of genetic distance (mtDNA) than other pairs of&nbsp;<i>Anas</i>&nbsp;treated as species, e.g., <i>A. discors</i>/<i>cyanoptera</i>, <i>A. platyrhynchos</i>/<i>rubripes</i>/<i>fulvigula</i>, and <i>A. clypeata</i>/<i>rhynchotis</i>. I would not use of genetic distance measures alone to determine taxonomic rank, but the data are of interest, nonetheless.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Analysis</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>: In the absence of any data on gene flow, we are left to assign species rank based on comparative analysis. Because both treatments have wide acceptance in the literature, I do not think that we have to demand strong data to change from our current classification.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>With minimum conviction, I recommend a NO vote on the lump on the following basis. First, as noted in Proposal 356, I cannot think of a case of two taxa of ducks known to interbreed freely that have such different bill colors. [Please correct me if wrong.] <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span>Second, as far as I know, an explicit rationale for their treatment as a single species has not been published (although I have not checked the Delacour literature).</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>Van Remsen, May 2008<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:black'>=========================================================================</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stiles</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. I think that the evidence from ecology, distribution, morphometrics, coloration and genetics all favor maintaining <i>puna </i>as a separate species from&nbsp;<i>versicolor&nbsp;</i>- the evidence seems stronger here than for the preceding case and this treatment seems to have been used more often in the recent past (including by Blake, who did not split <i>andium </i>from <i>flavirostris</i>).&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Robbins</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO, for lumping, for the following reasons: to be consistent with how I voted in proposal 356, and the genetic data, in comparison to other anatids that we treat as species, support species recognition.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Nores</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. <span class=SpellE>Yo</span> <span class=SpellE>considero</span> <span class=SpellE>que</span> <span class=SpellE>este</span> <span class=SpellE>es</span> un <span class=SpellE>caso</span> similar al de&nbsp;<i>A. flavirostris/andium</i>, con el <span class=SpellE>agregado</span> de <span class=SpellE>que</span> un <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> <span class=SpellE>genÈtico</span> los <span class=SpellE>muestra</span> <span class=SpellE>bien</span> <span class=SpellE>diferentes</span>, y <span class=SpellE>por</span> lo <span class=SpellE>tanto</span> hay <span class=SpellE>que</span> <span class=SpellE>tratarlos</span> de la <span class=SpellE>misma</span> <span class=SpellE>manera</span>. Lo <span class=SpellE>que</span> <span class=SpellE>si</span>, <span class=SpellE>vuelve</span> <span class=GramE>a</span> <span class=SpellE>llamarme</span> la <span class=SpellE>atenciÛn</span> el <span class=SpellE>uso</span> variable <span class=SpellE>que</span> se <span class=SpellE>hace</span> en SACC de los <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> <span class=SpellE>genÈticos</span> <span class=SpellE>para</span> resolver <span class=SpellE>problemas</span> <span class=SpellE>taxonÛmicos</span>. <span class=SpellE>Nunca</span> se <span class=SpellE>bien</span> en <span class=SpellE>que</span> <span class=SpellE>medida</span> <span class=GramE>un</span> <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> <span class=SpellE>genÈtico</span> <span class=SpellE>es</span> <span class=SpellE>suficiente</span> <span class=SpellE>para</span> resolver un <span class=SpellE>problema</span>. <span class=SpellE>Yo</span> <span class=SpellE>hice</span> dos <span class=SpellE>propuestas</span> <span class=SpellE>basadas</span> en <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> <span class=SpellE>genÈticos</span> (No. 264 y 349) y <span class=SpellE>ninguna</span> <span class=SpellE>pasÛ</span>, y <span class=SpellE>ahora</span> <span class=SpellE>veo</span> en <span class=SpellE>esta</span> <span class=SpellE>propuesta</span> <span class=SpellE>que</span> el <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> de mtDNA de Johnson &amp; Sorenson (1999) no <span class=SpellE>deberÌa</span> <span class=SpellE>ser</span> <span class=SpellE>usado</span> solo <span class=SpellE>para</span> <span class=SpellE>determinar</span> status <span class=SpellE>taxonÛmico</span>. En <span class=SpellE>otras</span> <span class=SpellE>propuestas</span>, <span class=SpellE>por</span> el <span class=SpellE>contrario</span>, el <span class=SpellE>hecho</span> de <span class=SpellE>que</span> <span class=SpellE>haya</span> <span class=GramE>un</span> <span class=SpellE>an·lisis</span> molecular, <span class=SpellE>es</span> &quot;<span class=SpellE>palabra</span> <span class=SpellE>santa</span>&quot;.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Zimmer</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO, for reasons stated by others.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Stotz</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Certainly this pair seems a stronger case for splitting that&nbsp;<i>andium</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>flavirostris</i>. The genetic evidence supports maintaining the status quo of two species.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Jaramillo</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO - I know these two taxa quite well, and they are very different from each other visually, in bill color, habitat, elevation range, and size.&nbsp;<i>Anas puna</i>&nbsp;is actually quite a bit larger than&nbsp;<i>versicolor</i>. The differences between these two ducks seems to me much greater than that of <i>andium/flavirostris</i> and is comparable to differences seen in species of wigeon, and shoveler species to give examples. These are clearly two good species.&quot;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><u><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Arial; color:black'>Comments from Pacheco</span></u><span style='font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;color:black'>: &quot;NO. Voto n„o, sem porÈm acrescentar novidades.&quot;</span><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </div> </body> </html>